Hemiplegia

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Hemiplegia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G80.2, G81
ICD-9 342-343, 438.2
MeSH D006429

Hemiplegia /he.mə.pliː.dʒiə/ is paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on the same side of the body. Hemiplegia is more severe than hemiparesis, wherein one half of the body has marked weakness but not paralysis.[1] Hemiplegia and hemiparesis may be congenital, or they might be acquired conditions resulting from an illness, an injury, or a stroke.

Signs and Symptoms[edit]

Hemiplegia means severe weakness of the limbs on one side of the body but the specific features can vary tremendously from person to person. Problems may include:

  • Difficulty with gait
  • Difficulty with balance while standing or walking
  • Having difficulty with motor activities like holding, grasping or pinching
  • Increasing stiffness of muscles
  • Muscle spasms
  • The majority of children who develop hemiplegia also have abnormal mental development
  • Behavior problems like anxiety, anger, irritability, lack of concentration or comprehension
  • Emotions — depression
  • Shoulder pain — Often associated with a loss of external rotation of the glenohumeral joint, commonly due to the increased tone of the Subscapularis muscle and Pectoralis major muscle[2]
  • Shoulder Subluxation[2]

Cause[edit]

The most common cause of hemiplegia is stroke. Strokes can cause a variety of movement disorders, depending on the location and severity of the lesion. Hemiplegia is common when the stroke affects the corticospinal tract. Other causes of hemiplegia include spinal cord injury, specifically Brown-Séquard syndrome, traumatic brain injury, or disease affecting the brain. As a lesion that results in hemiplegia occurs in the brain or spinal cord, hemiplegic muscles display features of the Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome. Features other than weakness include decreased movement control, clonus (a series of involuntary rapid muscle contractions), spasticity, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and decreased endurance.

The incidence of hemiplegia is much higher in premature babies than term babies. There is also a high incidence of hemiplegia during pregnancy and experts believe that this may be related to either a traumatic delivery, use of forceps or some event which causes brain injury.[3]

Other causes of hemiplegia in adults include trauma, bleeding, brain infections and cancers. Individuals who have uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension or those who smoke have a higher chance of developing a stroke. Weakness on one side of the face may occur and may be due to a viral infection, stroke or a cancer.[4]

Medial medullary syndrome[edit]

Common causes by etiology[edit]

Pathogenesis[edit]

The exact cause of hemiplegia is not known in all cases, but it appears that the brain is deprived of oxygen and this results in the death of neurons. When the corticospinal tract is damaged, the injury is usually manifested on the opposite side of the body. For example if one has an injury to the right side of the brain, the hemiplegia will be on the left side of the body. This happens because the motor fibres of corticospinal tract ( also called pyramidal fibres), which take origin from the motor cortex in brain, cross to the opposite side in the lower part of medulla oblangata and then descend down in spinal cord to supply their respective muscles. Depending on the site of lesion in brain, the severity of hemiplegia varies. A lesion in internal capsule where all the motor fibres are condensed in a small area, will cause dense hemiplegia i.e. complete loss of power of all muscles of one half of body while a lesion at cortical or subcortical level will cause varied amount of weakness of one half of the body.

Diagnosis[edit]

Hemiplegia is identified by clinical examination by a health professional, such as a physiotherapist or doctor. Radiological studies like a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be used to confirm injury in the brain and spinal cord, but alone cannot be used to identify movement disorders. Individuals who develop seizures may undergo tests to determine where the focus of excess electrical activity is.[7]

Hemiplegia patients usually show a characteristic gait. The leg on the affected side is extended and internally rotated and is swung in a wide, lateral arc rather than lifted in order to move it forward. The upper limb on the same side is also adducted at the shoulder, flexed at the elbow, and pronated at the wrist with the thumb tucked into the palm and the fingers curled around it.[8]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment should be based on assessment by the relevant health professionals, including physiotherapists, doctors and occupational therapists. Muscles with severe motor impairment including weakness need these therapists to assist them with specific exercise, and are likely to require help to do this.[9]

Pharmacological[edit]

Drugs can be used to treat issues related to the Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome. Drugs like Librium or Valium could be used as a relaxant. Drugs are also given to individuals who have recurrent seizures, which may be a separate but related problem after brain injury.[1]

Surgery[edit]

Surgery may be used if the individual develops a secondary issue of contracture, from a severe imbalance of muscle activity. In such cases the surgeon may cut the ligaments and relieve joint contractures. Individuals who are unable to swallow may have a tube inserted into the stomach. This allows food to be given directly into the stomach. The food is in liquid form and instilled at low rates. Some individuals with hemiplegia will benefit from some type of prosthetic device. There are many types of braces and splints available to stabilize a joint, assist with walking and keep the upper body erect.

Rehabilitation[edit]

Rehabilitation is the main treatment of individuals with hemiplegia. In all cases, the major aim of rehabilitation is to regain maximum function and quality of life. Both physical and occupational therapy can significantly improve the quality of life.

