Haplogroup E-M75

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Haplogroup E-M75
Possible time of origin 45,000 - 50,000 years BP
Possible place of origin East Africa
Ancestor E-M96
Descendants E-M41, E-M54
Defining mutations M75, P68

In human genetics, haplogroup E-M75 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup E-M75, along with haplogroup E-P147, is one of the two main branches of the older haplogroup E-M96.

Distribution[edit]

Sorted frequency table of E-M75+ populations. Note that a "?" specifies that the sublineage of E-M75 was either untested for or unreported in the relevant study.

Population Region Size E-M75+ M41+ M54+ E-M75+M41-M54-
Alur[1] East Africa 9 66.67% 66.67% 0.00% 0.00%
Hema[1] East Africa 18 38.89% 38.89% 0.00% 0.00%
Xhosa[1] South Africa 80 27.50% 0.00% 27.50% 0.00%
Rimaibe[2] Western Africa 37 27.03% ? 27.03% ?
Mbuti Pygmies[2] Central Africa 12 25.00% ? 25.00% ?
Daba[2] Central Western Africa 18 22.22% ? 22.22% ?
Eviya[3] Central Western Africa 24 20.83% ? ? ?
Zulu[1] South Africa 29 20.69% 0.00% 20.69% 0.00%
Bantu (Kenya)[4] East Africa 29 17.24% 3.45% 13.79% 0.00%
Ethiopia[5] East Africa 88 17.05% 17.05% 0.00% 0.00%
Ganda[1] East Africa 26 15.38% 7.69% 3.85% 3.85%
S.Africa[5] South Africa 53 15.09% 0.00% 15.09% 0.00%
Akele[3] Central Western Africa 50 12.00% ? ? ?
Eshira[3] Central Western Africa 42 11.90% ? ? ?
Dama[1] South Africa 18 11.11% 0.00% 5.56% 5.56%
Mixed Nilo-Saharan[2] Central Western Africa 9 11.11% ? 11.11% ?
Obamba[3] Central Western Africa 47 10.64% ? ? ?
Orungu[3] Central Western Africa 21 9.52% ? ? ?
Shake[3] Central Western Africa 43 9.30% ? ? ?
Senegalese[6] West Africa 33 9.09% ? ? ?
Hutu[4] East Africa 69 8.70% 4.35% 4.35% 0.00%
Duma[3] Central Western Africa 46 8.70% ? ? ?
Malagasy[7] Madagascar 35 8.57% 0.00% 8.57% 0.00%
Teke[3] Central Western Africa 48 8.33% ? ? ?
C.Africa[5] Central Africa 37 8.11% 0.00% 8.11% 0.00%
Mandara[1] Central Africa 28 7.14% 0.00% 7.14% 0.00%
Ngoumba[1] Central Africa 31 6.45% 0.00% 6.45% 0.00%
 !Kung[2] South Africa 64 6.25% ? 6.25% ?
Ndumu[3] Central Western Africa 36 5.56% ? ? ?
African Americans[6] North America 199 5.53% ? ? ?
Fon[4] West Africa 100 5.00% 0.00% 5.00% 0.00%
Sudan[5] East Africa 40 5.00% 5.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Tsogo[3] Central Western Africa 60 5.00% ? ? ?
Ambo[1] South Africa 22 4.55% 0.00% 4.55% 0.00%
Mbuti Pygmies[1] East Africa 47 4.26% 0.00% 4.26% 0.00%
Tutsi[4] East Africa 94 4.26% 0.00% 4.26% 0.00%
Galoa[3] Central Western Africa 47 4.26% ? ? ?
Ngumba[3] Central Western Africa 24 4.17% ? ? ?
Mossi[2] Western Africa 49 4.08% ? 4.08% ?
Khwe[2] South Africa 26 3.85% ? 3.85% ?
Sotho-Tswana[1] South Africa 28 3.57% 0.00% 3.57% 0.00%
Nzebi[3] Central Western Africa 57 3.51% ? ? ?
Punu[3] Central Western Africa 58 3.45% ? ? ?
Bakola Pygmies[1] Central Africa 33 3.03% 0.00% 3.03% 0.00%
Wolof[1] West Africa 34 2.94% 2.94% 0.00% 0.00%
Senegalese[8] West Africa 139 2.88% ? ? ?
Mandinka[1] West Africa 39 2.56% 0.00% 0.00% 2.56%
Kikuyu & Kamba[1] East Africa 42 2.38% 0.00% 2.38% 0.00%
Wairak[4] East Africa 43 2.33% 2.33% 0.00% 0.00%
Makina[3] Central Western Africa 43 2.33% ? ? ?
Benga[3] Central Western Africa 48 2.08% ? ? ?
Shona[1] South Africa 49 2.04% 0.00% 0.00% 2.04%
Kota[3] Central Western Africa 53 1.89% ? ? ?
Dogon[1] West Africa 55 1.82% 0.00% 1.82% 0.00%
Arabs (Oman)[4] Near East/Asia 121 1.65% 0.00% 1.65% 0.00%
Ethiopian (Oromo)[8] East Africa 78 1.28% ? ? ?

