Yuzu

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This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Yuzu (disambiguation).
Yuzu
Yuzufruit.jpg
Yuzu branch with ripe fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. ichangensis ×
C. reticulata
var. austera
Binomial name
Citrus ichangensis ×
Citrus reticulata
var. austera

The yuzu (Citrus ichangensis × C. reticulata, formerly C. junos Siebold ex. Tanaka; Japanese ユズ, , 柚子 (yuzu); 유자 (yuja) in Korean; from Chinese 柚子, yòuzi) is a citrus fruit and plant originating in East Asia. It is believed to be a hybrid of sour mandarin and Ichang papeda. The fruit looks somewhat like a very small grapefruit with an uneven skin, and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. Yuzu fruits, which are very aromatic, typically range between 5.5 and 7.5 cm in diameter, but can be as large as a grapefruit (up to 10 cm or larger).

Description[edit]

A large, ripe yuzu fruit
Yuzu

Yuzu forms an upright shrub or small tree, which commonly has many large thorns. Leaves are notable for a large petiole, resembling those of the related kaffir lime and ichang papeda, and are heavily scented.

Yuzu closely resemble to sudachi (a Japanese citrus from Tokushima Prefecture) in many regards; they share a similar mandarin-ichang papeda ancestry, though sudachi eventually ripen to an orange colour, and there are subtle differences between the flavours of the fruit.

The Yuzu originated in China, and also grows wild in central China and Tibet. Confusingly, in modern Chinese, the name 柚子 (yòuzi) refers to the pomelo, while the yuzu is known as 香橙 (xiāngchéng). It was introduced to Japan and Korea during the Tang Dynasty and it is in these nations that it is cultivated most widely.[1]

It is unusual among citrus plants in being relatively frost-hardy, due to its cold-hardy C. ichangensis ancestry, and can be grown in regions with winters at least as low as -9 °C (15 °F) where more sensitive citrus would not thrive.

In Japan, an ornamental version of yuzu called hana yuzu (花ゆず, 花柚子?) "flower yuzu" is also grown for its flowers rather than its fruit.

A sweet variety of yuzu known as the yuku, only present in Japan, became severely endangered during the 1970s and 1980s; a major attempt has been made to revive this varietal in southern Japan.[2]

Another variety of yuzu in Japan, with knobby skin is called shishi yuzu (獅子柚子?, literally "lion yuzu").[3]

Use in Japanese cuisine[edit]

A bottle of yuzu vinegar

The yuzu's flavour is tart, closely resembling that of the grapefruit, with overtones of mandarin orange. It is rarely eaten as a fruit, though in the Japanese cuisine its aromatic zest (outer rind) is used to garnish some dishes, and its juice is commonly used as a seasoning, somewhat as lemon is used in other cuisines.

It is an integral ingredient (along with sudachi, daidai, and other similar fruits) in the citrus-based sauce ponzu, and yuzu vinegar is also produced.

Yuzu is often combined with honey to make yuzu hachimitsu (柚子蜂蜜)—a kind of syrup that is used to make yuzu tea (柚子茶) or as an ingredient in alcoholic drinks such as the yuzu sour (柚子サワー).[4]

It is also used to make liquor (such as yuzukomachi, 柚子小町) and wine.[5][6]

Yuzu can also be used to make various sweets including marmalade and cake.

Yuzu kosho (also yuzukosho, literally "yuzu and pepper"), is a spicy Japanese sauce made from green or yellow yuzu zest, green or red chili peppers, and salt.

Slivered yuzu rind is also used to garnish a savoury, salty egg-pudding dish called chawanmushi, as well as miso soup.[7]

It is often used along with sudachi and kabosu.

Use in Korean cuisine[edit]

A jar of yujacha

In Korean cuisine, yuzu (called yuja in Korean) is used, thinly sliced and combined with sugar and honey, to make a thick, marmalade-like syrup containing pieces of the chopped rind and fruit. A tablespoon of this syrup (which can either be made at home or purchased) stirred into a cup of hot water makes a beverage called yujacha, lit. "yuzu tea", which is used as a remedy for the common cold and similar winter illnesses.