Physical Therapy[edit]

Physical therapy (PT) can help improve muscle strength & coordination, mobility (such as standing and walking), and other physical function using different sensorimotor techniques.[10] Physiotherapists can also help reduce shoulder pain by maintaining shoulder range of motion, as well as using Functional electrical stimulation.[11] Supportive devices, such as braces or slings, can be used to help prevent or treat shoulder subluxation[12] in the hopes to minimize disability and pain. It should be noted that although many individuals suffering from stroke experience both shoulder pain and shoulder subluxation, the two are mutually exclusive.[13] A treatment method that can be implemented with the goal of helping to regain motor function in the affected limb is constraint-induced movement therapy. This consists of constraining the unaffected limb, forcing the affected limb to accomplish tasks of daily living.[14]

Occupational Therapy[edit]

Occupational therapy Occupational Therapists may specifically help with hemiplegia with tasks such as improving hand function, strengthening hand, shoulder and torso, and participating in activities of daily living (ADLs), such as eating and dressing. Therapists may also recommend a hand splint for active use or for stretching at night. Some therapists actually make the splint; others may measure your child’s hand and order a splint. OTs educate patients and family on compensatory techniques to continue participating in daily living, fostering independence for the individual - which may include, environmental modification, use of adaptive equipment, sensory integration, etc.

Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy[edit]

Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function, especially in cases of hemiplegia.

Assessment Tools[edit]

There are a variety of standardized assessment scales available to physiotherapists and other health care professionals for use in the ongoing evaluation of the status of a patient’s hemiplegia. The use of standardized assessment scales may help physiotherapists and other health care professionals during the course of their treatment plant to:

  • Prioritize treatment interventions based on specific identifiable motor and sensory deficits
  • Create appropriate short and long term goals for treatment based on the outcome of the scales, their professional expertise and the desires of the patient
  • Evaluate the potential burden of care and monitor any changes based on either improving or declining scores

Some of the most commonly used scales in the assessment of hemiplegia are:

The FMA is often used as a measure of functional or physical impairment following a cerebrovascular accident(CVA).[16] It measures sensory and motor impairment of the upper and lower extremities, balance in several positions, range of motion, and pain. This test is a reliable and valid measure in measuring post-stroke impairments related to stroke recovery. A lower score in each component of the test indicates higher impairment and a lower functional level for that area. The maximum score for each component is 66 for the upper extremities, 34 for the lower extremities, and 14 for balance. [17] Administration of the FMA should be done after reviewing a training manual.[18]

This test is a reliable measure of two separate components evaluating both motor impairment and disability.[20] The disability component assesses any changes in physical function including gross motor function and walking ability. The disability inventory can have a maximum score of 100 with 70 from the gross motor index and 30 from the walking index. Each task in this inventory has a maximum score of seven except for the 2 minute walk test which is out of two. The impairment component of the test evaluates the upper and lower extremities, postural control and pain. The impairment inventory focuses on the seven stages of recovery from stroke from flaccid paralysis to normal motor functioning. A training workshop is recommended if the measure is being utilized for the purpose of data collection.[21]

The STREAM consists of 30 test items involving upper-limb movements, lower-limb movements, and basic mobility items. It is a clinical measure of voluntary movements and general mobility (rolling, bridging, sit-to-stand, standing, stepping, walking and stairs) following a stroke. The voluntary movement part of the assessment is measured using a 3-point ordinal scale (unable to perform, partial performance, and complete performance) and the mobility part of the assessment uses a 4-point ordinal scale (unable, partial, complete with aid, complete no aid). The maximum score one can receive on the STREAM is a 70 (20 for each limb score and 30 for mobility score). The higher the score, the better movement and mobility is available for the individual being scored.[23]

Prognosis[edit]

Hemiplegia is not a progressive disorder, except in progressive conditions like a growing brain tumour. Once the injury has occurred, the symptoms should not worsen. However, because of lack of mobility, other complications can occur. Complications may include muscle and joint stiffness, loss of aerobic fitness, muscle spasms, bed sores, pressure ulcers and blood clots.[24]

Sudden recovery from hemiplegia is very rare. Many of the individuals will have limited recovery, but the majority will improve from intensive, specialised rehabilitation. Potential to progress may differ in cerebral palsy, compared to adult acquired brain injury. It is vital to integrate the hemiplegic child into society and encourage them in their daily living activities. With time, some individuals may make remarkable progress. [24]

Popular culture[edit]

  • In the 1994 Jodie Foster film Nell, the title character portrayed by Foster has developed her own language (idioglossia), developed in part due to the distinct speech patterns of her mother, caused by her hemiplegia due to a stroke.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://sprojects.mmi.mcgill.ca/gait/hemiplegic/intro.asp
  2. ^ a b Turner-Stokes L, Jackson D (May 2002). "Shoulder pain after stroke: a review of the evidence base to inform the development of an integrated care pathway". Clin Rehabil 16 (3): 276–98. doi:10.1191/0269215502cr491oa. PMID 12017515. 
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External links[edit]