Subclades[edit]

Paragroup E-M75[edit]

Haplogroup E-M75(xM41,M54) has been found in 6% (1/18) of a sample of Dama from Namibia,[1] 4% (1/26) of a sample of Ganda from Uganda,[1] 3% (1/39) of a sample of Mandinka from Gambia/Senegal,[1] and 2% (1/49) of a sample of Shona from Zimbabwe.[1]

E-M41[edit]

Haplogroup E-M41 has been found mainly in populations of the Great Lakes and Upper Nile regions of Central-East Africa, including 67% (6/9) of a sample of Alur from the DRC,[1] 39% (7/18) of a sample of Hema from the DRC,[1] 17% (15/88) of a sample from Ethiopia,[5] 8% (2/26) of a sample of Ganda from Uganda,[1] 5% (2/40) of a sample from Sudan,[5] 4% (3/69) of a sample of Hutu from Rwanda,[4] 3% (1/29) of a sample of Bantus from Kenya,[4] and 2% (1/43) of a sample of Iraqw from Tanzania.[4]

E-M54[edit]

Haplogroup E-M54 has been found in 28% (22/80) of a sample of Xhosa from South Africa,[1] 27% (10/37) of a sample of Rimaibe from Burkina Faso,[2] 22% (4/18) of a sample of Daba from northern Cameroon,[2] 21% (6/29) of a sample of Zulu from South Africa,[1] 15% (8/53) of a sample of non-Khoisan Southern Africans,[5] 14% (4/29) of a sample of Bantus from Kenya,[4] 11% (1/9) of a small sample of speakers of Central Sudanic and Saharan languages from northern Cameroon,[2] 9% (3/35) of a sample of Malagasy from Madagascar,[7] 8% (3/37) of a sample from Central Africa,[5] 7% (2/28) of a sample of Mandara from northern Cameroon,[1] 6% (2/31) of a sample of Ngumba from southern Cameroon,[1] 6% (4/64) of a sample of !Kung from South Africa,[2] 6% (1/18) of a sample of Dama from Namibia,[1] 5% (5/100) of a sample of Fon from Benin,[4] 5% (1/22) of a sample of Ambo from Namibia,[1] 4% (3/69) of a sample of Hutu from Rwanda,[4] 4% (4/94) of a sample of Tutsi from Rwanda,[4] 4% (2/47) of a sample of Mbuti from the DRC,[1] 4% (1/26) of a sample of Ganda from Uganda,[1] 4% (1/26) of a sample of Khwe from South Africa,[2] 4% (1/28) of a sample of Sotho-Tswana from South Africa,[1] 3% (1/33) of a sample of Bakola from southern Cameroon,[1] 3% (1/34) of a sample of Wolof from Gambia/Senegal,[1] 3% (2/72) of a sample from Qatar,[9] 2% (1/42) of a sample of Kikuyu and Kamba from Kenya,[1] 2% (1/55) of a sample of Dogon from Mali,[1] and approximately 2% of a sample of 121 Arabs from Oman.[4]

It has been suggested that haplogroup E-M85 Y-chromosomes have spread through Sub-Saharan Africa quite recently based on the fact that Y-STR microsatellite haplotypes associated with these chromosomes show a low degree of differentiation throughout their broad geographic range. Furthermore, the mean variance of STR alleles of E-M85 chromosomes is higher in Central-Western Africans than in the Southern African Khoisan, leading researchers to propose that E-M85 might have been involved in the range expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples from Central-Western Africa toward Southern Africa.[2][3]

E-M98*[edit]

E-M98(xM85) has been found in 4% (2/49) of a sample of Mossi from Burkina Faso.[2]

E-M200[edit]

E-M200 has been found in 25% (3/12) of a small sample of Mbuti from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[2] According to Figure 4 of Cruciani (2002), all three Bambuti who exhibit the M200 mutation share an identical microsatellite haplotype based on seven STR loci with one another and with some E-M85(xM200) Khoisan (!Kung and/or Khwe) individuals from South Africa.

