|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (September 2012)|
|— City —|
|Ciudad de Iquitos|
|Iquitos District cityscape, Casa de Fierro built by Gustave Eiffel; Port Henry, Punchana District at dusk; Parade Ground and the Matrix Church in Midtown Iquitos; the former Palace Hotel in the Tarapacá Levee; ubiquitous transport of the city, and the floating houses in the Amazon river.|
|Nickname(s): Capital de la Amazonía Peruana (Capital of the Peruvian Amazon)|
|Motto: Carpent tua poma nepotes (Latin: Your children will harvest your fruits)|
|• Mayor||Salomón Abenzur Araujo|
|• Total||368.9 km2 (142.4 sq mi)|
|Elevation||106 m (348 ft)|
|• Density||1,200/km2 ( 3,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
Iquitos (Spanish pronunciation: [iˈkitos]) is the largest city in the Peruvian rainforest and the capital of the Loreto Region and Maynas Province. The city is considered the sixth largest city of Peru, with 457,865 inhabitants. Furthermore, it is the heart of what has been officially designated as the Iquitos Metropolitan Area. A honeypot, Iquitos is the hub where the food, culture, customs, worldview and historical landmarks of Loreto meet. Its nickname as the Capital of the Peruvian Amazon acquired international status by hosting the commemorative plaque of the Amazon River as one of the seven natural wonders of the world.
Iquitos is located on the left bank of the Amazon river, in northeastern Peru. The city consists of four districts ——Iquitos, Belen, Punchana y San Juan Bautista— that were created gradually as Iquitos grew and finally consolidated in 1999. Its founding date is uncertain, but historical documents state that Iquitos started as a Spanish reduction established by Jesuits along the Nanay River c. 1757 with the name "San Pablo de Napeanos," inhabited by indigenous Napeano (Yameo) and Iquito people. In the course of its history, the city had a strong showing in the rubber boom (1880-1914), a period of large economic and social development that gave this city its unique urban and cultural identity. Because of this, it has the largest gringo enclave in Peru.
Iquitos has a strong tourism-based economy as the main center of "Charapa culture." It is a cosmopolitan city with strong Amazon roots and cultural diversity that encourages creativity in its artistic community. The architectural legacy of the rubber boom has given the city another characteristic identity. Iquitos is considered a party town because of its entertainment that encompasses both its nightlife and cultural movement. Its demography is the most multi-ethnic in the Peruvian Amazon and maintains a melting pot status that resulted from the large immigration of foreigners and mixing during the rubber boom.
Several neighborhoods and landmarks of Iquitos are prized for their Amazonian, European and bohemian atmosphere, and the city attracts 46-150,000 tourists a year, a number that is expected to rise after the award of the Amazon. Recent international flights to the major hub of Panama lead on to Miami and Cancun via PTY. The city was included, as number 6, on the list of "top 10 cities for 2011" by Lonely Planet. Downtown Iquitos is considered the starting point for the city tour, and the Belén Market is described as the largest traditional market in the Peruvian Amazon.
The city can be reached only by airplane or boat, with the exception of a road to Nauta, a small town roughly 100 km (62 mi) south. It is the largest city in the world which cannot be reached by road. Ocean vessels of 3,000 tons or 9,000 tons and 5.5 metres (18 ft) draft can reach Iquitos from the Atlantic Ocean, 3600 km away. Most travel within the city via bus, motorcycle, or the ubiquitous auto rickshaw (mototaxi, motocarro or motokar), which is essentially a modified motorcycle with a cabin behind supported by two wheels, seating three. Transportation to nearby towns often requires a river trip via peque-peque, a small public motorized boat.
The climate is hot and humid, with an average relative humidity of 85%. The wet season lasts from around November to May, with the river reaching its highest point in May. The river is at its lowest in October.
European-Peruvians established Iquitos as a Jesuit mission to the indigenous peoples in the 1750s. In 1864 it started to grow when the settlers created the Loreto Region and made Iquitos its capital. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate.
Iquitos was known for its rubber industry throughout the rubber boom decade beginning in 1900; it attracted thousands of immigrants from around the world, mostly young, single men who hoped to make their fortunes in rubber. The rise of the automobile and related industries had dramatically increased the worldwide demand for rubber. Some men became merchants and bankers, and made their fortunes that way. Many of the European men married indigenous women and stayed in Peru the rest of their lives, founding ethnically mixed families. The immigrants brought European clothing styles, music and other cultural elements to Iquitos.
