Chiclayo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chiclayo
Plaza de Armas of Chiclayo
Plaza de Armas of Chiclayo
Flag of Chiclayo
Flag
Coat of arms of Chiclayo
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): City of Friendship
Chiclayo is located in Peru
Chiclayo
Chiclayo
Location in Peru
Coordinates: 6°45′46.66″S 79°50′11.81″W / 6.7629611°S 79.8366139°W / -6.7629611; -79.8366139
Country  Peru
Region Lambayeque Region
Province Chiclayo Province
Settled 1835
Government
 • Mayor Roberto Torres Gonzales
Area
 • Total 174.46 km2 (67.36 sq mi)
Elevation 27 m (89 ft)
Population (2007)
 • Total 524.442
Time zone PET (UTC-5)
ZIP code(s) 14000-14013
Area code(s) 74
Website www.gobiernochiclayo.gob.pe

Chiclayo (Spanish pronunciation: [tʃiˈklaʝo]) is the capital city of the Lambayeque region in northern Peru. It is located 13 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast and 770 kilometers from the nation's capital, Lima. As of 2011, Chiclayo is the fourth most populous city in Peru with a population of 629,990 comprising 6 contiguous urban districts: Chiclayo, José Leonardo Ortiz, La Victoria, Pomalca, Reque and Pimentel; It is also the principal city of the fourth most populous metropolitan area of Peru.

Founded by Spanish explorers as "Santa María de los Valles de Chiclayo" in the 16th century, it was declared a city on 15 April 1835 by president Felipe Santiago Salaverry. He named Chiclayo "the Heroic City" to recognize the courage of its citizens in the fight for independence, a title it still holds. Other nicknames for Chiclayo include "The Capital of Friendship" and the "Pearl of the North".

Shield of the city.

Currently, Chiclayo is one of the most important urban areas of Peru. It is now the country's fourth-largest city, after Lima, Arequipa, and Trujillo. The city has a population of 738,000,[1] while the metropolitan area has a population of 972,713 (2009 - World-Gazetteer.com).

The city was founded near an important prehistoric archaeological site, the Northern Wari ruins, which constitute the remains of a city from the 7th- to 12th-century Wari Empire.

Etymology[edit]

Many different historical accounts tell of the naming of Chiclayo. Some attribute it to an indigenous man known as "chiclayoc" or "chiclayep" who transported plaster between the ancient cities of Zaña, Lambayeque and Morrope.

Another version claims that around the time that the city was founded, the area was home to a green-colored fruit called chiclayep or chiclayop which in the Mochican language means "green that hangs". In some towns in the highlands of Cajamarca, squashes are known as chiclayos, evidence that this fruit is the origin of the city's name.

Another source indicates that the word is a translation from the extinct Moche language and is derived from the word Cheqta which means "half" and yoc which means "property of".

Others say the Mochican language had words similar to the name, such as Chiclayap or Chekliayok, which means "place where there are green branches".[2]

Symbols[edit]

Shield[edit]

The coat of arms summarizes important features of the province, such as the one dedicated to the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception, represented in light blue background, which is a Catholic town, represented on the cross, but, also see other items related to the history, geography and landscape.[3]

Descripción[edit]

  • 'Tumi' the tumi is a ceremonial knife used by the Lambayeque culture, represents Naylamp.
  • 'Sea' the sea was always very important for its marine resources and legends that are told of it.
  • 'Huerequeque' is the typical bird of the region, is so called because in his song seems to say Huere-que-que-que.

History[edit]

Pre-Columbian cultures[edit]

Mochica culture[edit]

Main article: Moche (culture)

The Moche civilization began between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, occupying a territory that spanned much of what is now the northern coast of Peru, encompassing what is the coastal area of the departments of Ancash, Lambayeque and La Libertad today. This civilization reached a broad knowledge of hydraulic engineering: They constructed canals where they made the most of the river water to irrigate their land. This allowed them to have agricultural surpluses and a strong economy for development. The culture was characterized by intensive use of copper in the manufacture of ornamental objects, tools and weapons.[2]

The Mochicans are considered the producers of the best ceramic artifacts because of the elaborate designs of the pottery. These designs represent religious themes, humans, animals, and scenes of ceremonies and myths reflecting their perception of the world. They were famous for huaco-portraits preserved in museums around the country, highlighting amazing expressiveness, perfection, and realism.

