|teeth on hymenium|
|no distinct cap|
|lacks a stipe|
|spore print is white|
|ecology is parasitic|
Hericium erinaceus (also called Lion's Mane Mushroom, Bearded Tooth Mushroom, Satyr's Beard, Bearded Hedgehog Mushroom, pom pom mushroom, or Bearded Tooth Fungus) is an edible mushroom and medicinal mushroom in the tooth fungus group. Native to North America, Europe and Asia it can be identified by its tendency to grow all the spines out from one group (rather than branches), long spines (greater than 1 cm length) and its appearance on hardwoods. Hericium erinaceus can be mistaken for other species of Hericium, all popular edibles, which grow across the same range. In the wild, these mushrooms are common during late summer and fall on hardwoods, particularly American Beech.
As an edible mushroom
Hericium erinaceus is a choice edible when young, and the texture of the cooked mushroom is often compared to seafood. It often appears in Chinese vegetarian cuisine to replace pork or lamb. This mushroom is cultivated commercially on logs or sterilized sawdust. It is available fresh or dried in Asian grocery stores.
It is called hóu tóu gū (simplified: 猴头菇; traditional: 猴頭菇; lit. "monkey head mushroom") in Chinese. In Japanese it is called yamabushitake (山伏茸; lit. "mountain priest mushroom"). In Vietnamese it is called nấm đầu khỉ which literally means the same as hóu tóu gū (monkey head mushroom). In Korean it is called "노루궁뎅이버섯, "Norugongdengi-beoseot", literally Deertail Mushroom.
Hericium erinaceus research
In traditional Chinese medicine this mushroom has long been considered a medicinal mushroom and a study on rats in 2005 showed that some compounds in the mushroom, like threitol, D-arabinitol, and palmitic acid may have antioxidant effects, may regulate blood lipid levels and may reduce blood glucose levels.
Scientists have investigated this mushroom for possible anti-dementia compounds. Primary research has demonstrated the following:
- Stimulated animal nerve cells.
- A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial showed improved cognitive ability in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.
- Stimulated nerve growth factor in an in vitro experiment with human astrocytoma cells. Nerve growth factor stimulated by phenol-analogous Hericenone.
- Stimulated myelination in an in vitro experiment.
- Regenerated peripheral nerves following crush injury
Long-term safety and effects of withdrawal seem to be unknown.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hericium erinaceus.|
- Wang, J. C.; Hu, S. H.; Wang, J. T.; Chen, K. S.; Chia, Y. C. (2005). "Hypoglycemic effect of extract of Hericium erinaceus". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85 (4): 641–646. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1928.
- Ying, J.; Mao, X.; Ma, Q.; Zong, Y.; Wen, H. (1987). Icons of Medicinal Fungi from China. Beijing: Science Press. ISBN 978-7-03-000195-5.
- Park, Y. S.; Lee, H. S.; Won, M. H.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, H. Y. (2002). "Effect of an exo-polysaccharide from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus on enhancement of growth and differentiation of rat adrenal nerve cells". Cytotechnology 39 (3): 155–162. doi:10.1023/A:1023963509393. PMC 3449638. PMID 19003308.
- Mori, K.; Inatomi, S.; Ouchi, K.; Azumi, Y.; Tuchida, T. (2009). "Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial". Phytotherapy Research 23 (3): 367–372. doi:10.1002/ptr.2634. PMID 18844328.
- Mori, K.; Obara, Y.; Hirota, M.; Azumi, Y.; Kinugasa, S.; Inatomi, S.; Nakahata, N. (2008). "Nerve Growth Factor-Inducing Activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31 (9): 1727–1732. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.1727. PMID 18758067.
- Bioactive Substances in YAMABUSHITAKE, the Hericium erinaceum, Fungus, and its Medicinal Utilization, Takashi Mizuno, Shizuoka University.
- Kolotushkina, E. V.; Moldavan, M. G.; Voronin, K. Y.; Skibo, G. G. (2003). "The influence of Hericium erinaceus extract on myelination process in vitro". Fiziolohichnyi zhurnal 49 (1): 38–45. PMID 12675022.
- Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), Kah-Hui Wong, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.