- This article is about the biography of John Ashbery. For his poetic influence, see Poetry in the early 21st century.
Accepting the 2010 Best of Brooklyn Award
July 28, 1927 |
Rochester, New York, USA
|Literary movement||Surrealism, The New York School, Postmodernism|
|Notable works||Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror|
|Notable awards||MacArthur Fellowship, Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, National Book Award, National Book Critics Circle Award, Guggenheim Fellowship|
John Lawrence Ashbery (born July 28, 1927) is an American poet. He has published more than twenty volumes of poetry and won nearly every major American award for poetry, including a Pulitzer Prize in 1976 for his collection Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror. Renowned for its postmodern complexity and opacity, Ashbery's work still proves controversial. Ashbery has stated that he wishes his work to be accessible to as many people as possible, and not to be a private dialogue with himself. At the same time, he once joked that some critics still view him as "a harebrained, homegrown surrealist whose poetry defies even the rules and logic of Surrealism."
Langdon Hammer, chairman of the English Department at Yale University, wrote in 2008, "No figure looms so large in American poetry over the past 50 years as John Ashbery," . "No American poet has had a larger, more diverse vocabulary, not Whitman, not Pound." Stephen Burt, a poet and Harvard professor of English, has compared Ashbery to T. S. Eliot, calling Ashbery "the last figure whom half the English-language poets alive thought a great model, and the other half thought incomprehensible".
Ashbery was born in Rochester, New York, the son of Helen (née Lawrence), a biology teacher, and Chester Frederick Ashbery, a farmer. He was raised on a farm near Lake Ontario; his brother died when they were children. Ashbery was educated at Deerfield Academy, an all-boys school, where he read such poets as W. H. Auden and Dylan Thomas and began writing poetry. Two of his poems were published in Poetry magazine under the name of a classmate who had submitted them without Ashbery's knowledge or permission. Ashbery also published a handful of poems, including a sonnet about his frustrated love for a fellow student, and a piece of short fiction in the school newspaper, the Deerfield Scroll. His first ambition was to be a painter. From the age of 11 until he was 15 Ashbery took weekly classes at the art museum in Rochester.
Ashbery graduated in 1949 with an A.B., cum laude, from Harvard College, where he was a member of the Harvard Advocate, the university's literary magazine, and the Signet Society. He wrote his senior thesis on the poetry of W. H. Auden. At Harvard he befriended fellow writers Kenneth Koch, Barbara Epstein, V. R. Lang, Frank O'Hara and Edward Gorey, and was a classmate of Robert Creeley, Robert Bly and Peter Davison. Ashbery went on to study briefly at New York University, and received an M.A. from Columbia in 1951.
After working as a copywriter in New York from 1951 to 1955, from the mid-1950s, when he received a Fulbright Fellowship, through 1965, Ashbery lived in France. He was an editor of the 12 issues of Art and Literature (1964–67) and the New Poetry issue of Harry Mathews' Locus Solus (# 3/4; 1962). To make ends meet he translated French murder mysteries, served as the art editor for the European edition of the New York Herald Tribune and was an art critic for Art International (1960–65) and a Paris correspondent for Art News (1963–66), when Thomas Hess took over as editor. During this period he lived with the French poet Pierre Martory, whose books Every Question but One (1990), The Landscape is behind the Door (1994) and The Landscapist he has translated (2008), as he has Arthur Rimbaud (Illuminations), Max Jacob (The Dice Cup), Pierre Reverdy (Haunted House), and many titles by Raymond Roussel. After returning to the United States, he continued his career as an art critic for New York and Newsweek magazines while also serving on the editorial board of ARTNews until 1972. Several years later, he began a stint as an editor at Partisan Review, serving from 1976 to 1980.
