List of Victoria Cross recipients by campaign

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The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals, and may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command.[1] The award was officially constituted when Queen Victoria issued a warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that was gazetted on 5 February 1856.[2] The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War.[3] The first awards ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park.[4]

The first citations of the VC, particularly those in the initial gazette of 24 February 1857, varied in the details of each action; some specify date ranges while some specify a single date. The original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously.[5] Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six soldiers.[6] The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920, but one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous.[7][8] Three people have been awarded the VC and Bar, which is a medal for two actions; Noel Chavasse, Arthur Martin-Leake and Charles Upham.[9] Chavasse received both medals for actions in the First World War, while Martin-Leake was awarded his first VC for actions in the Second Boer War, and his second for actions during the First World War. Charles Upham received both VCs for actions during the Second World War.

The Victoria Cross has been awarded 1,356 times to 1,353 individual recipients. The largest number of recipients for one campaign is the First World War, for which 628 medals were awarded to 627 recipients.[10] The largest number awarded for actions on a single day was 24 on 16 November 1857, at the Second Relief of Lucknow, during the Indian Mutiny.[11] The largest number awarded for a single action was 18, for the assault on Sikandar Bagh, during the Second Relief of Lucknow. The largest number awarded to one unit during a single action was 7, to the 2nd/24th Foot, for the defence of Rorke's Drift (22–23 January 1879), during the Zulu War.[12]

Since 1991, Australia, Canada and New Zealand have created their own separate Victoria Crosses: the Victoria Cross for Australia, the Victoria Cross for Canada, and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand. Only four of these separate medals have been awarded, all for actions in the War in Afghanistan; Willie Apiata received the Victoria Cross for New Zealand on 26 July 2007; on 16 January 2009 Mark Donaldson, on 24 August 2010 Daniel Keighran, and on 23 January 2011 Ben Roberts-Smith, were awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia. As these are separate medals, they are not included in this list.[13]

Recipients[edit]

