Laghouat

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For the Second World War detention centre, see Laghouat prison camp.
Laghouat
الأغواط
City
Laghouat
Laghouat
Location of Laghouat in Laghouat Province
Location of Laghouat in Laghouat Province
Laghouat is located in Algeria
Laghouat
Laghouat
Location of Laghouat in Algeria
Coordinates: 33°48′10″N 2°52′30″E / 33.80278°N 2.87500°E / 33.80278; 2.87500Coordinates: 33°48′10″N 2°52′30″E / 33.80278°N 2.87500°E / 33.80278; 2.87500
Country  Algeria
Province Laghouat Province
District Laghouat District
APC 2012-2017
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Mayor Benbehaz béchir
Area
 • Total 200 sq mi (400 km2)
Population (2008)
 • Total 170,693
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Postal code 03000
ISO 3166 code CP
Website www.laghouat-dz.org
Laghouat in the Algerian Sahara (1879)

Laghouat (English: Laghwat French: Laghouat Arabic: الأغواط‎) is the capital city of the Laghouat Province, Algeria, 400 km south of the Algerian capital Algiers. As of 2005, the population of the city was 126,291 inhabitants. Nearby, in Hassi R'Mel, there is the largest natural gas reserve in Africa.

The city was founded in the 11th Century. In 1852, the French captured the city. Since 1974, it is an Algerian province.

Laghwat town in Saharan Tell Atlas is an oasis on the north edge of the Sahara Desert. It is an important administrative and military center and marketplace and is known for rug and tapestry weaving. There are natural gas deposits in the region. The town has a meteorological station. Laghouat traces its history at least to the 11th century. It paid tribute to Morocco in the 17th century. The Turks captured Laghouat in 1786, and the French conquered the city in 1852.

The city is served by Laghouat Airport (IATA: LOO, ICAO: DAUL).

In January 2012 Laghouat was the site of anti-government protests over housing, infrastructure, and treatment of the elderly by police. The police used tear gas to disperse the protesters.[1][2]

  • Laghouat is one of the Algerian cities. Famous for its palm trees and its Orchards strike at the roots of history, and the first inception was on the hills known Ptzkrrarin, while orchards and lands peasant Some are located north of the hills, and is now called the Oasis North and others are located south and called oases south and extends beyond Allowahatan Sahlan they exploit in the cultivation of cereals named first Alzaih tribal (South) is called II exotic Alzaih.

The city is its authentic Arab character, which dates back to the Arab founders parentheses - on ruins of Amazigh المندثرة the city - during the Middle Ages in the 11th century, but thankfully the French colonial city decided to make it an area of military rule فاكتفى building barracks and did not interfere much in architecture. Located on longitude 2 degrees and 55 minutes east and latitude 33 degrees 48 minutes north. And penetrate the valley Mzee, which consists at Mount Amour being towards the east. The city above the softening Mtafraan of Mount Tezigrrarin (and is the latest extension of the Atlas Mountains desert) and Aksmanha two parts: the Old and modern, and the modern districts over a hill south and the government buildings and military installations, and the old section فيحتل hill north and still retains exquisite example style architecture desert. And spread palm groves and fruit trees in the south and east, on both sides of the valley Mzee called Valley earnest in its course down aspects of Biskra, was held dams three on this valley to irrigate orchards and agricultural land that produces dates, fruits, vegetables and grains. Granted orchards Oasis sight unique location on the tape, which meets the desert in the south with the Atlas Mountains desert when the road that connects the city of Algiers in central Africa, the area of Oasis 253 hectares, these orchards are caused renamed Baloguat (collection Ghouta any reassuring of the land and the community of plants and water), All orchards in Laghouat private property and overlapping interference thick, interspersed with rural lanes and tangled mostly irrigated by a network of channels Small know Balsoaqa. [2] The occurrence of Laghouat on the crossroads that branch westward to Ouled Sidi el-Sheikh, to the south towards Mzab and Ouargla (Ouargla), and to the east towards Alziban and Biskra, and to the north towards Oran and Constantine made it an important commercial center. City is famous باحياءها and alleys old Kzakkak pilgrims, Alkabo, Alsoadeg, Zubarah, Palace Albzaúm - Zoaimo -, Fawad dowry, Palace broiler - Sadiki -, Palace Amodr - estimated -, Ctit (there are two east and west), section (there are two tribal section Aldahrawi ), Farrah sponsor, the southern oases (Mr. Yanes), Rultin, Aldilah, Western - Balantidium -, alley Bheroa, energy and alley door connectivity, in addition to the famous battleground spacious olive and Janan Albaalk. And as well as the neighborhoods of ancient Kalmamorh (neighborhood Bo Smith) and the denominator and the city center - the country - in addition to neighborhoods introduced newly Kallowahat northern district of 330 housing, neighborhood of 450 housing, 200 housing, 600 housing, 400 housing, neighborhood Sassi Polfh, neighborhood of the future and neighborhoods reconciliation, Harmony .... There is the village of Burj al-Sanusi, which is a natural extension of the eastern city in the West to Mzee Valley.