During the fall of 1963, Ashbery became acquainted with Andy Warhol at a scheduled poetry reading at the Literary Theatre in New York. He had previously written favorable reviews of Warhol's art. That same year he reviewed Warhol's Flowers exhibition at Galerie Illeana Sonnabend in Paris, describing Warhol's visit to Paris as "the biggest transatlantic fuss since Oscar Wilde brought culture to Buffalo in the nineties". Ashbery returned to New York near the end of 1965 and was welcomed with a large party at the Factory. He became close friends with poet Gerard Malanga, Warhol's assistant, on whom he had an important influence as a poet. In 1967 his poem Europe was used as the central text in Eric Salzman's Foxes and Hedgehogs as part of the New Image of Sound series at Hunter College, conducted by Dennis Russell Davies. When the poet sent Salzman Three Madrigals in 1968, the composer featured them in the seminal Nude Paper Sermon, released by Nonesuch Records in 1989.
In the early 1970s, Ashbery began teaching at Brooklyn College, where his students included poet John Yau. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1983. In the 1980s, he moved to Bard College, where he was the Charles P. Stevenson, Jr., Professor of Languages and Literature, until 2008, when he retired; since that time, he has continued to win awards, present readings, and work with graduate and undergraduates at many other institutions. He was the poet laureate of New York State from 2001 to 2003, and also served for many years as a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets. He serves on the contributing editorial board of the literary journal Conjunctions. He was a Millet Writing Fellow at Wesleyan University, in 2010, and participated in Wesleyan's Distinguished Writers Series. Ashbery lives in New York City and Hudson, New York, with his partner, David Kermani.
Ashbery's long list of awards began with the Yale Younger Poets Prize in 1956. The selection, by W. H. Auden, of Ashbery's first collection, Some Trees, later caused some controversy. His early work shows the influence of W. H. Auden, Wallace Stevens, Boris Pasternak, and many of the French surrealists (his translations from French literature are numerous). In the late 1950s, John Bernard Myers, co-owner of the Tibor de Nagy Gallery, categorized the common traits of Ashbery's avant-garde poetry, as well as that of Kenneth Koch, Frank O'Hara, James Schuyler, Barbara Guest, Kenward Elmslie and others, as constituting a "New York School". Ashbery then wrote two collections while in France, the highly controversial The Tennis Court Oath (1962), and Rivers and Mountains (1966), before returning to New York to write The Double Dream of Spring, which was published in 1970.
Increasing critical recognition in the 1970s transformed Ashbery from an obscure avant-garde experimentalist into one of America's most important poets (though still one of its most controversial). After the publication of Three Poems (1973) came Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror. For that Ashbery won all three major American poetry awards: the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award). The collection's title poem is considered to be one of the masterpieces of late-20th-century American poetic literature.
His subsequent collection, the more difficult Houseboat Days (1977), reinforced Ashbery's reputation, as did 1979's As We Know, which contains the long, double-columned poem "Litany". By the 1980s and 1990s, Ashbery had become a central figure in American and more broadly English-language poetry, as his number of imitators evidenced.
Ashbery's works are characterized by a free-flowing, often disjunctive syntax; extensive linguistic play, often infused with considerable humor; and a prosaic, sometimes disarmingly flat or parodic tone. The play of the human mind is the subject of a great many of his poems. Ashbery once said that his goal was "to produce a poem that the critic cannot even talk about". Formally, the earliest poems show the influence of conventional poetic practice, yet by The Tennis Court Oath a much more revolutionary engagement with form appears. Ashbery returned to something approaching a reconciliation between tradition and innovation with many of the poems in The Double Dream of Spring, though his Three Poems are written in long blocks of prose. Although he has never again approached the radical experimentation of The Tennis Court Oath poems or "The Skaters" and "Into the Dusk-Charged Air" from his collection Rivers and Mountains, syntactic and semantic experimentation, linguistic expressiveness, deft, often abrupt shifts of register, and insistent wit remain consistent elements of his work.
