Heights of presidents and presidential candidates of the United States

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Presidents, like the U.S. population, have grown taller over time.

A record of the heights of the Presidents of the United States and presidential candidates is useful for evaluating what role, if any, height plays in presidential elections. Some observers have noted that the taller of the two major-party candidates tends to prevail, and argue this is due to the public's preference for taller candidates.[1]

The tallest U.S. Presidents were Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon B. Johnson at 6 ft 4 in (193 cm), while the shortest was James Madison at 5 ft 4 in (163 cm). The average height of a US president has been 5 ft 10.7 inches and 5 ft 11.6 inches since 1900.

Barack Obama, the current President, is 6 ft 1 in (185 cm),[2][3] and Joe Biden, the current Vice-President, is 6 ft 0 in (183 cm).[4]

U.S. Presidents by height order[edit]

Abraham Lincoln tied Lyndon B. Johnson as the tallest president at 6 ft 4 in (193 cm)
Lyndon B. Johnson tied Abraham Lincoln as the tallest president at 6 ft 4 in (193 cm).


James Madison, the shortest President, was 5 ft 4 in (163 cm).
Rank No President Height Height (cm) refs
1 16 Abraham Lincoln 6 ft 4 in 193 cm [5][6]
1 36 Lyndon B. Johnson 6 ft 4 in 193 cm [6]
3 1 George Washington 6 ft 2 12 in 189 cm [7]
4 3 Thomas Jefferson 6 ft 2 12 in 189 cm [6][8]
5 32 Franklin D. Roosevelt 6 ft 2 in 188 cm [6]
5 41 George H. W. Bush 6 ft 2 in 188 cm [6][9]
5 42 Bill Clinton 6 ft 2 in 188 cm [6][9][10][11][12][13]
8 7 Andrew Jackson 6 ft 1 in 185 cm [6][14]
8 40 Ronald Reagan 6 ft 1 in 185 cm [6]
8 44 Barack Obama 6 ft 1 in 185 cm [2][3]
11 5 James Monroe 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6][15]
11 10 John Tyler 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6]
11 15 James Buchanan 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6]
11 20 James A. Garfield 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6]
11 21 Chester A. Arthur 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6]
11 29 Warren G. Harding 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6]
11 35 John F. Kennedy 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6]
11 38 Gerald Ford 6 ft 0 in 183 cm [6][16]
19 27 William Howard Taft 5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [17]
19 31 Herbert Hoover 5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [18]
19 37 Richard Nixon 5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [6][16]
19 43 George W. Bush 5 ft 11 12 in 182 cm [13][19][20][21]
23 22, 24 Grover Cleveland 5 ft 11 in 180 cm [6]
23 28 Woodrow Wilson 5 ft 11 in 180 cm [6][22]
25 34 Dwight D. Eisenhower 5 ft 10 12 in 179 cm [6]
26 14 Franklin Pierce 5 ft 10 in 178 cm [6]
26 17 Andrew Johnson 5 ft 10 in 178 cm [6]
26 26 Theodore Roosevelt 5 ft 10 in 178 cm [6][15]
26 30 Calvin Coolidge 5 ft 10 in 178 cm [6]
30 39 Jimmy Carter 5 ft 9 12 in 177 cm [6][16]
31 13 Millard Fillmore 5 ft 9 in 175 cm [6]
31 33 Harry S. Truman 5 ft 9 in 175 cm [6]
33 19 Rutherford B. Hayes 5 ft 8 12 in 174 cm [6][23]
34 9 William Henry Harrison 5 ft 8 in 173 cm [6]
34 11 James K. Polk 5 ft 8 in 173 cm [6][24]
34 12 Zachary Taylor 5 ft 8 in 173 cm [6][15]
34 18 Ulysses S. Grant 5 ft 8 in 173 cm [25]
38 6 John Quincy Adams 5 ft 7 12 in 171 cm [26]
39 2 John Adams 5 ft 7 in 170 cm [6][27]
39 25 William McKinley 5 ft 7 in 170 cm [6]
41 23 Benjamin Harrison 5 ft 6 in 168 cm [28]
41 8 Martin Van Buren 5 ft 6 in 168 cm [29]
43 4 James Madison 5 ft 4 in 163 cm [6][30]