The latest findings establish that this civilization disappeared as a result of the disasters caused by El Niño.[2]

Lambayeque culture[edit]

Main article: Lambayeque culture

The Lambayeque culture or Sican existed between 700 and 1375 and occupied the territory of the current-day department of Lambayeque. The area near the current-day city of Chiclayo was part of the Lambayeque civilization.

This culture was formed towards the end of the Moche civilization assimilating much of their knowledge and cultural traditions.

The Lambayeque culture's civilization was divided into three phases or stages:

  • Early stage (700–900)
  • Intermediate stage (900–1100)
  • Late stage (1100–1350)

Lambayeque or Sican civilization occupied the territory now belongs to the department of Lambayeque, began between the ages viii-xiv AD. and cultural influence by sharing it extended over almost the entire Peruvian coast during its peak between 900 and 1100 BC). This civilization was formed from the decay of the Moche civilization assimilating much of the knowledge and cultural traditions of these. The Lambayeque excelled in architecture, jewelry and navigation. Although they failed to the extent of the Moche, and political complexity, it is clear that in these arts were his favorite disciples. It is known that as a result of the disaster happened by the El Niño phenomenon had to do with the disappearance of this civilization.[4]

The Lambayeques excelled in architecture, goldsmithing, and navigating.

Colonial period[edit]

Parade of the Muses

In the early 16th century, Chiclayo was inhabited by two ethnic groups; the Cinto and Collique. The chieftains of these ethnic groups donated part of their land for the construction of a Franciscan convent. This cesion of land was approved by the royal decree of 17 September 1585. Thus, with the advocation of Saint Maria of Chiclayo and under the direction of Father Fray Antonio of the Concepción, a church and a Franciscan covenant were erected at Chiclayo. At the time of construction of these Spanish-built edifices, the city of Chiclayo was founded.

Chiclayo, unlike most other Peruvian colonial cities such as Lima, Piura, Trujillo, or Arequipa, was inhabited by a largely indigenous population rather than Spanish colonizers. On 15 April 1835, during the republican era, the urbanization of Chiclayo was elevated to the category of city by the then president Felipe Santiago Salaverry. That same day, Chiclayo received the title of "Heroic City". The next day the Chiclayo Province is created of which Chiclayo becomes the capital.

Republican era[edit]

During the Peruvian War of Independence Chiclayo was not indifferent to the patriot revolutionary cause, and supported it by suppling soldiers, weapons, horses, and other important resources to General José de San Martín's liberating army. All of this came to be under the supervision of the most progressive creole, José Leonardo Ortiz.

Soon after independence Chiclayo was still a small village. Nevertheless, due to its strategic geographic location, in future decades it became a rail, communications, and automotive hub. In 1827, Chiclayo was elevated to the level of villa. The progress of Chiclayo is evident in the early republican era by the naming of Chiclayo as a "Heroic City" in recognition of the services rendered by the Chiclayan people in the Peruvian War of Independence.

Today, Chiclayo is among the most important cities of Peru, with much commercial movement and with touches of great modern city, home to large supermarkets, banking chains, warehouses, hospitals, clinics, galleries, among other businesses that have become the Financial and Commercial Capital of Northern Peru, titles in addition to the City of Friendship and Pearl of Northern Peru, with a metropolitan area that includes several neighboring satellite cities about 30 thousand hectares around. Currently Chiclayo is shaping up between the country's major cities, is a commercial city and brings together the ingredients of a modern city,[5] Chiclayo is known as the Capital of friendship and "Perla del Norte" of Perú.[6]

Political-administrative organization[edit]

Chiclayo, capital of the province, is governed by the Provincial Municipality of Chiclayo which has jurisdiction throughout the province. There is restricted to the city authority. In this regard, the district municipalities of the metropolitan area also have jurisdiction in matters relating to their own districts.

The city, as the regional capital, is the seat of the Regional Government of Lambayeque. It is also home to the different regional offices of the council of ministers of Peru comprising the Peruvian public administration.[7]

Municipal Administration[edit]

Chiclayo Mayor is the head of government and the district administration, representing legal, judicial and extra to the District. The charge is democratically elected for a period of four years. In addition each of the towns have a Local Mayor, under the supervision of this, who are responsible for coordinating the district government administrative action in the city.