Ashbery's art criticism has been collected in the 1989 volume Reported Sightings, Art Chronicles 1957-1987, edited by the poet David Bergman. He has written one novel, A Nest of Ninnies, with fellow poet James Schuyler, and in his 20s and 30s penned several plays, three of which have been collected in Three Plays (1978). Ashbery's Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard University were published as Other Traditions in 2000. A larger collection of his prose writings, Selected Prose and his poetry volume Where shall I wander? appeared in 2005. In 2008, his Collected Poems 1956–1987 was published as part of the Library of America series.
Awards and honors
- 2011: Inducted into the New York Writers Hall of Fame
- 2011: National Book Foundation Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters
- 2008: America Award for a lifetime contribution to international writing
- 2008: Robert Creeley Award 
- 2005: finalist for National Book Award for Where Shall I Wander (2005)
- 2002: Bestowed the rank of Officier de la Légion d'honneur by the Republic of France.
- 1984: Bollingen Prize in Poetry for A Wave (1984)
- 1984: Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize for A Wave (1984)
- 1976: Pulitzer Prize in Poetry for Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975).
- 1976: National Book Award for Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975).
- 1976: National Book Critics Circle Award for Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975).
- 1972: Ingram Merrill Foundation Fellowship
- 1962: Ingram Merrill Foundation Fellowship
- 1956: Yale Younger Poets Prize, for Some Trees (1956) awarded by W.H. Auden
- Ashbery, John (1953). Turandot and other poems.
- Some Trees (1956), winner of the Yale Younger Poets Prize
- The Tennis Court Oath (1962)
- Rivers and Mountains (1966)
- The Double Dream of Spring (1970)
- Three Poems (1972)
- The Vermont Notebook (1975), illustrated prose poems
- Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror (1975), awarded the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award
- Houseboat Days (1977)
- As We Know (1979)
- Shadow Train (1981)
- A Wave (1984), awarded the Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize and the Bollingen Prize
- April Galleons (1987)
- Flow Chart (1991), book-length poem
- Hotel Lautréamont (1992)
- And the Stars Were Shining (1994)
- Can You Hear, Bird? (1995)
- Wakefulness (1998)
- Girls on the Run (1999), a book-length poem inspired by the work of Henry Darger
- Your Name Here (2000)
- As Umbrellas Follow Rain (2001)
- Chinese Whispers (2002)
- Where Shall I Wander (2005) (finalist for the National Book Award) 
- Notes from the Air: Selected Later Poems (2007) (winner of the 2008 International Griffin Poetry Prize)
- A Worldly Country (2007)
- Planisphere (2009)
- Collected Poems 1956-87 (Carcanet Press) (2010), ed. Mark Ford
- Quick Question (2012)
- Breezeway (2015)
|Title||Year||First published||Reprinted/collected in|
|East February||2014||Ashbery, John (March 24, 2014). "East February". The New Yorker 90 (5): 78. Retrieved 2015-02-26.|
Prose and translations
- Mayoux, Jean-Jacques (1960). Melville. Trans. by John Ashbery.
