List of African-American United States presidential and vice presidential candidates

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The following is a list of African-American United States presidential and vice-presidential nominees and candidates for nomination. Nominees are candidates nominated or otherwise selected by political parties for particular offices. Listed are those African Americans who achieved ballot access for the national election in at least one state. They may have won the nomination of one of the US political parties (either one of the major parties, or one of the third parties), or made the ballot as an Independent, and in either case must have votes in the election to qualify for this list. Exception is made for those few candidates whose parties lost ballot status for additional runs.

Not included in the first two tables are African Americans who lost campaigns in nominating conventions or primary elections for their party's nomination (or who have not yet completed that process), write-in candidates, potential candidates (suggested by media, objects of draft movements, etc.), or fictional candidates.

The third table includes African Americans who ran for their party's presidential nomination but who were not nominated, as well as those who are currently pursuing their party's presidential nomination (when applicable).

Barack Obama became the first African-American candidate to be nominated by a major party, and the first to win, for either president or vice president when he became the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 2008 election and was elected. He was re-elected in the 2012 election.

U.S. Presidential candidates: Party nominees[edit]

Denotes winning candidate.

Candidates receiving electoral votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Electoral
Votes
Total
Electoral
Votes
2008 Obama, BarackBarack Obama Democratic Party Biden, JoeJoe Biden 365 538
2012 Obama, BarackBarack Obama Democratic Party Biden, JoeJoe Biden 332 538

Candidates receiving popular votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Votes
1904 Taylor, George EdwinGeorge Edwin Taylor[1] National Liberty Party Payne, W.C.W.C. Payne scattering[2]
1960 King, ClennonClennon King Independent Afro-American Party Carter, ReginaldReginald Carter 1,485
1964 DeBerry, CliftonClifton DeBerry Socialist Workers Party Shaw, EdEd Shaw 32,706
1968 Cleaver, EldridgeEldridge Cleaver Peace and Freedom Party Various candidates 36,623[3]
1968 Gregory, DickDick Gregory Freedom and Peace Party Various candidates 47,097
1968 Mitchell, CharleneCharlene Mitchell Communist Party Zagarell, MichaelMichael Zagarell 1,076
1976 Wright, MargaretMargaret Wright People's Party Spock, BenjaminBenjamin Spock 49,013
1980 DeBerry, CliftonClifton DeBerry Socialist Workers Party Zimmermann, MatildeMatilde Zimmermann 38,738
1980 Pulley, AndrewAndrew Pulley Socialist Workers Party Zimmermann, MatildeMatilde Zimmermann 6,264[4]
1984 Holmes, LarryLarry Holmes Workers World Party La Riva, GloriaGloria La Riva 17,985
1984 Serrette, Dennis L.Dennis L. Serrette New Alliance Party Ross, NancyNancy Ross 46,853
1984 Winn, EdwardEdward Winn Socialist Equality Party Halyard, HelenHelen Halyard 10,801
1988 Fulani, LenoraLenora Fulani New Alliance Party Dattner, JoyceJoyce Dattner 217,219
1988 Holmes, LarryLarry Holmes Workers World Party La Riva, GloriaGloria La Riva 7,846
1988 Warren, JamesJames Warren Socialist Workers Party Mickells, KathleenKathleen Mickells 15,602
1988 Winn, EdwardEdward Winn Socialist Equality Party Halyard, HelenHelen Halyard 18,693
1992 Daniels, RonaldRonald Daniels Peace and Freedom Party Tupahache, AsibaAsiba Tupahache 27,949
1992 Fulani, LenoraLenora Fulani New Alliance Party Muñoz, Maria ElizabethMaria Elizabeth Muñoz 73,714
1992 Halyard, HelenHelen Halyard Workers League Mazelis, FredFred Mazelis 3,050
1992 Masters, IsabellIsabell Masters Looking Back Party Masters, WalterWalter Masters 327
1992 Warren, JamesJames Warren Socialist Workers Party Various candidates 23,533
1996 Harris, JamesJames Harris Socialist Workers Party Garza, LauraLaura Garza 8,476
1996 Moorehead, MonicaMonica Moorehead Workers World Party La Riva, GloriaGloria La Riva 29,083
1996 Masters, IsabellIsabell Masters Looking Back Party Masters, Shirley JeanShirley Jean Masters 752
2000 Harris, JamesJames Harris Socialist Workers Party Trowe, MargaretMargaret Trowe 7,038
2000 Moorehead, MonicaMonica Moorehead Workers World Party La Riva, GloriaGloria La Riva 4,795
2000 Venson, Randall A.Randall A. Venson Independent Kelly, GeneGene Kelly 547
2004 Harris, JamesJames Harris[5] Socialist Workers Party Trowe, MargaretMargaret Trowe 7,102
2004 Parker, JohnJohn Parker Workers World Party Gutierrez, TeresaTeresa Gutierrez 1,646
2008 Harris, JamesJames Harris[5] Socialist Workers Party Kennedy, AlysonAlyson Kennedy 2,424
2008 Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes America's Independent Party Rohrbough, BrianBrian Rohrbough 47,756[6]
2008 McKinney, CynthiaCynthia McKinney Green Party Clemente, RosaRosa Clemente 150,061
2008 Obama, BarackBarack Obama Democratic Party Biden, JoeJoe Biden 69,498,215
2012 Alexander, StewartStewart Alexander Socialist Party Mendoza, AlejandroAlejandro Mendoza 4,405[7]
2012 Barnett, AndreAndre Barnett Reform Party Cross, KenKen Cross 956[7]
2012 Harris, JamesJames Harris Socialist Workers Party DeLuca, MauraMaura DeLuca 4,117[7]
2012 Lindsay, PetaPeta Lindsay Party for Socialism and Liberation Osorio, YariYari Osorio 7,791[7]
2012 Obama, BarackBarack Obama Democratic Party Biden, JoeJoe Biden 65,915,796[7]