It is also used to make yuja hwachae, a variety of traditional fruit punch. Yuzu is also a common ingredient in salad dressings, combined with doenjang soy bean paste, rice vinegar, sesame oil, spring onion and garlic.[8]

Use in Western cuisines[edit]

Beginning in the early 21st century, yuzu has been increasingly used by chefs in the United States and other Western nations, achieving notice in a 2003 article in The New York Times.[9] The Colorado-based New Belgium Brewing Company produces a limited-release imperial Berliner weisse that features yuzu as well as London, UK based brewery Pressure Drop producing Nanban Kanpai - a Wheat IPA that features yuzu. The Finnish soft drink manufacturer Hartwall has a limited edition soda which contains yuzu. Yuzu has also been used in beer, in the Dutch beer called iKi[10] and in Finnish cider called Golden Cap Black,[11] brewed in Finland. BridgePort Brewing also used the fruit in its new summer beer, Summer Squeeze.[12] The Swedish glögg manufacturer Blossa had a limited edition which contains yuzu and ginger.[13] In Australia, a popular flavour of Mentos "3D" chewing gum is yuzu-grapefruit-orange. A Czech beermaker Zubr has a yuzu-flavoured radler.[14]

Other uses[edit]

Yuzu is also known for its characteristically strong aroma, and the oil from its skin is marketed as a fragrance. In Japan, bathing with yuzu on Tōji, the winter solstice, is a custom that dates to at least the early 18th century.[15][16] Whole yuzu fruits are floated in the hot water of the bath, sometimes enclosed in a cloth bag, releasing their aroma.[17] The fruit may also be cut in half, allowing the citrus juice to mingle with the bathwater. The yuzu bath, known commonly as yuzuyu, but also as yuzuburo, is said to guard against colds, treat the roughness of skin,[15] warm the body, and relax the mind.

The body of the taepyeongso, a Korean traditional oboe, close to the Chinese Suona or the Turkish Zurna, is often made from jujube, mulberry or yuzu wood.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Yuzu ichandrin (papeda hybrid). ''Citrus junos'' Sieb. ex Tanaka. ''Citrus ichangensis'' X C. ''reticulata'' var. ''austere''". Citrusvariety.ucr.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  2. ^ Kurokawa, Yoko (January 7, 2009). "The Yuko, a Native Japanese Citrus". The Tokyo Foundation. 
  3. ^ photo
  4. ^ 5分. "柚子サワー | ホームクッキング【キッコーマン】". Kikkoman.co.jp. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ [2][dead link]
  7. ^ Janet Fletcher (May 31, 2006). "Yuzu & Huckleberry, Flavors of the Moment: How these and other obscure ingredients end up on so many Bay Area menus". SFGate / San Francisco Chronicle. 
  8. ^ http://www.souschef.co.uk/bureau-of-taste/korean-yuzu-salad-dressing/
  9. ^ Karp, David (December 3, 2003). "The Secrets Behind Many Chefs' Not-So-Secret Ingredient". The New York Times. p. 12. 
  10. ^ "Ontstaan iKi bier". Ikibeer.com. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  11. ^ [3][dead link]
  12. ^ "BridgePort Summer Squeeze debuts May 16th | Beerpulse.com". Beernews.org. 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  13. ^ "Nu är årets glögg avslöjad | Metro.se". Metro.se. 2012-09-07. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  14. ^ "Nový Zubr má příchuť yuzu a limety | Chutpiva.cz". hutpiva.cz. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  15. ^ a b "Yuzuyu". Nihon Kokugo Daijiten (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  16. ^ "Yuzu". Nihon Daihyakka Zensho (Nipponika) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  17. ^ "Yuzuyu". Dijitaru daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 

External links[edit]

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