  •       This along with a ‡ indicates that the row is a link to a separate page containing the recipients of wars or campaigns with a large number of recipients.
  •       This along with a * indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously.
Recipients Unit Campaign Dates Location
000 a111 Crimean War recipients 000 a Crimean WarCrimean War 1854–18561854–1856 000 a
Wood, JohnJohn Wood 02020th Bombay Native Infantry Anglo-Persian War 1856-08-099 August 1856 Bushire, Persia
Malcolmson, JohnJohn Malcolmson 0033rd Bombay Light Cavalry Anglo-Persian War 1857-02-088 February 1857 Khoosh-ab, Persia
Moore, ArthurArthur Moore 0033rd Bombay Light Cavalry Anglo-Persian War 1858-02-078 February 1857 Khoosh-ab, Persia
000.1182 Indian Mutiny recipients 000.1 Indian MutinyIndian Mutiny 18581857–1859 000.1
Burslem, NathanielNathaniel Burslem 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Chaplin, JohnJohn Chaplin 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Fitzgibbon, AndrewAndrew Fitzgibbon 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Lane, ThomasThomas Lane 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Lenon, EdmundEdmund Lenon 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
McDougall, JohnJohn McDougall 04444th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Rogers, RobertRobert Rogers 04444th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
000.1515 New Zealand Land Wars recipients 000.15 New Zealand Land WarsNew Zealand Land Wars 1860–18651860–1865 000.15
Hinckley, GeorgeGeorge Hinckley Naval Brigade Taiping Rebellion 1862-10-099 October 1862 Fenghua, China
Fosbery, GeorgeGeorge Fosbery 0044th Bengal European Regiment Umbeyla Campaign 1863-10-3030 October 1863 Crag Picquet, India
Pitcher, HenryHenry Pitcher 0044th Punjab Infantry Umbeyla Campaign 1863-10-3030 October 1863 Crag Picquet, India
Boyes, DuncanDuncan Boyes HMS Euryalus Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864-09-066 September 1864 Kanmon Straits, Japan
Pride, ThomasThomas Pride Royal Navy Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864-09-066 September 1864 Kanmon Straits, Japan
Seeley, WilliamWilliam Seeley HMS Euryalus Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864-09-066 September 1864 Kanmon Straits, Japan
Dundas, JamesJames Dundas Bengal Engineers Bhutan War 1865-04-3030 April 1865 Dewan-Giri, India
Trevor, WilliamWilliam Trevor Bengal Engineers Bhutan War 1865-04-3030 April 1865 Dewan-Giri, India
O'Hea, TimothyTimothy O'Hea Rifle Brigade [A] 1866-06-099 June 1866 Danville, Quebec
Hodge, SamuelSamuel Hodge West India Regiment The Gambia 1866-06-3030 June 1866 Tubabecelong, Gambia|
Bell, DavidDavid Bell 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
Douglas, CampbellCampbell Douglas 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
Cooper, JamesJames Cooper 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
Murphy, ThomasThomas Murphy 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
Griffiths, WilliamWilliam Griffiths 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
Bergin, JamesJames Bergin 03333rd Regiment of Foot Abyssinian War 1868-04-1313 April 1868 Battle of Magdala, Abyssinia
Magner, MichaelMichael Magner 03333rd Regiment of Foot Abyssinian War 1868-04-1313 April 1868 Battle of Magdala, Abyssinia
Macintyre, DonaldDonald Macintyre 0022nd Gurkha Rifles Looshai Expedition 1872-01-044 January 1872 Lalgnoora, India
Gifford, EdricEdric Gifford 02424th Regiment of Foot First Ashanti Expedition 1873–1874 Becquah, Ashanti
Sartorius, ReginaldReginald Sartorius 0066th Bengal Cavalry First Ashanti Expedition 1874-01-1717 January 1874 Abogu, Ashanti
McGaw, SamuelSamuel McGaw 04242nd Regiment of Foot First Ashanti Expedition 1874-01-2121 January 1874 Amoaful, Ashanti
Bell, MarkMark Bell Corps of Royal Engineers First Ashanti Expedition 1874-02-044 February 1874 Ordashu, Ashanti
Channer, GeorgeGeorge Channer Bengal Staff Corps Perak War 1875-12-2020 December 1875 Malaya, Malaysia
Scott, AndrewAndrew Scott Bengal Staff Corps Baluchistan 1877-07-2626 July 1877 Quetta, India
Moore, HansHans Moore 08888th Regiment of Foot 9th Cape Frontier War 1877-12-2929 December 1877 King William's Town, Cape Colony
000.223 Zulu War recipients 000.2 Zulu WarZulu War 18791879 000.2
000.316 Second Afghan War recipients 000.3 Second Afghan WarSecond Afghan War 1878–18801878–1880 000.3
Brown, PeterPeter Brown Cape Mounted Riflemen Basuto War 1879-04-088 April 1879 Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Scott, RobertRobert Scott Cape Mounted Riflemen Basuto War 1879-04-088 April 1879 Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Hartley, EdmundEdmund Hartley Cape Mounted Riflemen Basuto War 1879-06-055 June 1879 Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Fitzpatrick, FrancisFrancis Fitzpatrick Connaught Rangers Basuto War 1879-11-2828 November 1879 Sekukuni's Town, South Africa
Flawn, ThomasThomas Flawn Connaught Rangers Basuto War 1879-11-2828 November 1879 Sekukuni's Town, South Africa
McCrea, JohnJohn McCrea 0011st Cape Mounted Yeomanry Basuto War 1881-01-1414 January 1881 Tweefontein, South Africa
Ridgeway, RichardRichard Ridgeway Bengal Staff Corps Second Naga Hills Expedition 1879-11-2222 November 1879 Konama, India
Danaher, JohnJohn Danaher Nourse's Horse First Boer War 1881-01-1616 January 1881 Elandsfontein, South Africa
Murray, JamesJames Murray Connaught Rangers First Boer War 1881-01-1616 January 1881 Elandsfontein, South Africa
Doogan, JohnJohn Doogan 0011st King's Dragoon Guards First Boer War 1881-01-2828 January 1881 Laing's Nek, South Africa