Among the unique communities formed by the 19th-century rubber boom immigration was that of Sephardic Jews from Morocco. Many of the men married Peruvian women and made families in Iquitos. They established a synagogue and the Jewish Cemetery. By the end of the 20th century, four or five generations later, most descendants were no longer practicing Jews. In the 1990s, a descendant of a Jewish settler undertook serious study of the religion and began to revive Judaism among his family, friends, and other Sephardim descendants. After years of study, with the help of a sympathetic Conservative rabbi in Lima and another from Brooklyn, New York, eventually a few hundred people learned and practiced and converted. (Conversion was necessary as their mothers were not Jewish.) Many of the converts emigrated to Israel under its "right of return" policy.
The wealthiest Europeans built great mansions in the late 19th century, some of which survive. Casa de Fierro (Spanish for the Iron House) was designed by Gustave Eiffel, designer of the Eiffel Tower. After rubber seeds were smuggled out of the country and began to be cultivated in quantity elsewhere, the Peruvian boom came to an end. The city is still an important trading port in the Amazon basin.
On August 13, 2012, a special plaque was placed in the plaza 28 de Julio of the city in a big ceremony to commemorate the Amazon River and rainforest as one of the seven natural wonders of the world. The 21st-century-style plaque was forged alongside that of the Iguazu Falls in Munich, Germany.
Iquitos is located within the boundaries of the Province of Maynas, north of Loreto. It covers an area of 368.9 km2 (142.4 mi2), comprising the districts of Belén, San Juan Bautista y Punchana. The town is 106 m above sea level. It is also the most northern Peruvian city.
Iquitos is located in the middle of the Amazon river system. It is located on the left bank of the Amazon River, which provides the city's economic life, including trade and transport. Itaya and Nanay rivers are a natural boundary of the physical expansion of the city: one located in the south and the second to the north, which both flow into the Amazon. Near Iquitos there are also a number of ponds and lakes, notably Moronococha Lake, which defines the city in the northeast. This feature makes the city on a fluvial island.
Geologically, the city is settled in a Tertiary-Quaternary formation lithologically composed by little-consolidated lutites, with remains of flora or fauna, and numerous white-sand lenses of abundant silicon. The residual soils are sandy, almost clay-like and variably deep. Physiography, is a hazy landscape due to the undulations of the soil erosion caused by rain.
Earthquakes in the city are very rare and very deep. Iquitos is located in Region 3 of Systematic Regionalization Map of Peru, which means that the city has a low coefficient seismic value, although the 2011 Peru earthquake, which occurred southeast of Contamana, was felt in the city as a small and unexpected jolt.
Iquitos has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) with abundant rainfall and hot temperatures all year round. Rainfall experiences two peak periods: November to January and March to May, with April typically being the wettest month of the year. Based on the protocol of the Köppen Climate Classification, there is technically no dry season month where monthly precipitation totals amount to less than 60 mm (2.4 in) in Iquitos, giving it the distinction of having a tropical rainforest climate, at the same time that the period from June to September typically yields relatively light precipitation.
Unusually, in June 2011, the city suffered the most extreme coldspell in its history: the temperature dropped to 19°C (with an extremely low temperature of 12.9°C for 24 September), forcing people to warm themselves to an unprecedented degree.
|Climate data for Iquitos, Peru|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.6
|Average low °C (°F)||22.1
|Rainfall mm (inches)||279.0
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||21||17||22||20||21||19||15||15||16||17||19||20||222|
|Source #1: Hong Kong Observatory,|
|Source #2: World Weather Online,|
In 1808, Hipolito Sanchez Rangel, the bishop of Maynas, reported that the village had 171 inhabitants of Iquitos and the June 8, 1842, date where the town was elevated to district, had just over 200 inhabitants.
In 1860, according to Paz Soldan, the town had only 300 inhabitants. Two years later, the population increased to about 431 inhabitants and in 1864, there were 648 people, predominantly mestizo due to the presence of families from Borja, Santiago, Santa Teresa, Barranca and others, who fled away from the attack on the Huambisas and Aguaruna native and destroyed the villages.
According Genaro Herrera, in 1866, Iquitos had a population of 648 people. For 1876, again the same author reports a population of 1,475 inhabitants.
