Huancayo

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Huancayo
Santísima Trinidad de Huancayo
Holy Trinity of Huancayo
The Huancayo Constitución Square and Huancayo Cathedral
The Huancayo Constitución Square and Huancayo Cathedral
Flag of Huancayo
Flag
Official seal of Huancayo
Seal
Nickname(s): "La Ciudad Incontrastable"
(The Uncontrastable City)
Huancayo is located in Peru
Huancayo
Huancayo
Location in Peru
Coordinates: 12°4′S 75°13′W / 12.067°S 75.217°W / -12.067; -75.217Coordinates: 12°4′S 75°13′W / 12.067°S 75.217°W / -12.067; -75.217
Country Peru
Region Junin
Province Huancayo
District Huancayo
Founded 1 June 1572
Government
 • Type Municipal government
 • Mayor Dimas Aliaga Castro
Elevation 3,259 m (10,692.26 ft)
Population
 • Total 380,000
Time zone PET (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) PET (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 64
Website www.munihuancayo.gob.pe
Huancayo Cathedral
Huancayo Cathedral
UNCP Campus

Huancayo (Spanish pronunciation: [waŋˈkaʝo]; in Wanka Quechua: Wankayuq [wɐŋˈkæjuː], '(place) with a (sacred) rock') is the capital of the Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.

Location[edit]

It is located in Huancayo Province, of which it is also capital. Situated in the Mantaro Valley at an altitude of 3,271 meters, it belongs to the Quechua region. Depending on delimitation, the agglomeration has a population between 340,000 and 380,000[1] and is the fifth most populous city of the country. Huancayo is the cultural and commercial center of the whole central Peruvian Andes area.

Historical overview[edit]

Pre-columbian era[edit]

The area was originally inhabited by the Huancas. At around 500 BC, they were incorporated into the Wari Empire. Despite efforts to defend its independence, the Huancas were eventually subdued by the Inca leader Pachacutec in 1460 and the region was incorporated into the Inca empire. It subsequently became a notable stopping point along the Inca Camino Real.

Viceroyalty era[edit]

After the Spanish colonization (1534), Huancayo was overshadowed by Jauja, 18 km to the north, which the conquistador Francisco Pizarro established as a provisional capital of Peru until Lima took over that role. In 1570, the viceroy Francisco de Toledo established the site as the center of his encomienda Guancayo. The town was officially established on 1 June 1572 with the title of Santísima Trinidad de Huancayo. In 1813, Huancayo celebrated the promulgation of the Constitution of Cadiz, changing the name of the "Plaza del Comercio" to "Plaza de la Constitución".

Republican era[edit]

During the war for independence, Huancayo was liberated on 20 November 1820. Construction on the cathedral commenced in 1831. In 1854, when Peru officially ended slavery, the accord was made law in Huancayo. There is a statue in the Plaza Constitución commemorating this.

Recent situation[edit]

Today, in addition to its importance as a center of commerce, Huancayo is known for the crafts and the many festivals of the surrounding towns. Having rapidly expanded in recent decades, it has few remaining colonial buildings; the cityscape is dominated by modern constructions.

Demographics[edit]

According to the national Census of 2007,[2] the three main districts of Huancayo have a total population of about 340,000. However, the continuous settlement area already reaches periurban districts. Hence, the agglomeration's population reaches at least 380,000 people. Amerindian and Mestizos (Amerindian and Spanish ancestry) are the two largest ethnic groups in the city. Asian (mainly descendants of Japanese and Chinese immigrants) and European descendants are important minority groups.

Municipalities of
the city
Area
km²
Population
censo 2007(hab)
Population under 1 year-old
Censo 2007(hab)
Households
(2007)
Density
(hab/km²)
Elevation
msnm
Chilca 8,3 km² 77.392* 1.358* 17.509 9.324,33 3.275 msnm
El Tambo 73,56 km² 146.847* 2.365* 36.982 1.996,28 3.260 msnm
Huancayo 237,55 km² 112.054* 1,789* 27.552 471,70 3.249 msnm
Total 319,41 km² 336.293* 5.512* 82.043 1.052,85
*Data from the census taken by the INEI[3]

Transport[edit]

The agglomeration Huancayo counts with transportation connections by air, road and rail. First, the Francisco Carle Airport at Jauja offers daily connections to Lima. Second, the Carretera Central links Huancayo with La Oroya and Lima. Third, the Ferrocarril Central Andino enables transport by rail. Huancayo was a break-of-gauge from 914 mm (3 ft) gauge to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge; for the 147 km extension to Huancavelica. In 2009, this line was being standardised.[4] A light rail is currently under construction and expected to start operation in 2013.

Education[edit]

Local universities[edit]

Branches of other Peruvian Universities[edit]

Language Institutes[edit]

  • Instituto Cultural Peruano Británico (BRITANNIA)
  • Instituto Cultural Peruano Norteamericano - Región Centro (ICPNA)
  • Alianza Francesa de Huancayo (French Alliance, AF)

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Huancayo Statistics, Information, Weather", TravelsRadiate, 3 Aug 2011, accessed 3 Aug 2011.
  2. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil Sociodemográfico del Perú pp. 29–30, 32, 34.
  3. ^ Censo 2005 INEI
  4. ^ Trains, March 2009, p68

External links[edit]