U.S. Vice-Presidential candidates: Party nominees[edit]

Through the 2012 presidential election, no African-American candidates have received electoral votes for vice president.

Candidates receiving popular votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Votes
1872 Douglass, FrederickFrederick Douglass[8] Equal Rights Party Woodhull, VictoriaVictoria Woodhull Unreported
1928 Drew, Simon P.Simon P. Drew Interracial Independent Party[9] Coxey, Jacob S.Jacob S. Coxey[10][11]
1932 Ford, James W.James W. Ford Communist Party Foster, William Z.William Z. Foster 102,991
1936 Ford, James W.James W. Ford Communist Party Browder, EarlEarl Browder 80,195
1940 Ford, James W.James W. Ford Communist Party Browder, EarlEarl Browder
1952 Bass, CharlottaCharlotta Bass Progressive Party Hallinan, VincentVincent Hallinan 140,023
1968 Boutelle, PaulPaul Boutelle Socialist Workers Party Halstead, FredFred Halstead
1972 Hobson, JuliusJulius Hobson People's Party Spock, BenjaminBenjamin Spock 78,759
1972 Tyner, JarvisJarvis Tyner Communist Party Hall, GusGus Hall
1976 Reid, Willie MaeWillie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party Camejo, PeterPeter Camejo 90,986
1976 Tyner, JarvisJarvis Tyner Communist Party Hall, GusGus Hall
1980 Davis, AngelaAngela Davis Communist Party Hall, GusGus Hall 43,871
1984 Davis, AngelaAngela Davis Communist Party Hall, GusGus Hall 36,386
1984 Halyard, HelenHelen Halyard[12] Socialist Equality Party Winn, EdwardEdward Winn 10,801
1988 Halyard, HelenHelen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Winn, EdwardEdward Winn 18,693
1992 Reid, Willie MaeWillie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party Warren, James "Mac"James "Mac" Warren
1996 Masters, Shirley JeanShirley Jean Masters Looking Back Party Masters, IsabellIsabell Masters 752
2000 Foster, Ezola B.Ezola B. Foster Reform Party Buchanan, PatPat Buchanan 449,225
2004 Hawkins, ArrinArrin Hawkins Socialist Workers Party Calero, RógerRóger Calero 3,689
2004 Lawrence, JimJim Lawrence Socialist Equality Party Van Auken, BillBill Van Auken 1,857
2008 Alexander, StewartStewart Alexander Socialist Party Moore, BrianBrian Moore 7,315
2008 Puryear, EugeneEugene Puryear Party for Socialism and Liberation La Riva, GloriaGloria La Riva 7,478

U.S. President: Other candidates for party nomination[edit]

Candidates who failed to receive their party's nomination (or who are currently campaigning for their party's nomination). Candidates who won the nomination belong in the above tables only.

Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1848 Douglass, FrederickFrederick Douglass Liberty Party 1 vote at national convention[13] Smith, GerritGerrit Smith
1888 Douglass, FrederickFrederick Douglass Republican Party 1 vote at national convention Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison
1968 Phillips, Channing E.Channing E. Phillips Democratic Party 67.5 votes at national convention Humphrey, HubertHubert Humphrey
1972 Chisholm, ShirleyShirley Chisholm Democratic Party 152 votes at national convention McGovern, GeorgeGeorge McGovern
1972 Fauntroy, WalterWalter Fauntroy Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention; 21,217 votes (71.78%) and winner of Washington, D.C. primary McGovern, GeorgeGeorge McGovern
1976 Jordan, BarbaraBarbara Jordan Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter
1976 Fauntroy, WalterWalter Fauntroy Democratic Party 10,149 votes (30.49%) (2nd place) in Washington, D.C. primary Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter
1984 Jackson, JesseJesse Jackson Democratic Party 466 votes at national convention Mondale, WalterWalter Mondale
1988 Jackson, JesseJesse Jackson Democratic Party 1218.5 votes at national convention Dukakis, MichaelMichael Dukakis
1992 Wilder, DouglasDouglas Wilder Democratic Party Withdrew before Iowa caucuses Clinton, BillBill Clinton
1992 Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes Republican Party 1 vote at national convention. Keyes was the Republican candidate in the U.S. Senate election in Maryland at the time, and was not actively seeking the presidency in 1992. Bush, George H.W.George H.W. Bush
1996 Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes Republican Party 1 vote at national convention Dole, BobBob Dole
1996 Masters, IsabellIsabell Masters Republican Party 1052 votes (7th place) in Oklahoma primary[14] Dole, BobBob Dole
2000 Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes Republican Party 6 votes at national convention Bush, George W.George W. Bush
2000 Rocker, Angel JoyAngel Joy Rocker[15] Republican Party 6 votes in Alabama straw poll[16] Bush, George W.George W. Bush
2004 Braun, Carol MoseleyCarol Moseley Braun Democratic Party Withdrew before Iowa caucuses Kerry, JohnJohn Kerry
2004 Sharpton, AlAl Sharpton Democratic Party Earned 26 delegates in 5 primaries and caucuses Kerry, JohnJohn Kerry
2008 Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes Republican Party Keyes withdrew from Republican Party on April 15, 2008, but remained on the Republican ballot in several states. McCain, JohnJohn McCain
2008 Keyes, AlanAlan Keyes Constitution Party 125.7 votes (24.36%) (2nd place) at national convention. Baldwin, ChuckChuck Baldwin
2012 Cain, HermanHerman Cain Republican Party Withdrew on December 3, 2011.

Romney, MittMitt Romney

U.S. Vice-President: Other candidates for party nomination[edit]

Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1856 Douglass, FrederickFrederick Douglass Political Abolitionist[17] McFarland, Samuel T.Samuel T. McFarland[18]
1880 Bruce, Blanche KelsoBlanche Kelso Bruce Republican Party 8 votes at national convention[19] Arthur, Chester A.Chester A. Arthur
1888 Bruce, Blanche KelsoBlanche Kelso Bruce Republican Party 11 votes at national convention[19] Morton, Levi P.Levi P. Morton
1968 Bond, JulianJulian Bond Democratic Party 48.5 votes at national convention Muskie, EdmundEdmund Muskie
1972 Bond, JulianJulian Bond Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention Eagleton, ThomasThomas Eagleton
1972 Chisholm, ShirleyShirley Chisholm Democratic Party 20 votes at national convention Eagleton, ThomasThomas Eagleton
1972 Dellums, RonRon Dellums Democratic Party 4 votes at national convention Eagleton, ThomasThomas Eagleton
1976 Jordan, BarbaraBarbara Jordan Democratic Party 17 votes in national convention Mondale, WalterWalter Mondale
1980 Boozer, MelMel Boozer Democratic Party 49 votes in national convention[20] Mondale, WalterWalter Mondale

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wisconsin Labor Advocate, La Crosse, Wis. : Geo. E. Taylor, 1886-
  2. ^ The World Almanac & Encyclopedia. 1908. p. 268.  "they received only a few scattering votes of which there is no exact record."
  3. ^ Does not include 27,887 votes cast for the party's ticket in California and Utah, where Cleaver's name did not appear on the ballot because he was under 35 years old.
  4. ^ Leip, David (2005). "1980 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  5. ^ a b In 2004 and 2008, Harris served as a stand-in nominee for the Socialist Workers Party in states where the party's main presidential nominee, Róger Calero, was ineligible because he was not a natural-born citizen.
  6. ^ Winger, Richard (2009-01-06). "2008 Presidential Vote (not final)". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Federal Elections 2012. Washington, D.C.: Federal Election Commission. 2013. p. 5. 
  8. ^ Douglass did not acknowledge the nomination or participate in the campaign.
  9. ^ Walton, Hanes. Invisible politics: Black political behavior. p.92.
  10. ^ Guzman, Jessie Parkhurst. Negro Year Book - An Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro 1931-1932 p.87.
  11. ^ "National Affairs: Fifth Party". Time. June 18, 1928. 
  12. ^ Edward Bergonzi was an alternate candidate for Helen Halyard in some states, including Ohio.
  13. ^ "Proceedings of the National Liberty Convention, held at Buffalo, N.Y., June...". 1848. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  14. ^ http://www.ok.gov/~elections/96rpres.html
  15. ^ "White House bid wants serious attention", St. Petersburg Times, March 24, 1999. Accessed 07/08/08.
  16. ^ "Republican Party". [dead link]
  17. ^ Walton, Hanes. Invisible politics: Black political behavior. p.92.
  18. ^ Wesley, Dr. Charles H. (March 14, 1953). "The Greatest American". The Afro-American. Retrieved January 17, 2010. 
  19. ^ a b Ragsdale, Bruce; Joel D. Treese (1990). Black Americans in Congress, 1870-1989. Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives. p. 8. 
  20. ^ Sears, p. 389

References[edit]

  • Sears, Thomas James (2001). Rebels, Rubyfruit, and Rhinestones: Queering Space in the Stonewall South. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2964-6.

See also[edit]