In 1903, in the middle of the rubber boom, Iquitos had 9,438 inhabitants (census of Benito Lords), of which 542 were foreigners, most of them from Spain (95) Brazil (80), China (74), Portugal (64) and as many from Italy, England, France, Ecuador, USA, Russia, Switzerland and Morocco.
Iquitos has architecturally significant buildings in a particular range of structural remnants were built during the rubber boom of the 1880s. Comprise mainly European/Amazonian-style buildings with ceramic tiles imported from Italy and Portugal, and its unique, French architecture called Casa de Fierro built by Gustave Eiffel, who built the original house in Paris for an exhibition of 1878. However, the structure is not the only European urban appeal: the city is also characterized by the rustic architecture or conventional as the palafitte, malocas and huts that are located primarily in the areas of the city.
Historically, the first native inhabitants of the settlements built their houses of sticks and leaves and other natural resources, which were tailored to protect the climate, wildlife and other hazards. The styles of housing in those settlements up the huts and cocameras, used as a large communal houses. Other peculiar conventional architectures are characterized by firmness and isothermal conditions; they are categorized into three types of home: quincha —built with posts and giant cane—, rammed earth —resistant and isothermal—, and adobe —irm with the same isothermal condition.
The rubber boom of the 1880s caused a severe change in the architectural face of Iquitos. Foreign and rubber barons brought with them the influence of countries like Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, and descendants as Sephardim. Jose de Jesus Reategui and a young group built the main features of the urban city in the years of boom, including the Iglesia Matriz de Iquitos. In the Iquitos popular belief of the 19th century, iron was considered less humane and aesthetic, but Gustave Eiffel got the Casa de Fierro became an attraction in the city, although historically the prefabricated building was not designed to Iquitos. Baroque and Rococo style also influenced the architecture of Iquitos, and defense against the rain was another prominent feature given for buildings. About 90 buildings are declared architectural heritage of Loreto.
Iquitos is composed of four districts.
- Iquitos (Iquitos District: 163, 594 inhabitants) is the main district of the city, and is the most visited by tourists. The center of Iquitos, located in the heart of the district, is best known, and it has most of the activities of economy, culture, entertainment, art and commerce of the city. The Plaza de Armas is the tourist point of departure for most tourists, along with the Casa de Fierro, the Iglesia Matriz, the former Palace Hotel, the Boulevard de Iquitos, the Malecon Tarapaca and the Amazon Library.
- Belén (Municipality of Belen District: 74, 551 inhabitants) is one of the districts of the city known mainly for its intense commercial activity and the Belen Neighborhood, called the "Venice" by iquiteños. It is located on the east side of Iquitos and was created on November 5, 1999.
- Punchana (Municipality of Punchana District: 85, 179 inhabitants) is the northern district of Iquitos and was created on 17 December 1987, and is characterized more by its port activity and Bellavista-Nanay market. Punchana capital has a small district capital called Villa Punchana. 90% of the district is composed of urban land, while 10% is rural. In the history of Iquitos, Punchana started as a small hamlet and the name of the district is due to a kind of wild agouti, which was cared for in a breedingground at the beginning of the 20th century.
- San Juan Bautista (Municipality of San Juan Bautista District: 124, 143 inhabitants), colloquially known as San Juan, is the largest district of Iquitos, and which is constantly expanding to the south of the city due to the arrival of new families to the city —also embraces remote areas beyond the urban Iquitos, such as the Quistococha Resort and Zoo. Before promoted as a populous district in the presidency of Fernando Belaunde in the 1960s, the district was a sparsely populated road. Currently, several human settlements are in the "expansive" border areas. In this district, there are several tourist spots such as the San Juan Craft Market, the beaches of Santa Clara and St. Thomas, and Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve (located in the Iquitos-Nauta Highway).
Culture and contemporary life 
Iquitos has vibrant, unique, complex and diverse culture, and is regarded as cultural hub that meeting the Peruvian Amazon, according to Lonely Planet. Many natives visit the city to present their dances or sell their crafts. It also brings a wealth of customs and traditions remained considerably over the years and in the Iquitos calendar, between her festivities, cuisine, Spanish accent and mythology. Currently, its culture is undergoing an impetuous transition to a contemporary level to preserve their traditions with innovative art movements.