Electoral success as a function of height[edit]

Graph of winner v. loser heights in Presidential elections from 1789 - 2004. (Click to enlarge)

Various folk wisdoms about U.S. presidential politics put forward the view that the taller of the two major-party candidates always wins or almost always wins since the advent of the televised presidential debate. A study of the numbers reveals these claims are exaggerated at best.

We have more data if we examine the relationship of electoral success to height difference starting from the year 1900, rather than from the beginning of televised debates. As the chart below shows, in the 28 presidential elections between 1900 and 2011, 18 of the winning candidates have been taller than their opponents, while 8 have been shorter, and 2 have been of the same height. On average the winner was 1.0 inch (2.5 cm) taller than the loser.

The claims about taller candidates winning almost all modern presidential elections is still pervasive, however. Examples of such views include:

  • A 2003 essay by New York Times writer Virginia Postrel about artificially increasing the height of growth-stunted children. She notes: "Still, being short does, on average, hurt a person's prospects...The tall guy gets the girl. The taller presidential candidate almost always wins."[31]
  • A 1988 article in the Los Angeles Times fashion section about a haberdasher devoted to clothing shorter men included a variation of the tale: "Stern says he just learned that Dukakis is 5 feet, 8 inches. 'Did you know,' he adds, noticeably disappointed, 'that since 1900 the taller of the two candidates always wins?' "[32]
  • A 1997 book called How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You discusses the issue in a section about the importance of height: "What about height? One assumes the taller the better, because our culture venerates height. In fact, practically every president elected in the United States since 1900 was the taller of the two candidates."[33]
  • A chapter entitled "Epistemology at the Core of Postmodernism" in the 2002 book Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmodernisms makes this observation: "I remember the subversive effect the observation had on me that in every U.S. presidential race, the taller of the two candidates had been elected. It opened up space for a counterdiscourse to the presumed rationality of the electoral process."[34]
  • A 1975 book called First Impressions: The Psychology of Encountering Others notes: "Elevator Shoes, Anyone? One factor which has a far-reaching influence on how people are perceived, at least in American society, is height. From 1900 to 1968 the man elected U.S. president was always the taller of the two candidates. (Richard Nixon was slightly shorter than George McGovern.)"[35]
  • A 1978 book entitled The Psychology of Person Identification states: "They also say that every President of the USA elected since the turn of the [20th] century has been the taller of the two candidates (Jimmy Carter being an exception)."[36]
  • A 1999 book, Survival of the Prettiest by Nancy Etcoff, repeated a version of the legend in a section on the power of heights: "...Since 1776 only [two Presidents,] James Madison and Benjamin Harrison[,] have been below-average height. The easiest way to predict the winner in a United States election is to bet on the taller man: in this century you would have had an unbroken string of hits until 1972 when Richard Nixon beat George McGovern."[37]

A comparison of the heights of the winning presidential candidate with the losing candidate from each election since 1789 is provided below to evaluate such views.

Comparative table of heights of United States presidential candidates[edit]