- The Ice Storm (1987), 32-page pamphlet
- Reported Sightings: Art Chronicles, 1957-1987 (1989) (Alfred A. Knopf), ed. David Bergman, Art Criticism and Commentary
- The Mooring of Starting Out: The First Five Books of Poetry (Ecco) collection of the poet's work from 1956 to 1972; a New York Times "notable book of the year" (1998)
- Other Traditions, 6 long essays on 6 other poets (2000)
- 100 Multiple-Choice Questions (2000) (reprint of 1970 experimental pamphlet)
- Selected Prose 1953-2003 (2005)
- Martory, Pierre The Landscapist Ashbery (Tr.) Carcanet Press (2008)
- Rimbaud, Arthur Illuminations Ashbery (Tr.) W. W. Norton & Company (2011)
- Collected French Translations: Poetry, edited by Rosanne Wasserman and Eugene Richie (2014)
- Collected French Translations: Prose, Edited by Rosanne Wasserman and Eugene Richie (2014)
- Ben Hickman, John Ashbery and English Poetry, Edinburgh University Press, 2012
- Stephen Shore, Lynne Tillman, The Velvet Years: Warhol's Factory 1965-1967
- David Perkins, A History of Modern Poetry, Volume II, Modernism and After, Harvard University Press, 1987
- Harold Bloom, Figures of Capable Imagination
- Laura Quinney, The Poetics of Disappointment: Wordsworth to Ashbery
- John Shoptaw, On the Outside Looking Out, Harvard University Press, 1995
- Helen Vendler, Soul Says, Harvard University Press, 1996
- Andrew Epstein, Beautiful Enemies: Friendship and Postwar American Poetry (Oxford University Press, 2006)
- John Emil Vincent, John Ashbery and You: His Later Books http://www.amazon.com/John-Ashbery-You-Later-Books/dp/0820329738/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1400812098&sr=8-1&keywords=john+ashbery+and+you
- Mark Silverberg, The New York School Poets and the Neo-Avant-Garde (Ashgate, 2010)
- "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- Ryzik, Melena (August 27, 2007). "80-Year-Old Poet for the MTV Generation". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
It is John Ashbery, the prolific 80-year-old poet and frequent award winner known for his dense, postmodern style and playful language. One of the most celebrated living poets, Mr. Ashbery has won MacArthur Foundation and Guggenheim fellowships and was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1976 for his collection "Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror."
- NPR interview with Ashbery about his collection Where Shall I Wander - including poem audio. March 19, 2005
- Ashbery, John. "On Elizabeth Bishop." Selected Prose. 2005.
- Hammer, Langdon, "‘But I Digress’", review of Notes from the Air: Selected Later Poems, by John Ashbery, New York Times Book Review, April 20, 2008, accessed same day.
- Burt, Stephen (2008-03-26). "John Ashbery a poet for our times". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-05-06.
- "John Ashbery". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
- Curry, Jennifer; Ramm, David; Rich, Mari, eds. (2007). World Authors, 2000-2005. H.W. Wilson. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8242-1077-9.
- "Video: The Other Twenty-Three Hours". Academy of American Poets. 2008. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
- "John Ashbery". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
- http://www.flowchartfoundation.org/tc/advanced_search.php?reorder=yes&sortfield=publicationdate&sorttype=desc&se_type=EX&pg=20&/ Ashbery Research Center archive]
- "New York". US State Poet Laureates. Library of Congress. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- John Ashbery Visits, Presents His Poetry, Wesleyanargus. By Marjorie Rivera, Contributing Writer. 19 February 19, 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- New York Times – Paper Cuts
- Times Literary Supplement – Auden and prizes – Kessler
- Times Literary Supplement – Auden and prizes – Ashbery
- "National Book Awards – 1976". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
(With acceptance speech by Ashbery and essay by Evie Shockley from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.)
- How to read John Ashbery
- James Longenbach, Ashbery and the Individual Talent
- "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
(With acceptance speech by Ashbery.)
- "Robert Creeley Award". http://robertcreeleyfoundation.org. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Ashbery.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Ashbery|
- Poems by John Ashbery at PoetryFoundation.org
- The Ashbery Resource Center
- John Ashbery at EPC
- John Ashbery--the Academy of American Poets
- Works by or about John Ashbery in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Peter A. Stitt (Winter 1983). "John Ashbery, The Art of Poetry No. 33". Paris Review.
- Audio recordings from Key West Literary Seminar, 2003: Ashbery reading from Chinese Whispers; Ashbery's 'mini-lecture' on Elizabeth Bishop
- Audio recordings of John Ashbery, from the Woodberry Poetry Room, Harvard University
- Carcanet Press - John Ashbery's UK publisher
- Griffin Poetry Prize biography
- Griffin Poetry Prize reading, including video clip
- Modern American Poetry, critical essays on Ashbery's works