One of the main factors of the traditional cultural energy of Iquitos is Amazonian mythology, which has a range of characters, identified by folklore in imaginary beings. Many of the legendary beings, with appearances motivated by local geography, have powers and influenced much in agriculture and worldview of Iquitos. The dance and music, a mix of indigenous and mestizo heritage are closely related to the meanings of mythology, and also with the life of the citizen and Amazonian villager.
The complex cultural life of Iquitos consists mainly of native iquiteños, Brazilians, Colombians, Chineses and settled expatriates ethnicities. The term "charapa culture" generally refers to social, cultural and artistic movements of Iquitos.
Iquitos has a unique culture that is strongly felt, as the following quotes says:
|“||We are in the city of the alteration of the senses. [...] What is striking me is the ease with which iquitenses [sic] engage in conversation with tourists, with a warmth and naturalness that is rarely seen in my native place.||”|
—Max Palacios, in his blog Amores bizarros.
|“||Although I'm a veteran of several South American adventures, Iquitos appealed to me as a quirk - a jungle city seems a contradiction and this would be my first Amazon visit to include the cosmopolitan luxuries of a real bed and shops. I'm fascinated at the very audacity by which such a city exists, thousands of kilometres from anywhere and with no roads to get there.||”|
—Jade Richardson, in an article titled "In an urban jungle"
|“||Nothing more appropriate to think of a fantastic city as a city of Atonement[disambiguation needed]. Iquitos is an island, surrounded by an immense and immeasurable river, an island that goes wherever you go one to be crossed with fresh water and warm, with boats and small kids, with men and boys in the sun on the beach, with sirens and buzzards and myths. A city that faced conflicts and wars against three countries, which suffered considerable infighting and even for some months it has its own currency. Island, yes; city, yes.||”|
—Edwin Chavez, writing about the idiosyncratic essence of the city.
Contemporary cultural movements began in the city, such as the Amazonian pop art and Amazonian graffiti —with Pukuna 8990 being the most revolutionary graffiti movement—, Iquiteño music subgenres of electronica, hip hop, rap, heavy metal, French jazz, punk, psytrance/full-on, next to tradicional Amazonian music. The Children's and Youthful Symphonic Orchestra of Iquitos is the main symphonic group in the city.
Iquitos has been benchmarked over the years in literature and film. The Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa wrote his work Captain Pantoja and the Special Service inspired by the city. Francisco Lombardi's 2000 film, based on the novel by Vargas Llosa was filmed in this city. In Rómulo Gallegos-winning The Green House (1965) and The Dream of the Celt (2010), other novels of Mario Vargas Llosa, also part of the plot occurs in Iquitos.
Entertainment and arts 
Iquitos has an intense tourist movement in the entertainment, which is based on specific points located throughout the city. With a growing organization of entertainment today, the city has always had groups concerned to project the Iquitos arts such as dance, music, film, painting, literature and theater.
In the visual arts, the city is the birthplace of Amazonian pop art (also known wild naive) which is a unique, self-taught, pop-art style of the city, and is notable for its "sparkling" chromaticism, and makes a reference to hallucinogenic ayahuasca experiences. Originally, it is an mural art that blends prominently the colorful amazonian culture, European motifs and commercial characters, which may be influenced by American pop art, especially MTV.
In several works of painters iquiteños (such as Christian Bendayan, Roldán Pinedo, Elena Valera, Rember Yahuarcani, Brus Rubio and Victor Churay), Amazonian pop art legacy has been a visual reference to create avant-garde works of contemporary life in the city and Amazonian culture.
The Dirección Regional de Cultura (formerly known as Instituto Nacional de Cultura del Perú), with headquarters in the city, mainly funded events and arts festivals in the city, although there are also small indie or underground groups that conduct their own cultural events. The city has many small festivals; the highlights are Estamos en la Calle, Iquitos Outfest, and other small annual events.
The city is known for having a remarkable celebration, called simply Carnaval. During this festival, mainly pagan, celebrants are dedicated to wetting people with cabaciñas or other instrument. Many choose to be more extravagant, wetting with various substances such as paint or other object as cause for celebration. The celebration is unique each year in February. The carnival is heavily influenced by myths and rich Amazonian culture. It also celebrates the Day of San Juan, referring to John the Baptist as patron saint in the Peruvian Amazon, whose feast is celebrated on June 24. The main element is the juane and other own dances as shunto jump.