  Tallest candidate was inaugurated    Tallest candidate was not inaugurated 
  Winner and tallest opponent were of the same height   Comparison data unavailable 
Election Winner
in Electoral College
Height Main opponent(s)
during election
Height Difference
2012 Barack Obama 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm Mitt Romney[38] 70017350000000000006 ft 1 12 in 7001735000000000000187 cm ½ in 2 cm
2008 Barack Obama 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm John McCain[39] 70016900000000000005 ft 9 in 7001690000000000000175 cm 4 in 10 cm
2004 George W. Bush 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm John Kerry[16] 70017600000000000006 ft 4 in 7001760000000000000193 cm 4½ in 11 cm
2000 George W. Bush 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm Al Gore*[9][40] 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm 1½ in 3 cm
1996 Bill Clinton 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm Bob Dole[41] 70017350000000000006 ft 1 12 in 7001735000000000000187 cm ½ in 1 cm
1992 Bill Clinton 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm George H.W. Bush 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm 0 in 0 cm
1988 George H.W. Bush 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm Michael Dukakis[42] 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm 6 in 15 cm
1984 Ronald Reagan 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm Walter Mondale[9] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 2 in 5 cm
1980 Ronald Reagan 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm Jimmy Carter 70016950000000000005 ft 9 12 in 7001695000000000000177 cm 3½ in 8 cm
1976 Jimmy Carter 70016950000000000005 ft 9 12 in 7001695000000000000177 cm Gerald Ford 70017200000000000006 ft 0 in 7001720000000000000183 cm 2½ in 6 cm
1972 Richard Nixon 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm George McGovern[16][43] 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm 1½ in 3 cm
1968 Richard Nixon 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm Hubert Humphrey[43] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm ½ in 1 cm
1964 Lyndon B. Johnson 70017600000000000006 ft 4 in 7001760000000000000193 cm Barry Goldwater[43] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 5 in 13 cm
1960 John F. Kennedy 70017200000000000006 ft 0 in 7001720000000000000183 cm Richard Nixon 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm ½ in 1 cm
1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower 70017050000000000005 ft 10 12 in 7001705000000000000179 cm Adlai Stevenson II[43] 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm ½ in 1 cm
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower 70017050000000000005 ft 10 12 in 7001705000000000000179 cm Adlai Stevenson II 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm ½ in 1 cm
1948 Harry S. Truman 70016900000000000005 ft 9 in 7001690000000000000175 cm Thomas Dewey[42][43] 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm 1 in 2 cm
1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm Thomas Dewey 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm 6 in 15 cm
1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm Wendell Willkie[43][44] 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm 0 in 0 cm
1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm Alfred Landon[43] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 3 in 8 cm
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm Herbert Hoover 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm 2½ in 6 cm
1928 Herbert Hoover 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm Al Smith[43] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm ½ in 1 cm
1924 Calvin Coolidge 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm John W. Davis[43] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 1 in 2 cm
1920 Warren G. Harding 70017200000000000006 ft 0 in 7001720000000000000183 cm James M. Cox[45] 70016600000000000005 ft 6 in 7001660000000000000168 cm 6 in 15 cm
1916 Woodrow Wilson 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm Charles Evans Hughes[43] 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm 1 in 2 cm
1912 Woodrow Wilson 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm William Howard Taft
Theodore Roosevelt
5 ft 11 12 in
5 ft 10 in
182 cm
178 cm
½ in
1 in
1 cm
2 cm
1908 William Howard Taft 70017150000000000005 ft 11 12 in 7001715000000000000182 cm William Jennings Bryan[46][47][48][49] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm ½ in 1 cm
