Lebanon bologna

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Sweet and regular Lebanon bolognas in a retail cooler

Lebanon bologna is a type of cured, smoked, and fermented semi-dry sausage. Made of beef, it is similar in appearance and texture to salami, though somewhat darker in color. Lebanon bologna has a distinct tangy flavor, moreso than other fermented meat products such as summer sausage. Hardwood smoking imparts a strong smoky flavor to the traditionally prepared versions of the product.

Origin[edit]

Lebanon bologna was developed in the 19th century by the Pennsylvania Dutch of Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, reflecting the slow-cured and smoked sausage traditions of northern Europe. Still produced primarily in that area, it is nowadays available in markets throughout the United States and typically served as a cold cut as well as an appetizer. Four versions include original, sweet, double smoked, and honey smoked.

Manufacturing[edit]

Lebanon bologna is slow cold smoked at a temperature below 120 °F (49 °C). Curing salts are added to control microbial growth during processing.[1]

Typically, the blended and stuffed beef sausage is aged for 10 days prior to smoking to enrich lactic acid bacteria and allow for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite.[2] Fermentation occurs during the smoking step, which can last for up to four days.[3] A one pH unit (or more) decline is observed during this step, as well as the development of nitrosohemochrome, the pigment responsible for the red color of cured meats.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chikthimmah N, Ananthesweran R, Roberts R, Mills E, Knabel S (2001). "Influence of sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria and subsequent destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 of Lebanon bologna". J. Food Protection 54 (8): 1145–50. 
  2. ^ Smith JL, Palumbo SA (October 1973). "Microbiology of Lebanon bologna". Appl Microbiol 26 (4): 489–96. PMC 379833. PMID 4796166. 
  3. ^ Palumbo S, Smith J, Ackerman S (1974). "Lebanon Bologna. I. Manufacture and processing". J Milk and Food Tech 36 (10): 497–503. 

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