Iquitos has a major cinematic history, which originated from the arrival of foreign families during the rubber boom in the early 20th century. A group of people brought technology, including projectors of the Lumiere brothers. The most important pioneer of cinema in Iquitos and the Loreto Region is Antonio Wong Rengifo; alongside this, other filmmakers such as Werner Herzog, Armando Robles Godoy, Nora Izcue, Federico García, and Dorian Fernández-Moris prolonged the cinematic presence in the city. Iquitos was and is used as a cultural scene, reference and shelter for many filmmakers.
Major films filmed in Iquitos and its surroundings are: Frente del Putumayo (1932) and Bajo el sol de Loreto (1936) by Antonio Wong Rengifo; No Stars in the Jungle (1966) and The Green Wall (1969) by Armando Robles Godoy; Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972) and Fitzcarraldo (1982) by Werner Herzog; Informe sobre los shipibos (1974), Los hombres del Ucayali and Captain Pantoja and the Special Services (2000) by Francisco Lombardi, and General Cemetery (2012) by Dorián Fernández-Moris.
Despite having a long filmography, the film industry promoted the city is not too hard in his only commercial film theater. However, there is cultural and underground groups concerned with projecting films at festivals or private cinematheque as a way of cultural development. There is also small groups of self-taught filmmakers who record their own stories. The film genres with more presence are documentary, nature, drama, art house and, recently, horror and found footage in General Cemetery. At first, with Wong Rengifo, was shot slice-of-life/documentary films
Tourism is one of the most vital industries in Iquitos, which has a growing reputation as a honeypot due to its location on the banks of the Amazon River, one of the seven natural wonders of the world. Through the years, Iquitos receives a considerable amount of foreigners; the tourist index grew by international flights offered by the city's airport. Tourism in the city formed into European-style architecture, cuisine, drinks, art, culture, worldview, Spanish accent and historical references of Loreto. Iquitos has adequate infrastructure to accommodate tourists from all levels. It has a 5-star hotel, many of 3, 2 and 1 star.
The major tourist attractions include Barrio de Belén, Plaza de Armas, Casa de Fierro, Ex Hotel Palace, Iglesia Matriz de Iquitos, Allpahuayo Mishana; Embarcadero Bellavista-Nanay, ethnic communities located around the city, Quistococha Resort and Zoo; Mercado Artesanal of San Juan. iperú is the leading tourist guide service that is offered to tourists at the airport and the city center of the city.
The city is also home to unique tourist companies as Maniti Camp Expeditions, Otorongo Expeditions, Amazon Golf Course, and Project Amazonas (dedicated to research and conservation). Special experiences outside the key tourist areas of the city include the Camiri —a floating hotel—, the Isla de los Monos, the Pilpintuwasi butterfly zoo, Iquitos-Zungarococha Corrientillos-King Kong-Nina Rumi circuit, and adjoining districts such as Mazán, Indiana and Bellavista
In 2010, Iquitos received about 150 thousand tourists. The following year, in 2011, the index fell to 46,000 tourist foreigners, which expects 10% rise rapidly in 2013 with international flights opened in July 2012 and the Amazon River as a natural wonder.
Ayahuasca is known as a major cultural landmark, and mystic tourism has increased in Iquitos in recent years. The drink made from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, is investigated by the Western people with a medicinal purpose and study, and was named the nation's cultural heritage.
Amazon commemorative capital 
Iquitos is home to the 120-kg, bronze commemorative plaque of the Amazon River basin as one of the seven natural wonders of the world, which was granted on August 13, 2012 by Fernand Weber, founder of New7Wonders. The distinction is shared with Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Suriname, Colombia, Venezuela and French Guiana, however, recognition was given to Peru which originally ran for the Amazon through the Regional Government of Loreto based in Iquitos.
The awards show was held in Iquitos. It began with a massive parade along Avenida Quiñonez, and eventually culminated in the main day, August 13, divided into two sessions throughout the day: the first in the confluence of the Itaya and Nanay in the afternoon, and the second on July 28 Square of the city at night. The event received intense international attention. Similar to Machu Picchu as a wonder of the world, Iquitos, as the main entrance to the Amazon, expects great tourist revenue.