1904 Theodore Roosevelt 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm Alton B. Parker[43] 70016900000000000005 ft 9 in 7001690000000000000175 cm 1 in 3 cm
1900 William McKinley 70016700000000000005 ft 7 in 7001670000000000000170 cm William Jennings Bryan 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 4 in 10 cm
1896 William McKinley 70016700000000000005 ft 7 in 7001670000000000000170 cm William Jennings Bryan 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 4 in 10 cm
1892 Grover Cleveland 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm Benjamin Harrison 70016600000000000005 ft 6 in 7001660000000000000168 cm 5 in 12 cm
1888 Benjamin Harrison 70016600000000000005 ft 6 in 7001660000000000000168 cm Grover Cleveland* 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 5 in 12 cm
1884 Grover Cleveland 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm James G. Blaine[50] 70017100000000000005 ft 11 in 7001710000000000000180 cm 0 in 0 cm
1880 James A. Garfield 70017200000000000006 ft 0 in 7001720000000000000183 cm Winfield Hancock[51] 70017350000000000006 ft 1 12 in 7001735000000000000187 cm 1½ in 4 cm
1876 Rutherford B. Hayes 70016850000000000005 ft 8 12 in 7001685000000000000174 cm Samuel Tilden*[52] 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm 1½ in 4 cm
1872 Ulysses S. Grant 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm Horace Greeley[53] 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm 2 in 5 cm
1868 Ulysses S. Grant 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm Horatio Seymour      
1864 Abraham Lincoln 70017600000000000006 ft 4 in 7001760000000000000193 cm George B. McClellan[54] 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm 8 in 20 cm
1860 Abraham Lincoln 70017600000000000006 ft 4 in 7001760000000000000193 cm John C. Breckinridge[55]
Stephen A. Douglas[56]
6 ft 2 in
5 ft 4 in
188 cm
163 cm
2 in
12 in
5 cm
30 cm
1856 James Buchanan 72 in6 ft 0 in 183 cm Millard Fillmore
John C. Frémont[57]
69 in5 ft 9 in
5 ft 9 in
175 cm
175 cm
3 in
3 in
8 cm
8 cm
1852 Franklin Pierce 70017000000000000005 ft 10 in 7001700000000000000178 cm Winfield Scott[58] 70017700000000000006 ft 5 in 7001770000000000000196 cm 7 in 18 cm
1848 Zachary Taylor 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm Lewis Cass[59] 70016850000000000005 ft 8 12 in 7001685000000000000174 cm ½ in 1 cm
1844 James K. Polk 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm Henry Clay[60] 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm 5 in 13 cm
1840 William Henry Harrison 70016800000000000005 ft 8 in 7001680000000000000173 cm Martin Van Buren 70016600000000000005 ft 6 in 7001660000000000000168 cm 2 in 5 cm
1836 Martin Van Buren 66 in5 ft 6 in 168 cm Hugh Lawson White[61]
William Henry Harrison
5 ft 11 in
68 in5 ft 8 in
180 cm
173 cm
5 in
2 in
12 cm
5 cm
1832 Andrew Jackson 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm Henry Clay 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm 0 in 0 cm
1828 Andrew Jackson 70017300000000000006 ft 1 in 7001730000000000000185 cm John Quincy Adams 70016750000000000005 ft 7 12 in 7001675000000000000171 cm 5½ in 14 cm
1824 John Quincy Adams 70016750000000000005 ft 7 12 in 7001675000000000000171 cm William H. Crawford[62][63]
Andrew Jackson*
Henry Clay
6 ft 3 in
73 in6 ft 1 in
73 in6 ft 1 in
191 cm
185 cm
185 cm
7½ in
5½ in
5½ in
20 cm
14 cm
14 cm
1820 James Monroe 70017200000000000006 ft 0 in 7001720000000000000183 cm          
1816 James Monroe 70017200000000000006 ft 0 in 7001720000000000000183 cm Rufus King        
1812 James Madison 70016400000000000005 ft 4 in 7001640000000000000163 cm De Witt Clinton[64] 70017500000000000006 ft 3 in 7001750000000000000191 cm 11 in 28 cm
1808 James Madison 70016400000000000005 ft 4 in 7001640000000000000163 cm Charles C. Pinckney        
1804 Thomas Jefferson 74.5 in6 ft 2½ in 189 cm Charles C. Pinckney        
1800 Thomas Jefferson 70017450000000000006 ft 2 12 in 7001745000000000000189 cm John Adams 70016700000000000005 ft 7 in 7001670000000000000170 cm 7½ in 19 cm
1796 John Adams 70016700000000000005 ft 7 in 7001670000000000000170 cm Thomas Jefferson 70017450000000000006 ft 2 12 in 7001745000000000000189 cm 7½ in 19 cm
1792 George Washington 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm          
1789 George Washington 70017400000000000006 ft 2 in 7001740000000000000188 cm          

