Klumpke paralysis

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Klumpke's paralysis
Classification and external resources
Brachial plexus 2.svg
Brachial plexus. Klumpke paralysis primarily affects C8 and T1.
ICD-10 P14.1
ICD-9 767.6
DiseasesDB 7200

Klumpke's paralysis (or Klumpke's palsy or Dejerine-Klumpke palsy) is a variety of partial palsy of the lower roots of the brachial plexus.[1][2] The brachial plexus is a network of spinal nerves that originates in the back of the neck, extends through the axilla (armpit), and gives rise to nerves to the upper limb.[3][4][5][6] (see picture - click to enlarge). It is named after Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke.[7][8][9]

Cause[edit]

Klumpke's paralysis is a form of paralysis involving the muscles of the forearm and hand, resulting from a brachial plexus injury in which the eighth cervical (C8) and first thoracic (T1) nerves are injured either before or after they have joined to form the lower trunk. The subsequent paralysis affects, principally, the intrinsic muscles of the hand (notably the interossei, thenar and hypothenar muscles)[10] and the flexors of the wrist and fingers (notably flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus).[1][6][10][11] Forearm pronators and wrist flexors may be involved, as may dilators of the iris and elevators of the eyelid (both of which may be seen in the case of associated Horner's syndrome). The classic presentation of Klumpke's palsy is the “claw hand” where the forearm is supinated and the wrist and fingers are flexed. If Horner syndrome is present, there is miosis (constriction of the pupils) in the affected eye.

The injury can result from difficulties in childbirth. The most common aetiological mechanism is caused by a traumatic vaginal delivery. The risk is greater when the mother is small or when the infant is of large weight. Risk of injury to the lower brachial plexus results from traction on an abducted arm, as with an infant being pulled from the birth canal by an extended arm above the head or with someone catching himself by a branch as he falls from a tree. Lower brachial plexus injuries should be distinguished from upper brachial plexus injuries, which can also result from birth trauma but give a different syndrome of weakness known as Erb's palsy. Other trauma, such as motorcycle accidents, that have similar spinal cord injuries to C-8 & T-1, also show the same symptom's of Klumpke's paralysis. An easy way to remember Klumpke paralysis (or Klumpke's palsy) is by remembering the phrase "Klumpke the monkey hung from a tree", as a cause of injury is catching oneself on a tree branch when falling.

Symptoms[edit]

Symptoms include intrinsic minus hand deformity,[12] paralysis of intrinsic hand muscles, and C8/T1 Dermatome distribution numbness. Involvement of T1 may result in Horner's syndrome, with ptosis, and miosis.[1][13][14]

It can be contrasted to Erb-Duchenne's palsy, which affects C5 and C6.

Incidence/prevalence[edit]

Klumpke Palsy is listed as a 'rare disease' by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This means that Klumpke palsy, or a subtype of Klumpke palsy, affects fewer than 200,000 people in the US population.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Warwick, R., & Williams, P.L, ed. (1973). Gray’s Anatomy (35th ed.). London: Longman.  p.1046
  2. ^ Shoja MM, Tubbs RS (August 2007). "Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke: the first female neuroanatomist". Clin Anat 20 (6): 585–7. doi:10.1002/ca.20474. PMID 17330887. 
  3. ^ Warwick, R., & Williams, P.L. (1973). pp.1037-1047
  4. ^ Tortora, G.J., & Anagnostakos, N.P. (1990). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (6th ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-046694-4.  pp.370-374
  5. ^ Abrahams, P (2002). The Atlas of the Human Body: A Complete Guide to How the Body Works. Leicester, U.K.: Silverdale Books. ISBN 1-85605-699-6.  pp.76-77
  6. ^ a b Shenaq S.M., & Spiegel A.J. Hand, Brachial Plexus Surgery. eMedicine.com. URL: http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic450.htm. Accessed on: April 13, 2007.
  7. ^ Ulgen BO, Brumblay H, Yang LJ, Doyle SM, Chung KC (August 2008). "Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke, M.D. (1859-1927): a historical perspective on Klumpke's palsy". Neurosurgery 63 (2): 359–66; discussion 366–7. doi:10.1227/01.+NEU.0000320420.25035.A7. PMID 18797367. 
  8. ^ synd/335 at Who Named It?
  9. ^ A. Dejerine-Klumpke: Contribution à l’étude des paralysies radiculaires du plexus brachial. Paralysies radiculaires totales. Paralysies radiculaires inférieures. De la participation des filets sympathiques oculo-pupillaires dans ces paralysies. Revue de médecine 1885, 5: 591-616, 739-90.
  10. ^ a b Page 512: Lower Radicular Syndrome (Klumpke Paralysis) in: Pedley, Timothy A.; Rowland, Lewis P.; Merritt, Hiram Houston (2010). Merritt's neurology. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-9186-3. 
  11. ^ Klumpke palsy. Stedman's Dictionary. URL: http://www.emedicine.com/asp/dictionary.asp?exact=Y&keyword=Klumpke+palsy. Accessed on: April 13, 2007.
  12. ^ (Pendleton 942)Pendleton, Heidi McHugh. Pedretti's Occupational Therapy: Practice Skills for Physical Dysfunction, 6th Edition. C.V. Mosby, 052006.
  13. ^ Huang YG, Chen L, Gu YD, Yu GR (May 2008). "Histopathological basis of Horner's syndrome in obstetric brachial plexus palsy differs from that in adult brachial plexus injury". Muscle Nerve 37 (5): 632–7. doi:10.1002/mus.20960. PMID 18236458. 
  14. ^ Glanze, W.D., Anderson, K.N., & Anderson, L.E, ed. (1990). Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary (3rd ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: The C.V. Mosby Co. ISBN 0-8016-3227-7.  pp.576, 667

External links[edit]