Lista de últimos alcaldes de Chiclayo.
Period Mayor Political party
1993 - 1995 Arturo Castillo Chirinos AP-FREDEMO [8]
1996 - 1998 Miguel Angel Bartra Grosso AP-FREDEMO [8]
1999 - 2002 Miguel Angel Bartra Grosso Adelante Chiclayo [8]
2003 - 2006 Arturo Castillo Chirinos AP-FREDEMO [8]
2007 - 2011 Roberto Torres Gonzáles Todos por Lambayeque-Manos Limpias [8]
2011 - 2015 Roberto Torres Gonzáles Movimiento Regional de las Manos Limpias [8]

Administrative Division[edit]

The city of Chiclayo (call core) is divided in 3 districts,[9] districts are grouped into housing developments. although the city itself are biased the conurbation with 6 districts (annexing Pomalca, Pimentel and Reque).

Its territorial extension is 252.39 km2. The central district of the city limits to the north, with the districts of Picsi, J. L. Ortiz and Lambayeque, to the south, with Monsefú Reque and La Victoria, to the east, with Pomalca, the West, and San Jose Pimentel.

CIUDAD DE CHICLAYO (núcleo central)
Distrito
1 Chiclayo
2 José Leonardo Ortiz
3 La Victoria
Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática

Metropolitan Area[edit]

As of 2009, the metropolitan area of Chiclayo-Lambayeque included 12 districts: Lambayeque, San Jose Pimentel, Santa Rosa, Puerto Eten, Eten City, Monsefú, Reque, Pomalca, La Victoria, Leonardo Ortiz and Chiclayo, where 60% of the population of the Lambayeque region is concentrated.[10]

The metropolitan area of Chiclayo-Lambayeque is an urban extension covering the central city and is the main city of Chiclayo conurbanizado or continued and a number of cities or districts but important secondary satellites to the main town of Lambayeque exercising the role as role compensation aid in Chiclayo, Chiclayo These satellites districts that serve as bedroom communities and supplement supplier to the city of Chiclayo. It imposes prevent further macrocephaly, extremely bad in this case for the cities of neighboring provinces.[10]

First you have to make a distinction between central metropolis metropolitan area. The central metropolis commonly relates to a specific city this conurbanado continuously integrated and complete, without being immersed satellite districts or cities, and form part of the core with its discontinuous. It is the city of Chiclayo is currently composed of six districts conurbanados or continued: (Chiclayo, Jose Leonardo Ortiz, La Victoria, Pomalca, Pimentel and Reque). However Reque Pimentel and are in the process of forming an absolute total integration (i.e. are conurbanados partially as shown in urban integration).[10]

The metropolitan area of Chiclayo-Lambayeque is an urban extension covering the central city and is the main city of Chiclayo conurbanizado or continued and a number of cities or districts but important secondary satellites to the main town of Lambayeque exercising the role as role compensation aid in Chiclayo, Chiclayo These satellites districts that serve as bedroom communities and supplement supplier to the city of Chiclayo. It imposes prevent further macrocephaly, extremely bad in this case for the cities of neighboring provinces. The urban development plan (1992) called "Chiclayo 2020", was contemplated, the first expansion to San Jose Pimentel, who are open spaces with less cultivated areas, and then to Picsi to Pomalca and has yet Reque been replaced by the PAT-PDUA.[11]

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Chiclayo has a warm and very dry desert climate with the sun shining all year around. Since the city of Chiclayo is located in a tropical zone near the Equator, the weather should be hot, humid, and rainy, but it is sub-tropical, pleasant temperature, dry and rainy; this is due to the strong winds called "cyclones" that lower temperature to a moderate climate for most of the year except in the summer months where the temperature rises, so summer is often spent in resorts like Puerto Eten and Pimentel. Periodically, every 7, 10, 15, years are high temperatures, with regular rainfall and extreme rise of river water

Chiclayo
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
5
 
29
19
 
 
3
 
30
20
 
 
10
 
30
20
 
 
5
 
28
19
 
 
3
 
26
18
 
 
0
 
24
17
 
 
0
 
23
16
 
 
0
 
23
15
 
 
0
 
23
15
 
 
0
 
24
16
 
 
3
 
25
16
 
 
0
 
27
17
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: The Weather Channel (in Portuguese)

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

Capitán FAP José A. Quiñones González International Airport (IATA: CIX, ICAO: SPHI) is an airport serving Chiclayo, Peru and the surrounding metropolitan area. It is run by ADP a private airport operator that operates various airports in northem Peru. It is the main airport of the Lambayeque Region, one of the most populous of the country. The city is served by the Cap. FAP José A. Quiñones Gonzales International Airport, which houses primarily domestic airlines, chartered international flights, and fuel supply services. The terminal has a runway of 2520 by 45 square meters.