The President of Peru Ollanta Humala, next to the First Lady Nadine Heredia and Loreto Regional President Ivan Vasquez received the award. Jean Paul de la Fuente, New7Wonders foundation director, said positively on the image of Iquitos:
|“||Clearly there will be economic and tourism impacts. The examples we have of other places are growths of 10, 20 and 30 percent annually||”|
—Jean Paul de la Fuente
However, despite the great satisfaction, the award caused polarized reactions indicating that the Regional Government of Loreto would be on duty to plan better urban development in Iquitos for the forecasted intense tourism. The negative scrutiny aimed at disorganized and massive Sewer[disambiguation needed] construction was damaging the city streets, causing discomfort and accidents in traffic and littering the aesthetic image of Iquitos. Several iquiteños citizens criticized about it via Twitter.
Spanish accent 
Iquitos is also attractive for its Amazonic Spanish, a dialect of Spanish spoken in the Amazon. The dialect is most noticeable in speech than in writing, such as [f] and [x] are allophones, (e.g., Juana is pronounced /fana/), especially when it is next to one or semivowel. (Los fríos de San Juan; Los fríos de San Fän), the double preposing and possessive genitive (De Antonio sus amigos; From Antonio his friends), and the preemption of articles against the names (Juana, Lä Fuana). There are also other languages spoken as Iquito, Yagua, ese eja or other native languages in Loreto, and foreign languages like English and French because of increasing globalization.
Juane is one of the main dishes of cuisine of the Peruvian jungle. It is widely consumed during the Catholic Feast of San Juan (St. John), held on 24 June each year. The dish was named in honor of San Juan Bautista. The dish could have a pre-Columbian origin. With the arrival of the Spanish, missionaries popularized the Biblical story of Salome, John and Herodias. Some believe the dish's name comes from the reference to the head of San Juan.
Another popular dish is Tacacho, made from fried slices of plaintain mashed with chicharones (fried pork fat). It is usually accompanied with chorizo (fried sausage) making it a savory combination. The dish is typical of Iquitos as well as the Peruvian Amazon. It is widespread in the rest of the country. The term tacacho derives from the Quechua term, taka chu, which means beaten. Tacacho consumption varies depending on the region where it is made. In Madre de Dios and San Martín, many people eat tacachos for breakfast, while in other regions, it is a dish served at lunch or dinner. In the San Martín region, tacacho is included in the Christmas dinner. In the Amazon region of Ecuador, the dish is known as bolon. It has a counterpart in the Caribbean islands, where it is called mofongo.
Iquitos has become important in the shipment of lumber from the Amazon Rainforest to the outside world. Other industries include oil, rum and beer and camu-camu cultivation. Camu-camu fruit contain 45% more vitamin C than oranges.
The city offers modern amenities for the residents and tourists in the area. It attracts people wanting to learn more about the Amazon Basin and indigenous culture, among others.
Iquitos is home to numerous research projects on ecology related to ornithology and herpetology. Cornell University owns a field station dubbed the Cornell University Esbaran Amazon Field Laboratory. Founded in July 2001 under the direction of Dr. Eloy Rodriguez, the facility is dedicated to education, conservation, and the discovery of novel medicinal compounds from applied field chemoecology.
The field lab strives to survey and catalog the biological diversity found along the Yarapa River Basin. It provides researchers with field experience in the broad range of disciplines necessary for this task. Another major goal is to explore value-added derivatives of biodiversity. This includes both tangible returns, in the form of new discoveries in the biomedical and related sciences, as well as less tangible goods, such as the promotion of ecotourism and an ecological ethic. They work to ensure benefits to the local communities, and to participating students and researchers.
Iquitos has four universities: Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana (UNAP), the local state university; Universidad Particular de Iquitos (UPI), Universidad Científica del Perú (UCP), Universidad Peruana del Oriente (UPO) three private institutions. It is also home to the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP), the Institute of Investigation of the Peruvian Amazon.
Colegio Nacional de Iquitos is a football team based in Iquitos. In 2005 the city's football community received the FIFA Fair Play Award as a result of being one of the five host cities for the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship.
Iquitos has a personality very different from the rest of Peru and even different from other South-American Amazonian cities. The streets of Iquitos are dominated by more than 25,000 auto rickshaws or motokars, known in the rest of Peru under the name of mototaxi, and for foreigners as auto rickshaw or tuk-tuk, providing taxi service. The buses are large vehicle made of wood with direct routes.
