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Grotto-heavens (Chinese: 洞天; pinyin: Dòngtian) are a type of sacred Taoist site. Grotto-heavens are usually caves, mountain hollows, or other underground spaces. Because every community was supposed to have access to at least one grotto, there were many of them all over China. They were first organized systematically in the Tang Dynasty by Sima Chengzhen 司馬承禎 (647–735, see Zuowanglun) and Du Guangting 杜光庭 (850-933). The most sacred of these sites were divided into two types: The ten greater grotto-heavens and the thirty-six lesser grotto-heavens.
The ten greater grotto-heavens are as follows:
- Mt. Wangwu grotto 王屋山 (Henan)
- Mt. Weiyu grotto 委羽山 (Zhejiang)
- Mt. Xicheng grotto 西城山 (Shanxi)
- Mt. Xixuan grotto 西玄山 (Sichuan)
- Mt. Qingcheng grotto 青城山 (part of Huashan, Shanxi)
- Mt. Chicheng grotto 赤城山 (Guangdong)
- Mt. Luofu grotto 罗浮山 (Guangdong)
- Mt. Gouqu grotto 句曲山 (Jiangsu, in Lake Tai)
- Mt. Linwu grotto 林屋山 (on Maoshan, Jiangsu)
- Mt. Kuocang grotto 括苍山 (Zhejiang)
- Kohn (2000), p. 695.
- Kohn (2000), p. 696.
- Mt. Kohn, Livia, ed. Daoism Handbook (Leiden: Brill, 2000).