There are currently four airlines that serve Chiclayo's international airport, some of which who offer daily service and others interdaily service. There are two schedules for this service one morning schedule and one afternoon schedule. There are flights to the city of Tumbes and especially to the city of Iquitos. The US-based Spirit Airlines has expressed interest in serving Chiclayo from its hub in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States.

Land[edit]

Chiclayo, because of its location, serves as a point of interconnection for various cities of the Northeast of the country and has various bus companies which service cities such as Lima, Trujillo, Piura, Cajamarca, Chota, Cutervo, Bagua, Jaén, Chachapoyas, and Tumbes.

To adequately accommodate the transportation demand, the city is served by two different land terminals, one located towards the southern end of the city and another at the northern end on the Panamerican Highway. A substantial number of bus companies have their own terminals, many of them located near the downtown of the city and in nearby areas. These interprovincial buses contribute to the congestion experienced in downtown Chiclayo. To try to solve the problem the city government has proposed a plan to build a central station in the city.

Regionally, there are various different public services such as combis, cousters, colectivos, which provide services within the districts and provinces of the department of Lambayeque. There are also an overwhelming number of private taxis which incessantly honk their horns throughout the downtown area of the city, causing a great deal of unwanted noise pollution.

Population[edit]

Chiclayo.

According to the Census of Population and Housing undertaken in 2007, 574,408 people inhabit the area within Chiclayo's city limits or the six municipalities. The metropolitan area has a population of 930,824; it includes other nearby cities like Monsefú and Lambayeque in a ten-minute radius by paved highway. Under the thirty-minute range are, in order of hierarchy, Ferreñafe, Santa Rosa, Eten, Illimo and Tuman. Chiclayo is at the center of the Chancay River delta, in a fertile valley.

Municipalities of
the city
Area
km²
Population
(census 2007)
Households
(2007)
Density
(hab/km²)
Elevation
msnm
Distance from
main square(km)
Chiclayo center 50.35 260,948* 60,325 5,182.7 27 0 km
José Leonardo Ortiz 28.22 167,717* 34,641 5,943.2 28 1.5 km
La Victoria 29.36 77,699* 16,447 2,646.4 23 2.4 km
Pomalca 80.35 23,092* 5,802 287.39 29 7 km
Reque 47.03 12,606* 3,664 268.04 21 8 km
Pimentel 66.53 32,346* 9,301 486.2 4 11.9 km
Total 301.84 km2 574,408* 130,180 1,903.02
*Data from the census taken by the INEI[12]

According to the planning director of Chiclayo, by 2020 the San Jose district belonging to the Lambayeque Province will be completely integrated with the city of Chiclayo. The district currently has a population 12,156 inhabitants. Currently most of the district is conurbanized with the rest of Chiclayo.

Education and Culture[edit]

Royal Tombs of Sipan Museum located in Lambayeque, a city part of Chiclayo's metropolitan area

University education[edit]

The following is a list of the universities located in Chiclayo:

  • Catholic University of Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo[13]
  • Private University of Juan Mejia Baca[14]
  • Señor de Sipan University[13]
  • Private University of Chiclayo[13]
  • University of Lambayeque[13]
  • San Martín de Porres University[13]
  • César Vallejo University[13]
  • Alas Peruanas University[13]
  • Federal Republic of Germany Institute[13]
  • Senati, National Industrial Training Service[13]

note: Pedro Ruiz Gallo National University is not in Chiclayo but in near Lambayeque city, 11 km distance.

The following is a list of museums in the area:

  • Huaca Rajada – Sipan Museum[15]
  • Royal Tombs of Sipan Museum[15]
  • Sican National Museum[15]
  • Hans Heinrich Bruning National Museum[15]
  • Museum of Valley of the Pyramids of Tucume[15]
  • On Site Museum in Sipán is the newest and the smallest museum.[15]

Tourist attractions of Lambayeque[edit]

Front face of the cathedral of Chiclayo

The department of Lambayeque is one of the most touristic in the nation. It was home to the ancient civilization of the Moche who created some of the most ingenious monuments and works of art known to ancient Peru. In 1987, royal tombs of ancient Moche rulers were excavated. The artifacts found in the tomb were transferred to the Royal Tomb of Sipan Museum in the city of Lambayeque. Also there are the Brunning Museum and the Sicán Museum in Ferreñafe. These museums display the magnificent ancient artwork produced by the ancient Moche. The pyramids of Túcume are also in this area. In 2007, more than 306,000 tourists visited the museums of Lambayeque.[10] There are more than 20 adobe pyramids all of which are 40 meters (131 feet) in height and are in an abundance of vegetation and wildlife. Also in the area is the Chaparrí Ecological Reserve which has abundant biodiversity. The department of Lambayeque boasts some of the best cuisine in Peru. The most popular dish in this area is duck with rice. The city of Chiclayo, the capital of the department, is the second largest in the Peruvian north and has a vibrant nightlife.

