Citrus greening disease

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Citrus greening disease
Huanglongbing.jpg
Citrus greening disease on mandarin oranges
Common names: HLB, citrus vein phloem degeneration (CVPD), citrus greening disease, yellow shoot disease, leaf mottle yellows in the Philippines, citrus dieback in India
Causal agents: Candidatus Liberibacter spp. (Liberobacter asiaticum, Liberobacter africanum)[1]
Hosts: citrus trees
Vectors: Diaphorina citri, Trioza erytreae
EPPO code: 1LIBEG
Distribution: Asia, Africa

Citrus greening disease (Chinese: 黃龍病; pinyin: huánglóngbìng; literally: "Yellow Dragon Disease"),[2] abbreviated as HLB, is a disease of citrus caused by a vector-transmitted pathogen. The causative agents are motile bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. Transmission is by insects: the Asian citrus psyllid (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae), Diaphorina citri or, in Africa, by Trioza erytreae, the African citrus psyllid, also known as the 2-spotted citrus psyllid. The disease was first described in 1929 and first reported in China in 1943. The African variation was first reported in 1947 in South Africa, where it is still widespread.

The causative agents are fastidious phloem-restricted, gram-negative bacteria in the gracilicutes clade. The Asian form, L. asiaticus is heat tolerant. This means the greening symptoms can develop at temperatures of up to 35°C. The African form, L. africanum, is heat sensitive and in its case, symptoms only develop when the temperature is in the range 20-25°C.[3] The bacteria are transmitted by the psyllid vectors and also by graft transmission.[4] Although Trioza erytreae is the natural vector of African citrus greening and Diaphorina citri is the natural vector of Asian citrus greening, either psyllid can in fact transmit either of the greening agents under experimental conditions.[5]

Distribution of citrus greening disease is primarily in tropical and subtropical Asia. It has been reported in all citrus-growing regions in Asia except Japan. The disease has affected crops in China, Taiwan, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand, the Ryukyu Islands, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, and Afghanistan. Areas outside Asia have also reported the disease: Réunion, Mauritius, Brazil, and Florida in the U.S. since 1998, and in several municipalities in Mexico since 2009[6][7][8][9][10] On March 30, 2012, citrus greening disease was confirmed in a single citrus tree in Hacienda Heights, Los Angeles County, California.[11] Prospects are dim for the ubiquitous backyard citrus orchards of California as residential growers are unlikely to consistently use the pesticides which provide effective control in commercial orchards.[12]

This disease is distinguished by the common symptoms of yellowing of the veins and adjacent tissues; followed by yellowing or mottling of the entire leaf; followed by premature defoliation, dieback of twigs, decay of feeder rootlets and lateral roots, and decline in vigor; and followed by, ultimately, the death of the entire plant. Affected trees have stunted growth, bear multiple off-season flowers (most of which fall off), and produce small, irregularly-shaped fruit with a thick, pale peel that remains green at the bottom. Fruit from these trees tastes bitter.[13]

There is no cure for citrus greening disease and efforts to control the disease have been slow because infected citrus plants are difficult to maintain, regenerate, and study. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service have used lemon trees infected with citrus greening disease to infect periwinkle plants in an effort to study the disease. Periwinkle plants are easily infected with the disease and respond well when experimentally treated with antibiotics. Researchers are testing the effect of penicillin G sodium and biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide as potential treatments for infected citrus plants based on the positive results that were observed when applied to infected periwinkle.[14]

In June 2014, the United States Department of Agriculture allocated an additional US$31.5 million to expand research combating citrus greening disease.[15]

Genetic modification[edit]

No naturally immune orange was found during a global search. Creating a genetically modified orange may be possible but there are serious questions of its acceptability to consumers.[16] A researcher at Texas AgriLife Research reported in 2012 that incorporating two genes from spinach into citrus trees improved resistance to citrus greening disease in greenhouse trials.[17] Field tests by Southern Gardens Citrus of oranges with the spinach genes in Florida are ongoing.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ PCR detection of the two«Candidatus»liberobacter species associated with greening disease of citrus. Sandrine Jagoueix, Joseph Marie Bové and Monique Garnier, Molecular and Cellular Probes, February 1996, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 43–50, doi:10.1006/mcpr.1996.0006
  2. ^ "The Disease: Huanglongbing (HLB)". Citrus Research Board. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  3. ^ Garnier, M., S. Jagoueix-Eveillard, P. R. Cronje, G. F. LeRoux, and J. M. Bové. 2000. Genomic characterization of a Liberibacter present in an ornamental rutaceous tree, Calodendrum capense, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Proposal of 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus subsp. capensis.' International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50: 2119-2125.
  4. ^ Lin, K. H. 1956. Observation on yellow shoot on citrus. Etiological studies of yellow shoot on Citrus. Acta Phytopathological Sinica 2:1-42.
  5. ^ Lallemand, J., A. Fos, and J. M. Bové. 1986. Transmission de la bacterie associé à la forme africaine de la maladie du “greening” par le psylle asiatique Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Fruits 41: 341-343.
  6. ^ "Detection of Huanglongbing (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) in the municipality of Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico". North American Plant Protection Organization's Phytosanitary Alert System. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  7. ^ "Update on the detection of Huanglongbing (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) in backyard trees in the States of Yucatan and Quintana Roo, Mexico". North American Plant Protection Organization's Phytosanitary Alert System. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  8. ^ "Update on the detection of Huanglongbing (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) in backyard trees in Mexico". North American Plant Protection Organization's Phytosanitary Alert System. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  9. ^ "Detection of Huanglongbing (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) in the Municipality of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico". North American Plant Protection Organization's Phytosanitary Alert System. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  10. ^ "Detection of Huanglongbing (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) in the Municipalities of Mazatlan and Escuinapa, Sinaloa, Mexico". North American Plant Protection Organization's Phytosanitary Alert System. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  11. ^ "CITRUS DISEASE HUANGLONGBING DETECTED IN HACIENDA HEIGHTS AREA OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY" (Press release). California Department of Food and Agriculture. March 30, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  12. ^ Ian Lovett (April 17, 2012). "Threat to California Citrus May Finish Backyard Trees". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  13. ^ Hong-Ji Su (2001-02-01). "Citrus Greening Disease". Food & Fertilizer Technology Center. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  14. ^ Dennis O'Brien (2010-04-26). "Periwinkle Plants Provide Ammunition in the War on Citrus Greening". USDA Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  15. ^ "$31.5mn allocated by USDA for research to fight citrus fruit disease". Canadian Business.com. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  16. ^ a b Amy Harmon (July 27, 2013). "A Race to Save the Orange by Altering Its DNA". The New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2013. 
  17. ^ R-Santaana (26 March 2012) Spinach genes may stop deadly citrus disease Agrilife Today, Texas A&M, Retrieved 1 October 2012

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