Note:

* Lost the Electoral Vote, but received more popular votes.

† Ran unopposed

Extremes[edit]

The tallest President elected to office was Abraham Lincoln (6 ft 4 in or 193 cm); the tallest President to originally enter the office by means other than election was Lyndon B. Johnson (6 ft 4 in or 193 cm). The shortest President elected to office was James Madison (5 ft 4 in or 163 cm); the shortest President to originally enter the office by means other than election is tied between Millard Fillmore and Harry S. Truman (both were 5 ft 9 in or 175 cm).

The tallest unsuccessful presidential candidate (who is also the tallest of all presidential candidates) is Winfield Scott, who stood at 6 ft 5 in (196 cm) and lost the 1852 election to Franklin Pierce, who stood at 5 ft 10 in (178 cm). The second tallest unsuccessful candidate is John Kerry, at 6 ft 4 in (193 cm). The shortest unsuccessful presidential candidate is Stephen A. Douglas, at 5 ft 4 in (163 cm). The next shortest is tied between two sitting Presidents, Martin Van Buren and Benjamin Harrison, who lost their respective elections in 1840 and 1892 and were both 5 ft 6 in (168 cm).

The largest height difference between two presidential candidates (out of the candidates whose heights are known) was in the 1860 election, when Abraham Lincoln stood 12 inches (30 cm) taller than opponent Stephen A. Douglas. The second-largest difference was in the 1812 election, with De Witt Clinton standing 11 inches (28 cm) taller than incumbent James Madison.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ As some examples, USA TODAY listed height among six criteria for predicting who would win the 2004 election; a Washington Post blog noted the significance of height in physical appearance and its effect on voters. See the discussion of this phenomenon later in the article for further examples.
  2. ^ a b Office of the Press Secretary (February 28, 2010). "Release of the President's Medical Exam". The White House. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  3. ^ a b Mann, Simon (March 2, 2010). "Fit for duty: Obama gets clean bill of health". Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Digital). Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  4. ^ "Race to the White House 2008: Vice Presidential Candidates". www.biography.com. Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  5. ^ Braden, Waldo W.,Abraham Lincoln, LSU Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8071-1852-4
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Kane, Joseph (1994). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. pp. 344–45. ISBN 0-8242-0845-5. 
  7. ^ Various sources have put Washington's height between 6 ft and 6 ft 3 in. See: Chernow, Ron, Washington: A Life, 2010, The Penguin Press HC ISBN 1-59420-266-4; Wilson, Woodrow, George Washington, 2004, Cosimo, Inc., p. 111; Alden, John Richard, George Washington: A Biography, 1984, Louisiana State University Press, p. 11; Lodge, Henry Cabot, George Washington, Vol. I, 2007, The Echo Library, p. 30; Haworth, Paul Leland, George Washington, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, p. 119; Thayer, William Roscoe, George Washington, 1931, Plain Label Books, p. 65
  8. ^ Macdonald, Zanne (July 1992). "Physical Descriptions of Thomas Jefferson". Monticello Report. Monticello Research Department. Archived from the original on 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  9. ^ a b c d Page, Susan (2004-06-23). "Time-tested formulas suggest both Bush and Kerry will win on Nov. 2". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 13, 2009. 
  10. ^ Sommers, Paul M. (January 2002). "Is Presidential Greatness Related to Height?". The College Mathematics Journal 33 (1): 14–16. doi:10.2307/1558973. 
  11. ^ Sedghi, Ami (October 18, 2011). "Statesmen and stature: how tall are our world leaders?". The Guardian. 
  12. ^ Mathews, Jay (August 3, 1999). "The Shrinking Field". The Washington Post. 
  13. ^ a b "Presidential Height Index". The Height Site. Retrieved August 22, 2012. 