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being, above all, timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
E-P29 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E* E E E E E E E E E E
E-M33 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E1* E1 E1a E1a E1 E1 E1a E1a E1a E1a E1a
E-M44 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E1a E1a E1a1 E1a1 E1a E1a E1a1 E1a1 E1a1 E1a1 E1a1
E-M75 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E2a E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2 E2
E-M54 21 III 3A 13 Eu3 H2 B E2b E2b E2b E2b1 - - - - - - -
E-P2 25 III 4 14 Eu3 H2 B E3* E3 E1b E1b1 E3 E3 E1b1 E1b1 E1b1 E1b1 E1b1
E-M2 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a* E3a E1b1 E1b1a E3a E3a E1b1a E1b1a E1b1a E1b1a1 E1b1a1
E-M58 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a1 E3a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1 E3a1 E3a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1 E1b1a1a1a E1b1a1a1a
E-M116.2 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a2 E3a2 E1b1a2 E1b1a2 E3a2 E3a2 E1b1a2 E1b1a2 E1ba12 removed removed
E-M149 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a3 E3a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a3 E3a3 E3a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a3 E1b1a1a1c E1b1a1a1c
E-M154 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a4 E3a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a4 E3a4 E3a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a4 E1b1a1a1g1c E1b1a1a1g1c
E-M155 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a5 E3a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a5 E3a5 E3a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a5 E1b1a1a1d E1b1a1a1d
E-M10 8 III 5 15 Eu2 H2 B E3a6 E3a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a6 E3a6 E3a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a6 E1b1a1a1e E1b1a1a1e
E-M35 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b* E3b E1b1b1 E1b1b1 E3b1 E3b1 E1b1b1 E1b1b1 E1b1b1 removed removed
E-M78 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b1* E3b1 E1b1b1a E1b1b1a1 E3b1a E3b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1a1 E1b1b1a1
E-M148 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b1a E3b1a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a1c1 E3b1a3a E3b1a3a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a3a E1b1b1a1c1 E1b1b1a1c1
E-M81 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b2* E3b2 E1b1b1b E1b1b1b1 E3b1b E3b1b E1b1b1b E1b1b1b E1b1b1b E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1a
E-M107 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b2a E3b2a E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1a E3b1b1 E3b1b1 E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1 E1b1b1b1a E1b1b1b1a1
E-M165 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b2b E3b2b E1b1b1b2 E1b1b1b1b1 E3b1b2 E3b1b2 E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b2a E1b1b1b1a2a
E-M123 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b3* E3b3 E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E3b1c E3b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1c E1b1b1b2a
E-M34 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3b3a* E3b3a E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E3b1c1 E3b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1c1 E1b1b1b2a1
E-M136 25 III 4 14 Eu4 H2 B E3ba1 E3b3a1 E1b1b1c1a E1b1b1c1a1 E3b1c1a E3b1c1a E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1c1a1 E1b1b1b2a1a1

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree[10] and subsequent published research.

  • E-M75 (M75, P68)
    • E-M41 (M41/P210)
    • E-M54 (M54, M90, M98)
      • E-M85 (M85)
        • E-M200 (M200)
          • E-P45 (P45)
          • E-P258 (P258)

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA E subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

Additional sources[edit]

  1. Berniell-Lee, Gemma; Calafell, Francesc; Bosch, Elena; Heyer, Evelyne; Sica, Lucas; Mouguiama-Daouda, Patrick; van Der Veen, Lolke; Hombert, Jean-Marie et al. (2009), "Genetic and Demographic Implications of the Bantu Expansion: Insights from Human Paternal Lineages", Molecular Biology and Evolution 26 (7): 1581–9, doi:10.1093/molbev/msp069, PMID 19369595 
  2. Cadenas, Alicia M; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L; Underhill, Peter A; Herrera, Rene J (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman", European Journal of Human Genetics 16 (3): 374–86, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934, PMID 17928816 
  3. Cruciani, Fulvio; Santolamazza, Piero; Shen, Peidong; MacAulay, Vincent; Moral, Pedro; Olckers, Antonel; Modiano, David; Holmes, Susan et al. (2002), "A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes", The American Journal of Human Genetics 70 (5): 1197–214, doi:10.1086/340257, PMC 447595, PMID 11910562 
  4. Hurles, Matthew E.; Sykes, Bryan C.; Jobling, Mark A.; Forster, Peter (2005), "The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages", The American Journal of Human Genetics 76 (5): 894–901, doi:10.1086/430051, PMC 1199379, PMID 15793703 
  5. Karafet, Tatiana M.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Meilerman, Monica B.; Underhill, Peter A.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F. (2008), "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree", Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8, doi:10.1101/gr.7172008, PMC 2336805, PMID 18385274 
  6. Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioglu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavallisforza, L; Herrera, R (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations", The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (3): 532–44, doi:10.1086/382286, PMC 1182266, PMID 14973781 
  7. Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; MacCioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas et al. (2004), "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area", The American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1023–34, doi:10.1086/386295, PMC 1181965, PMID 15069642 
  8. Stefflova, Klara; Dulik, Matthew C.; Pai, Athma A.; Walker, Amy H.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Gueye, Serigne M.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Rebbeck, Timothy R. (2009), "Evaluation of Group Genetic Ancestry of Populations from Philadelphia and Dakar in the Context of Sex-Biased Admixture in the Americas", in Relethford, John, PLoS ONE 4 (11): e7842, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007842, PMC 2776971, PMID 19946364 
  9. Underhill, Peter A.; Shen, Peidong; Lin, Alice A.; Jin, Li; Passarino, Giuseppe; Yang, Wei H.; Kauffman, Erin; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva et al. (2000), "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations", Nature Genetics 26 (3): 358–61, doi:10.1038/81685, PMID 11062480 
  10. Wood, Elizabeth T; Stover, Daryn A; Ehret, Christopher; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Spedini, Gabriella; McLeod, Howard; Louie, Leslie; Bamshad, Mike et al. (2005), "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: Evidence for sex-biased demographic processes", European Journal of Human Genetics 13 (7): 867–76, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408, PMID 15856073 

External links[edit]