Iquitos is widely regarded as the largest inland city that is inaccessible by road. The air and river transport are the main means for entry or exit of people and goods to the city, since the cost of living in this city and people of the region is generally higher than the Peruvian standard. It is considered that Iquitos is the second most expensive city in Peru after Cusco.
The city has renewed Crnl. FAP Francisco Secada Vignetta International Airport where domestic and international flights operate. In the domestic terminal there are routes from Lima and other Peruvian provinces. While in the international terminal there are flights to Panama City. There are between 8 to 9 daily flights to Iquitos from Lima, some make intermediate stops in Pucallpa and Tarapoto, and 2 weekly flights to Panama City. Air routes are served by four companies: LAN Perú, Peruvian Airlines, Star Perú and Copa Airlines. The direct flight between Lima and Iquitos takes 1 hour and 45 minutes. Copa Airlines provides international flights to the city with Panama and the Americas from the July 14, 2012. Since June 2011, the Central Government of Peru provided two de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter for operations across the region.
Iquitos can be reached from any foreign port or waterway in the Peruvian Amazon.
Twin towns 
In popular culture 
- The movie Fitzcarraldo (1982) was filmed near Iquitos. The film was inspired by the real life rubber baron Carlos Fitzcarrald.
Notable people from Iquitos 
- Clotilde Arias, State Department authorized translation of the Star Spangled Banner presently exhibited at the Smithsonian Institute National Museum of American History (1901–1959)
- César Calvo de Araujo, writer and painter, born in Yurimaguas near Iquitos (1910–1970).
- Carlos Fitzcarrald, entrepreneur and rubber baron active in Iquitos (1862–1897).
- Ofelia Montesco, actress renowned for work in Mexican cinema (1936–1983).
- Nicole Faveron, Miss Universe 2012 Finalist
See also 
- Iperu, tourist information and assistance
- Tourism in Peru
- Loreto Region
- Peruvian Amazon
- Iquitos Insight
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- "Municipalidad Distrital de San Juan Bautista: Historia". Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Richardson, Jade. "In an urban jungle". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- Agustin, Marangoni. "Pop amazónico de la ciudad de Iquitos". Sobre Perú. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- García, Joaquín. "RASGOS HISTÓRICOS DEL CINE EN IQUITOS Y EN LA REGIÓN AMAZÓNICA DEL PERU DESDE LOS ORIGENES HASTA 1990". CETA. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Herrera Soria, Raul. "IQUITOS UNA DE LAS PRIMERAS CIUDADES QUE HIZO CINE EN EL PERÚ". Amazónico del Perú. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Bardales, Francisco. "Cronológica historia del cine en Iquitos". Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- García Sánchez, Joaquín (2006). Les Langues Néo-Latines. Association des Enseignants de sLangues Vivantes Romanes: Société des Langues Néo-Latines. pp. 32–45.
- ""Cementerio general": filman película en Iquitos, con Marisol Aguirre, Nikko Ponce y Leslie Shaw". Cinencuentro. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- "l otro lado de la selva". Somos (1201): 41–44. 12 December 2009.
- Chauvin, Lucien (15 August 2010). "Amazon Golf: Where Water Hazard Means Piranhas". Time. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Iquitos en la red (cifras)". La Región. 4 de noviembre de 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Iquitos recibirá 10% más de turistas gracias a conexión aérea con Panamá". El Comercio. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- García Calderón, Gabriela (16 August 2012). "Peru: Amazon Officially Inaugurated as Nature's Wonder". Global Voices. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- District of Belén: http://allpahuayomishana.net/english/actividad-social/belen/
- Peruvian Amazon Travel Advisor Iquitos tourist information (English)
-  Information about Matses indigenous tribe (English)
- El Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP) (Spanish)
- Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana (Spanish)
- NY Times article: Jews of Iquitos
- Photos and Video of Iquitos and Peru from Canadian Photographer Carey Nash
- Municipalidad Provincial de Maynas - Maynas provincial municipality official website (Spanish)
- ikitos.com - La Comunidad Virtual de Iquitos, Perú Service and information website for and about Iquitos, with extensive tourism pages (Spanish and English)
-  Responsible tourism operator, Iquitos, Peru
- ACOBIA-DWAzoo Amazon Manatee Rescue Center, Iquitos, Peru
-  Maniti Camp Expeditions - Licensed Tour Operator, Iquitos, Peru
- - The Iquitos Times English language monthly newspaper and website for Ex-pats living in Iquitos, Peru]