  14. ^ Remini, Robert V., Andrew Jackson, HarperCollins, 1969, p. 15. ISBN 0-06-080132-8
  15. ^ a b c Whitcomb, John and Claire Whitcomb, Real Life at the White House, Routledge (UK), 2002. ISBN 0-415-93951-8
  16. ^ a b c d e Tossey, Lisa D. (2004). "Is presidential race a simple matter of standing tall?". The Pendulum Online. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  17. ^ Sotos, John G. Taft and Pickwick: sleep apnea in the White House. Chest. 2003;124:1133-1142.Online copy
  18. ^ Nash, George H. (1988). The Life of Herbert Hoover. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 365. 
  19. ^ "Report on President Bush's Physical Examination". New York Times. August 2, 2006. 
  20. ^ "Medical History Summary: President George W. Bush". FindLaw. August 7, 2007. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  21. ^ Scott, David (October 18, 2011). "GOP Debate: Does height matter in presidential politics?". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  22. ^ Levin, Phyllis Lee, Edith & Woodrow: the Wilson White House, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-7432-1158-8 Google Print
  23. ^ Davison, Kenneth E (1972). The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Inc. p. 69. ISBN 0-8371-6275-0. 
  24. ^ Behrman, Carol H.James K. Polk, Twenty-First Century Books, 2004. ISBN 0-8225-1396-X
  25. ^ King, Charles, The True Ulysses Grant, Philadelphia & London, J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1914.Google Print
  26. ^ Levy, Debbie,John Quincy Adams, Twenty-First Century Books, 2004, p. 28. ISBN 0-8225-0825-7
  27. ^ Ferling, John E., John Adams: A Life, Owl Books, 1996, ISBN 0-8050-4576-7, p. 169.Google Print
  28. ^ Loderhouse, Gary and Nelson Price, William Addison Hunter, Legendary Hoosiers: Famous Folks from the State of Indiana, Emmis Books, 1999. ISBN 1-57860-097-9 Google Print
  29. ^ Widmer, Ted and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Edward L. Widmer, Martin Van Buren, Times Books, 2005, p. 2. ISBN 0-8050-6922-4
  30. ^ Phillips, Louis, Ask Me Anything About the Presidents, HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 0-380-76426-1
  31. ^ Postrel, Virginia, "Going to Great Lengths," New York Times, August 31, 2003.
  32. ^ Los Angeles Times, Mar 25, 1988, pg. 7
  33. ^ Lowndes, Leil, How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1997, pp.174-175. ISBN 0-8092-2989-7 Google Print
  34. ^ Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmoderns, edited by D.A. Carson, Zondervan, 2002, p. 83. ISBN 0-310-24334-3 Google Print
  35. ^ Kleinke, Chris L., First Impressions: The Psychology of Encountering Others, Prentice-Hall, 1975, p. 13. ISBN 0-13-318428-5 Google Print
  36. ^ Clifford, Brian R. and Ray Bull, The Psychology of Person Identification, Routledge & K. Paul, 1978, p. 115. ISBN 0-7100-8867-1. Print
  37. ^ Etcoff, Nancy, Survival of the Prettiest, New York, Anchor Books, 1999. ISBN 0-385-47942-5
  38. ^ "Obama and Romney Stack Up on BMI, Physical Fitness, and More". Huffington Post. 2012-11-06. p. 7. Retrieved 6 February 2012. "height: 6'1.5, weight: 184 lbs, BMI: 23.9" 
  39. ^ "John McCain Medical Records". The Washington Post. 2008-05-23. p. 7. Retrieved 23 February 2009. "height: 175.3 CM, weight: 78.93 KG, BMI: 25.68" 
  40. ^ "The Shrinking Field". The Washington Post. 1999-08-03. Retrieved 2009-04-27. 
  41. ^ The Washington Post listed Dole at 6'2"/1.88 m, USA TODAY listed him at 6'1"/1.85 m
  42. ^ a b Dowd, Maureen (1992-06-21). "Where They Stand". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2009. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gillis, John S. (1982). Too Tall, Too Small. Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. p. 20. ISBN 0-918296-15-3. 
  44. ^ Barnard, Ellsworth (1971). Wendell Willkie: Fighter for Freedom. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-87023-088-3. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  45. ^ Morris, Charles E. (1920). Progressive Democracy of James M. Cox. The Bobbs-Merrill Company. p. 9. 
