Italian general election, 1992

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Italian general election, 1992
Italy
1987 ←
April 5, 1992
→ 1994

All 630 seats in the Italian Chamber of Deputies
and 315 (of the 325) seats in the Italian Senate
Turnout 87.3%
  First party Second party Third party
  Forlani.jpg Achille Occhetto.jpg Bettino Craxi-1.jpg
Leader Arnaldo Forlani Achille Occhetto Bettino Craxi
Party Christian Democracy Democratic Party of the Left Socialist Party
Leader since 1989 1988 1976
Leader's seat XVIII - Marche XX - Latium III - Milan
Last election 234 & 125 seats, 34.3% 149 & 75,[1] inside PCI 94 & 43 seats, 14.3%
Seats won 206 (H)
107 (S)
107 (H)
66 (S)
92 (H)
49 (S)
Seat change Decrease46 Decrease51 Increase4
Popular vote 11,637,569 6,317,962 5,343,808
Percentage 29.7% 16.1% 13.6%
Swing Decrease4.6% Decrease6.6%[2] Decrease0.7%

Italian Election 1992 Province.png

Legislative election results map. Light Blue denotes provinces with a Christian Democratic plurality, Red denotes those with a Democratic Socialist plurality, Green denotes those with a Lega Nord plurality, Gray and Brown denotes those with a Regionalist plurality.

Prime Minister before election

Giulio Andreotti
Christian Democracy

New Prime Minister

Giuliano Amato
Socialist Party

General elections were held in Italy on April 5, 1992 for the 11th Parliament of the Republic.[3] They were the first without the traditionally second most important political force in Italian politics, the Italian Communist Party (PCI), which had been disbanded in 1991. It was replaced by a more social-democratic oriented force, the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), and by a minority entity formed by members who did not want to renounce the communist tradition, the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC). However, put together they gained around 4% less than what the already declining PCI had obtained in the 1987 Italian general election, despite PRC had absorbed the disbanded Proletarian Democracy (DP).

The other major feature was the sudden rise of the federalist North League, which increased its vote from 0.5% of the preceding elections to more than 8%, increasing from a single member both in the Chamber and the Senate to 55 and 25, respectively. The onda lunga ("long wave") of Bettino Craxi's now centrist-oriented Italian Socialist Party, which in the past elections had been forecast next to overcome PCI, seemed to stop. Christian Democracy and the other traditional government parties, with the exception of the Republicans and the Liberals, also experienced a slight decrease in their vote.

Electoral system[edit]

The pure party-list proportional representation had traditionally become the electoral system for the Chamber of Deputies. Italian provinces were united in 32 constituencies, each electing a group of candidates. At constituency level, seats were divided between open lists using the largest remainder method with Imperiali quota. The remaining votes and seats were transferred at national level, where they were divided using the Hare quota, and automatically distributed to best losers into the local lists.

For the Senate, 237 single-seat constituencies were established, even if the assembly had risen to 315 members. The candidates needed a landslide victory of two thirds of votes to be elected, a goal which could be reached only by the German minorities in South Tirol. All remained votes and seats were grouped in party lists and regional constituencies, where a D'Hondt method was used: inside the lists, candidates with the best percentages were elected.

Results[edit]

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Chamber of Deputies after the election.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 11,640,265 29.66 206 –28
Democratic Party of the Left 6,321,084 16.11 107 –70
Italian Socialist Party 5,343,930 13.62 92 –2
Lega Nord 3,396,012 8.65 55 +54
Communist Refoundation Party 2,204,641 5.62 35 New
Italian Social Movement 2,107,037 5.37 34 –1
Italian Republican Party 1,722,465 4.39 27 +6
Italian Liberal Party 1,121,264 2.86 17 +6
Federation of the Greens 1,093,995 2.79 16 +3
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,064,647 2.71 16 –1
The Network 730,171 1.86 12 New
Pannella List 485,694 1.24 7 –6
Yes Referendum 485,694 0.81 0 New
Pensioners' Party 485,694 0.81 0 New
League of Leagues 220,559 0.56 0 New
South Tyrolean People's Party 198,447 0.51 3
Hunting, Fishing, Environment 192,799 0.49 0
Federalism–Pensioners Living Men (UVPSd'AzSSKUfS–Others) 154,621 0.39 1 New
Lega Autonomia Veneta 152,301 0.39 1 New
Housewives–Pensioners League 133,717 0.34 0 New
Autonomist Lists 94,583 0.24 0
Southern Action League 53,759 0.14 0 New
Autonomous Veneto 49,035 0.12 0 New
Federalist Greens 42,647 0.11 0 New
Aosta Valley 41,404 0.11 1
Others 116,007 0.30 0
Invalid/blank votes 2,232,489
Total 41,479,764 100 630 0
Registered voters/turnout 47,486,964 87.35
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote
DC
  
29.66%
PDS
  
16.11%
PSI
  
13.62%
LN
  
8.65%
PRC
  
5.62%
MSI
  
5.37%
PRI
  
4.39%
PLI
  
2.86%
Greens
  
2.79%
PSDI
  
2.71%
RETE
  
1.86%
LP
  
1.24%
Others
  
5.14%

Senate of the Republic[edit]

Senate after the election.
Regional pluralities in Senate
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Christian Democracy 9,088,494 27.27 107 –18
Democratic Party of the Left 5,682,888 17.05 64 –37
Italian Socialist Party 4,523,873 13.57 49 +13
Lega Nord 2,732,461 8.20 25 +24
Communist Refoundation Party 2,171,950 6.52 20 New
Italian Social Movement 2,171,215 6.51 16
Italian Republican Party 1,565,142 4.70 10 +2
Federation of the Greens 1,027,303 3.08 4 +3
Italian Liberal Party 939,159 2.82 4 +1
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 853,895 2.56 3 –2
Yes Referendum 332,318 1.00 0 New
The Network 239,868 0.72 3 New
Pensioners' Party 215,889 0.65 0 New
Federalism–Pensioners Living Men (UVPSd'AzSSKUfS–Others) 174,713 0.52 1 New
South Tyrolean People's Party 168,113 0.50 3 +1
Pannella List 166,708 0.50 0 –3
For Calabria 143,976 0.43 2 New
Lega Autonomia Veneta 142,446 0.43 1 New
Housewives-Pensioners League 134,327 0.40 0 New
Lega Alpina Lumbarda 119,153 0.36 1 New
Hunting, Fishing, Environment 116,395 0.35 0
Autonomist Lists 95,687 0.29 0
Autonomous Veneto 50,938 0.15 0 New
Southern Action League 49,769 0.15 0 New
For Molise 48,352 0.15 1 New
Federalist Greens 47,051 0.14 0 New
Aosta Valley 34,150 0.10 1
Others 151,170 0.45 0
Invalid/blank votes 2,409,646
Total 35,651,621 100 315 0
Registered voters/turnout 41,022,758 86.9
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References[edit]

  1. ^ Members of PDS parliamentary groups after the disbandment of the Communist Party.
  2. ^ Due to impossibility of direct confrontation cause the disbandment of the Communist Party, the percentage refers to the empiric sum of PDS and PRC in 1992, and the result of PCI and DP in 1987.
  3. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1048 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7

External links[edit]