  • Home Park.- Located in the heart of Leeds, formerly was built in two sections, has a pool equipped with three water valves which give rise to three jets of water that form the flag of Peru. Around her are shopping centers, the RENIEC, its beautiful Cathedral, Hotel Royal, the Old Cinema Tropical and Colonial Theatre and republican buildings and many places where any tourist or citizen might enjoy.
  • Cathedral of Chiclayo.- Located in the main square of the city is built in neoclassical style and dates from 1869 by design and drawings of Gustave Eiffel. The cover is two bodies, supported by Doric columns first is in front of three archways. The second presents Corinthian capitals whose intercolumpios appreciate balconies or bay windows. On both sides of the facade stand steeples topped with cupolas. Inside, three bodies, highlights the beautiful sculpture of Christ poor and the home of Antonio.
  • Municipal Palace.- It stood on the north side of the main park, located on Calle San Jose 823. Elegant building construction (1919), cost more than 30,000 pounds of gold. It was Republican style with large windows and wrought iron gates. It was destroyed by a fire caused by a deplorable political brawl between the Deputy Mayor Jose Barreto Sanchez and his opponent then reinstated Mayor Arturo Castillo Chirinos, who tried to recover the position relying on a ruling of the Constitutional Court just two months of completing the period for which he was elected in October 2006. Currently already restored and now operates as a museum.
  • La Verónica´s Chapel.- Ubicada en la calle Torres Paz 294. Fue construida in fines del siglo XIX y Declared monument histórico nacional. El mayor y el altar reredos adyacente presentan a revestimiento de pan de oro y plata. Fue Declared Monument histórico nacional en 1987.
  • Basilica San Antonio.- It is situated between the street and Avenida Paz Torres Luis Gonzales. San Antonio called the Discalced Fathers Chiclayo, modern and simple architecture (1949). The main hall is quite large, has arches and, altar, stands the crucified articulated in polychrome wood sculpture.
  • Elías Aguirre Square.- Located between Calle Elias Aguirre and San Jose. This was the first place he could see the traveler when off the train at the railway station Eten. Peruvian sculptor David Lozano, its construction dates from 1924, and was erected in honor of Commander Elias Aguirre, Chiclayo hero in the Battle of Angamos of 1879.
  • Biblioteca Municipal José Eufemio Lora y Lora.- It has one of the best facilities of its kind in Peru. His collection is poor and outdated meagerly. No services such as Internet and multimedia. It has no branches (it takes four or five only in the district capital) and should give priority and investment plan. The collection should be of Entyre 50.000 to 90.000 titles, organized and constantly renewed.

Famous people from Chiclayo[edit]

Image of the Peruvian hero José Quiñones Gonzáles.
Augusto B. Leguia was president of Peru in three periods.

He was born on 22 April 1914 in the District of Pimentel on the coast of the province of Chiclayo, studied his primary education at the National College San Jose City Chiclayo and then transferred to Lima and continued his secondary education at the Colegio sacred Hearts Recoleta and concluded at the National College of Our Lady of Guadalupe, then went on to serve in Peru as Air Force pilot and native of duty in the conflict against Ecuador in 1941 blew up one days after 23 July being hit by artillery Ecuador did not jump the plane by parachute to save his life but took him to crash into the enemy target.

Augusto Bernardino Legui'a Salcedo (Lambayeque, 19 February 1863 - Callao, 6 February 1932) was a Peruvian politician who was President of Peru Constitutional for four periods: 1908-1912, 1919-1925 (with a transitional period prior), 1925-1929, and 1929-1930. In the last three periods, totaling eleventh consecutive year, they are known collectively as the Oncenio. Altogether ruled 15 years, being the most time Peruvian president has ruled.

Óscar Luis Castañeda Lossio (Chiclayo, 21 June 1945) is a Peruvian lawyer and politician, founder and president of the National Solidarity Party. Ran for presidency in the general election of 2000 Peru and Peru's general elections of 2011, ranking fifth in both occasions. He was Mayor of Lima January 2003 to October 2010, when resignation to run for a second time to the Presidency of the Republic.