History[edit]

The area surrounding present-day Laghouat has been settled for nearly ten thousand years. Historical documents do not state exactly when the city was founded. The Mgraoh tribe lived in the area during the Roman era, and did not convert to Christianity, even though they were pressured to.

As shown by some of the graphics stone dating back to the Neolithic period between 09 to 06 thousand years BC. These effects are spread over a number of municipalities and villages surrounding the city as Sir effect Makhlouf, Alhsabah, Almilq, Alrchosh, Ahoith. Valmattiyat climate, plants and terrain for Oguat as it contributed in the presence of human prehistory has brought to Displacements ancient tribal This is illustrated constructions archaeological from the Roman era and Albznta taken Kthsinat and watchtowers to trace some of the movements opposed her Numidia or Bionolaa (geographical name for the South in Ancient History ) in each of the Tajmot and Ahoith.

Historians will recall that this city a long history begins with the first data County Jatula from the Roman era until the Islamic conquest, has lived in this Places the Mgraoh tribe belonging to the Zenata. Althe refused to submit to the Roman and Byzantine, and did not convert to Christianity, despite the pressures. However, the historical documents did not specify exactly when founded, and is likely to start the stability of the human this place back to the times of موغلة in the foot to provide the necessary conditions for the life of the water, and land farming and site impervious, and this is evidenced by the impact left by the Amazigh ancient Steering Kalolvaz which are still in circulation Valhillh located by the old city called Tzkrrarin, dates and names of known oasis find: Tadalh, Tizawt, Timjohrt.

It cited Ibn Khaldun as saying: "The to Qguat (so Balagaf) They thigh Mgraoh the .... understanding in the areas of the desert between Rashid and Jebel Zab, and for them there is their famous Palace of the team turned back." There is another saying attributed the genesis of this city to the Arabs Alhlaliyn says Ibrahim Mayas "and weighting can establish Laghouat to the early years of the advent of Bani Hilal year 1045 to the region. We can conclude from the sum of these views that the city of Laghouat may be its inception, the first grouping population a small hand Mgraoh. As a solution Alhlallion out and sought its development and gave character of the Arab and became the town gathered between civilization and nomadic style of various towns and villages in the steppes and deserts of Algeria and the Arab world in general since ages. Has a nomadic hook good-neighborly relations with the city's population virtue Nearly and interests. The applicable rule is not to touch the orchards and grain fields as well as Altnada for the defense of inhabitants of the palace. The trade, of course, existed between urban and nomadic Bedouin and, as the city offers to those agricultural products and consumer goods, textiles and manufactures they need versus what Asudunha of different animals and their products. Each of these nomads have a relative or friend in the palace has filed stocks of grain, wool and other materials, and find him a private hospitality market days, and some of them bought or built houses for storage or housing as needed.

It was a lot of wealthy city have a wealth of livestock Eodonha with friends or associates nomads for their development, traffic and there is a phenomenon related to the aforementioned remained until the seventies of the twentieth century is that every family in the city almost possessed upside or more of the goats Almasal to benefit Bmtojadtha He was being taken out every day to graze outside the city within the herd which they call a "burner" and this is what was in addition to the orchards yields of grains, vegetables and fruits can be the city's population to achieve a fair amount of self-sufficiency. Even issued a decree banning in the context of modernization and protection of health and the protection of trees and green spaces and avoid obstructing the herd increased traffic as he left the morning and return in the evening on the streets of the city.

It is noteworthy historians and popular novels of the inhabitants of Laghouat old they were divided into Vitn: called the first boys Srgin and live in the west of the palace and called the second alliances and reside in the east, and lived parties Understanding mostly of the times, and talked them some discounts and skirmishes in some cases. And they both are designated for the conduct of the affairs council headed by Sheikh city chooses sometimes and sometimes alliances of boys Srgin, and is worth mentioning that the city received a good guardian CNN Haj Issa year 1698 AD, which was surrounded by people and was able to put an end to discounts and combines reunion. The two sides also unanimously in the eighteenth century on inauguration Sheikh called Zeanoun distinguish leadership qualifications for the conduct of affairs of the city and it remained in the heel until the advent of the French occupation. And remember historical novels that Epic was made up of ancient palaces and neighborhoods group including: Palace bin Botah, E Bomendalh, Nedjal, Mr. Memon, suit, stubble son Fattouh., And this in some detail something about these limitations are as follows:

  • Palace Ndjal to children Bouziane-west district Alkabo.
  • Mr. Memon Palace for the children of Bouziane.
  • Palace Bomendal to Boras boys from North Biskra in panels southern Chetit.
  • Ben Fattouh rod opposite to Mzee Valley (Sir, the Government) for the children of Joseph.
  • Palace suit for the children of Joseph in the northern oases (Joseph boys ever originally Almzaba who founded the Palace Tajmot around the year 1666)

- There is no doubt that these palaces and towns were initially independent, each with a tribe or more each headed by a sheikh linked by only a neighborly relationship, but for security reasons actuated to gather around the largest palaces Laghouat bin Botah بوطة, as we mentioned earlier.

The history of Laghouat becomes real, starting from the date of Sir Haj Issa. In this time period settled tribe quarters in the region, it is said that the origin back to Qahtaniyah quarters of Yemen, called Erban or Erban This Alojza the El hamadani الهمذاني says: Osaltinay Barakaúb sail .... And killed Fuwaris forgot quarters. Valerba is a Yemeni tribe of لخم and leprosy. It is said that the or igin of the back to Alhlaliyn quarters who settled in the Northern Line from hand Alziban Sahara in Biskra When faced problems and wars with the tribes was the year 1635. Migrated to Mount Bokahil Bmsaad Djelfa and settled by 15 years, then went to the Laghouat and settled them, and they were a 04 tribes or thrones Bedouin were: (Lamamra, pilgrims, children a favor and boys Zaid who Mktho Bbiskrh) Today Vickl quarters 10 tribes were: pilgrims, LAMAMRA, Alzakazakh, Ouled Sidi Suleiman, Aharazleh, favor boys, boys Xian, Ouled Sidi Atallah, Ababda Sfran, Mkhalev desert. Divided by the French authorities for fear of tribes along their revolution to Laghouat.

- Under these nomadic Arabs engaged in livestock dependent on travel, as well as establishing good social relationships. Intermarriage and trade exchanges between them and the castles of the population Laghouat, causing prosperity of the region. Atafron quarters strange and Cheraga quarters each with their suburbs, according to the seasons. Some of these thrones settled on footnotes the city and Achttoa the villages Kalababdh the suffocation, and the throne of the most gracious short Hieran and them of the city's population.

- It was the religious side in the founding of the city cycle, has Asttaasida Haj Issa to gather the scattered tribes and discordant under its banner, thus becoming the founder the city and Hamiha, it's that time founded two groups: alliances and boys Srgin.

- Alliances made up of: Zaid boys, Boys Skhal Boys Salem, Boys Khriv Boys Bouziane, Boys Zeanoun Boys Abdullah, Moroccans, Laghouat pilgrims lived in the eastern side of the city alliances palace currently alley pilgrims inspired sheets.

- Boys Srgin They are: Alibdarh, Aljmana, boys Belaiz, Filajat inhabited the western side of the city and now Palace boys Srgin part of the Bank, each band is due to the most prominent Senate founding communities first and Atafron to branches and Alaúlat was at the head of each group Sheikh headed, and each group Mosque The market particular lived متفاهمين, in most cases occur between them some discounts and skirmishes.

- Said Heinrich von Maltsan, during his trip to the north-west Africa Year 1862, describing the way the direction of Laghouat, saying: "It was Laghouat since the old divided into two parties to the conflict shall remain in force between them ... These two parties consists of alliances and boys Srgin ..." - The the Laghouat housing: Ouled Sidi Haj Isa eastern Bctit, the children of Jacob Amuriyah tribe of Bani Salim, the children of David, groups of children from the gutter spray of Ghardaia. These families descended from several strains came from several areas.

- As for Alhmona, Alibdarh Vmnhaddran of Oguat tribe Kassala, and boys Skhal came from the children of Zaid Alziban in Biskra, Filajat it is said that they came from the far east of Algeria. As for the boys Khriv they took it from the east Algerian, Ouled Salem sump. Oladbouzayn Belong to Laghouat pilgrims, The Moroccans understanding of supervision came from the west of Algeria Tlemcen and hand them the children of Abdullah, boys Nile, Ouled Sidi Makhlouf.

In 1852 during the colonial period, French authorities sought to bring in the Bedouin population to stabilize the city's population.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "10 injured, several arrested in Algeria protests". Agent France Press. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  2. ^ "Anger at squalid housing unleashes Algeria protest". Reuters. Retrieved 13 January 2011. 


See also[edit]