  46. ^ Gillis, Too Tall, Too Small, p. 20. Lists his height as 5 ft 10 in (178 cm).
  47. ^ Edwards, Rebecca; DeFeo, Sarah (2000). "William Jennings Bryan". 1896: The Presidential Campaign. Vassar College. Retrieved 2009-04-20.  Lists his height as 5 ft 10 in (178 cm).
  48. ^ Wilson, Charles Morrow (1970). The Commoner: William Jennings Bryan. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. p. 40.  Lists his height as 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) during his second year in college.
  49. ^ Springen, Donald K. (1991). William Jennings Bryan: Orator of Small-Town America. Greenwood Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-313-25977-1.  Lists his height as 6 ft 0 in (183 cm).
  50. ^ Records of his height have been difficult to obtain. In one biography, he was described as "just under six feet in height". While not a definitive record of his height, this description does allow us to presume he was at least comparable in height to Cleveland. See Crawford, Thomas Clark (1893). James G. Blaine: A Study of his Life and Career, from the Standpoint of a Personal Witness of the Principal Events in his History. Edgewood Publishing Co. p. 26. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  51. ^ Jordan, David M. (1988). Winfield Scott Hancock: A Soldier's Life. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-253-36580-5. 
  52. ^ Bigelow, John (1895). The Life of Samuel Tilden (vol. 1). New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 283. 
  53. ^ Stoddart, Henry Luther (1946). Horace Greeley: Printer, Editor, Crusader. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 38. 
  54. ^ Eckenrode, Hamilton James; Bryan Conrad (1941). George B. McClellan, the man who saved the Union. University of North Carolina Press. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  55. ^ Davis, William C. (1974). Breckinridge: Statesman, Soldier, Symbol. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-8071-0068-4. 
  56. ^ Johanssen, Robert W. (1973). Stephen A. Douglas. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 4. 
  57. ^ Life of John Charles Fremont. New York: Greeley & McElrath. 1856. p. 31. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  58. ^ Heidler, David Stephen (2004). Encyclopedia of the War of 1812. Naval Institute Press. p. 464. ISBN 1-59114-362-4. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  59. ^ According to Cass's biography, he was "about five foot eight or nine inches". See Woodford, Frank B. (1950). Lewis Cass: The Last Jeffersonian. New Brunswick and New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 32. 
  60. ^ Seymour, Chas C. B. (1858). Self-made men. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 137. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  61. ^ Scott, Nancy N. (1856). A Memoir of Hugh Lawson White, Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, Member of the Senate of the United States, etc., etc.. Michigan: J. B. Lippincott & Co. p. 243. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  62. ^ Mooney, Chase Curran (1974). William H. Crawford, 1772-1834. Michigan: University of Kentucky Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8131-1270-2. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  63. ^ One biography of Crawford describes his stature as being "considerably over six feet". See Butler, Benjamin F. (1824). Sketches of the Life and Character of William H. Crawford. Albany: Packard and Benthuysen. p. 35. 
  64. ^ Cornog, Evan, The Birth of Empire: DeWitt Clinton and the American Experience, 1769-1828, ISBN 0-19-514051-6

References[edit]

  • Kane, Joseph (1993). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. ISBN 0-8242-0845-5. 
  • Sommers, Paul M. (January 2002). "Is Presidential Greatness Related to Height?". The College Mathematics Journal 33 (1): 14–16. doi:10.2307/1558973. 
  • Gillis, John S. (1982). Too Tall, Too Small. Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. ISBN 0-918296-15-3. 

External links[edit]