Yehuda Simon Munaro (* Lima, 18 July 1947 -) is a veterinarian, Peruvian sociologist and politician. The 10 October 2008 was appointed prime minister of Peru, replacing Jorge del Castillo, 1 remained in office until 11 July 2009. Congressman-elect is currently Lambayeque by the Alliance for the Great Change.

Magaly del Rocio Rivasplata Viviana Aita (born in Lambayeque, 4 October 1977) is an American model, beauty queen and Peruvian businesswoman. She was elected Miss Peru in 2001.

Angel Javier Velásquez, (* Eten, Lambayeque, Peru, 12 March 1960) is a lawyer, constitutionalist and Peruvian politician. APRA member since college, representing the constituency of Lambayeque in the Congress of the Republic of Peru since 1995. It was the Prime Minister of Peru from 11 July 2009 until 13 September 2010.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Guía metropolitana ,comercial, industrial y estadística de la ciudad de Chiclayo. Ciudad Comercial del Norte peruano. Chiclayo, 2002, incluye un croquis de la ciudad de Chiclayo.
  • Diario la industria de Chiclayo.suplemento dominical.-Comentarios de la actualización del plan regulador "Chiclayo 2020"
  • "Ponencia: "Hacia una ciudad sostenible", Ex alcalde de Chiclayo Dr.Arturo Castillo Chirinos.
  • "Ciudad Heroica" Columna del diario El correo de Chiclayo.Dr. Fernando Bartra Grosso.
  • " Modernización de Chiclayo ha comenzado" Jorge Incháustegui Samamé. enlace del catatro Sach.
  • "Historia de la ciudad de Reque" Ministerio evangelistico nueva vida. Dante Samillán Rodriguez .
  • "Planificacion y desarrollo de la ciudad de Chiclayo metropolitano". prolongación al sur de la ciudad,-historia de Reque en la ciudad de Chiclayo-, -creación del distrito de la victoria. Dante Samillán Rodriguez.
  • "Futuro de Chiclayo, encuentro económico APEC, mejoramiento de la ciudad de chiclayo". diario la industria.
  • ALCALDE, Nélida. Los tugurios en el centro urbano de Chiclayo, 1940–1970. TLS/UNPRG, Lambayeque, 1984.
  • BAZÁN, Inés y José GÓMEZ. Capitalismo y región en Lambayeque. Instituto de Estudios Sociales Naymlap, Chiclayo, 1983, 125 pp.
  • CARDOSO, César. "El poder económico en Lambayeque". En: Dominical, Suplemento de La Industria, Chiclayo, domingo 5 de marzo de 1995, pp. 4-5.
  • BACHMANN, Carlos J. Departamento de Lambayeque. Monografía Histórico – Geográfica.
  • ASENJO MUNDACA, Clara; SANTA CRUZ ROJAS, Hilda R. Educación y crisis en el distrito de La Victoria 1987–1994. TLS/UNPRG, Lambayeque, 1994.
  • ALVARADO, D. y F. EFFIO. Desarrollo urbano de la ciudad de Chiclayo 1875–1981. TLS, UNPRG, Lambayeque, 1984.
  • Plan director 2020 y catastro urbano de la ciudad de Chiclayo.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Local Stats, Info, Weather", TravelsRadiate, 3 Aug 2011, accessed 3 Aug 2011.
  2. ^ a b c de abril de 2013|obra=HISTORIA DE CHICLAYO|work=Lambayeque.net "Historia de Chiclayo". Lambayeque.net. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  3. ^ Escudo de Chiclayo
  4. ^ Sican Culture. "Sican Culture". Wikipedia. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  5. ^ Template:Cita noticia
  6. ^ Template:Cita noticia
  7. ^ Chiclayo. "Chiclayo". Wikipedia. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Alcaldes de Chiclayo, Alcaldes de Chiclayo. "Alcaldes de Chiclayo". Wikipedia. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Template:Cita Harvard
  10. ^ a b c http://www.munichiclayo.gob.pe/g_urbanismo/
  11. ^ "Area Metropolitana de Chiclayo". Wikipedia. Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  12. ^ INEI Census 2007
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Educacion superior. "Educacion superior". Paginas Amarillas. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Educacion superior. "Educacion superior". Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f MUSEOS EN LAMBAYEQUE, MUSEOS EN LAMBAYEQUE. "MUSEOS EN LAMBAYEQUE". Lambayeque. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 

Coordinates: 6°45′46.66″S 79°50′11.81″W / 6.7629611°S 79.8366139°W / -6.7629611; -79.8366139