Hill, AlanAlan Hill Northamptonshire Regiment First Boer War 1881-01-2828 January 1881 Laing's Nek, South Africa
Osborne, JamesJames Osborne Northamptonshire Regiment First Boer War 1881-02-2222 February 1881 Wesselstroom, South Africa
Farmer, JosephJoseph Farmer Royal Army Medical Corps First Boer War 1881-02-2727 February 1881 Majubu Hill, South Africa
Harding, IsraelIsrael Harding HMS Alexandra Occupation of Egypt 1882-07-1111 July 1882 Alexandria, Egypt
Corbett, FrederickFrederick Corbett King's Royal Rifle Corps Occupation of Egypt 1882-08-055 August 1882 Kafr Dowar, Egypt
Edwards, WilliamWilliam Edwards Highland Light Infantry Occupation of Egypt 1882-09-1313 September 1882 Tel-el-Kebir, Egypt
Marshall, WilliamWilliam Marshall 01919th Hussars Sudan Campaign 1884-02-2929 February 1884 El Teb, Sudan
Wilson, ArthurArthur Wilson HMS Hecla Sudan Campaign 1884-02-2929 February 1884 El Teb, Sudan
Edwards, ThomasThomas Edwards Black Watch Sudan Campaign 1884-03-1313 March 1884 Tamai, Sudan
Marling, PercivalPercival Marling King's Royal Rifle Corps Sudan Campaign 1884-03-1313 March 1884 Tamai, Sudan
Smith, AlfredAlfred Smith Royal Regiment of Artillery Sudan Campaign 1885-01-1717 January 1885 Abu Klea, Sudan
Byrne, ThomasThomas Byrne 02121st Lancers Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
De Montmorency, RaymondRaymond De Montmorency 02121st Lancers Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
Kenna, PaulPaul Kenna 02121st Lancers Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
Smyth, NevillNevill Smyth 0022nd Dragoon Guards Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
Hore-Rithven, AlexanderAlexander Hore-Rithven Highland Light Infantry Sudan Campaign 1898-09-2222 September 1898 Gedarif, Sudan
Crimmin, JohnJohn Crimmin Bombay Medical Service British rule in Burma 1889-01-011 January 1889 Karenni, Burma
Le Quesne, FerdinandFerdinand Le Quesne Royal Army Medical Corps British rule in Burma 1889-05-044 May 1889 Tartan, Burma
Grant, CharlesCharles Grant Indian Staff Corps Manipur Expedition 1891-03-2121 March 1891 to
9 April 1891
Thobal, Burma
Aylmer, FentonFenton Aylmer Corps of Royal Engineers Hunza-Naga Campaign 1891-12-022 December 1891 Nilt Fort, India
Boisragon, GuyGuy Boisragon 0055th Gurkha Rifles Hunza-Naga Campaign 1891-12-022 December 1891 Nilt Fort, India
Smith, JohnJohn Smith 0055th Gurkha Rifles Hunza-Naga Campaign 1891-12-2020 December 1891 Nilt Fort, India
Gordon, WilliamWilliam Gordon West India Regiment The Gambia 1892-03-1313 March 1892 Toniataba, Gambia
Lloyd, OwenOwen Lloyd Royal Army Medical Corps Kachin Hills Expedition 1893-01-066 January 1893 Fort Sima, Burma
Whitchurch, HarryHarry Whitchurch Indian Medical Service Chitral Expedition 1895-03-033 March 1895 Chitral Fort, India
Henderson, HerbertHerbert Henderson Bulawayo Field Force Matabeleland Rebellion 1896-03-3030 March 1896 Bulawayo, Rhodesia
Baxter, FrankFrank Baxter Bulawayo Field Force Matabeleland Rebellion 1896-04-2222 April 1896* Umguza, Rhodesia
Nesbitt, RandolphRandolph Nesbitt Mashonaland Mounted Police Mashona Rebellion 1896-06-1919 June 1896 Salisbury, Rhodesia
Costello, EdmondEdmond Costello 02222nd Punjab Infantry Siege of Malakand 1897-07-2626 July 1897 Malakand, India
Colvin, JamesJames Colvin Corps of Royal Engineers Mohmand Campaign 1897-09-1616 September 1897 Bilot, India
Smith, JamesJames Smith Corps of Royal Engineers Mohmand Campaign 1897-09-1616 September 1897 Bilot, India
Watson, ThomasThomas Watson Corps of Royal Engineers Mohmand Campaign 1897-09-1616 September 1897 Bilot, India
Adams, RobertRobert Adams Corps of Guides Tirah Campaign 1897-08-1717 August 1897 Swat, India
MacLean, HectorHector MacLean Corps of Guides Tirah Campaign 1897-08-1717 August 1897* Swat, India
Fincastle, AlexanderAlexander Fincastle 01616th Lancers Tirah Campaign 1897-08-1717 August 1897 Swat, India
Pennell, HenryHenry Pennell Sherwood Foresters Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
Findlater, GeorgeGeorge Findlater Gordon Highlanders Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
Lawson, EdwardEdward Lawson Gordon Highlanders Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
Vickery, SamuelSamuel Vickery Dorset Regiment Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
Maillard, WilliamWilliam Maillard HMS Hazard Occupation of Crete 1898-09-066 September 1898 Crete, Greece
Mackenzie, JohnJohn Mackenzie Seaforth Highlanders Third Ashanti Expedition 1900-06-066 June 1900 Dompoassi, Ashanti
Melliss, CharlesCharles Melliss Indian Staff Corps Third Ashanti Expedition 1900-09-3030 September 1900 Obassa, Ashanti
Halliday, LewisLewis Halliday Royal Marine Light Infantry Boxer Rising 1900-06-2424 June 1900 Peking, China
Guy, BasilBasil Guy Naval Brigade Boxer Rising 1900-07-1313 July 1900 China
000.478 Second Boer War recipients 000.4 Second Boer WarSecond Boer War 1899–19021899–1902 000.4
Cobbe, AlexanderAlexander Cobbe King's African Rifles Second Somaliland Expedition 1902-10-066 October 1902 Erego, Somaliland
Walker, WilliamWilliam Walker 0044th Gurkha Rifles Third Somaliland Expedition 1903-04-2222 April 1903 Daratoleh, Somaliland
Gough, JohnJohn Gough Rifle Brigade Third Somaliland Expedition 1903-04-2222 April 1903 Daratoleh, Somaliland
Rolland, GeorgeGeorge Rolland 0011st Bombay Grenadiers Third Somaliland Expedition 1903-04-2222 April 1903 Daratoleh, Somaliland
Carter, HerbertHerbert Carter Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry Fourth Somaliland Expedition 1903-12-1919 December 1903 Jidballi, Somaliland
Smith, ClementClement Smith Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry Fourth Somaliland Expedition 1904-01-1010 January 1904 Jidballi, Somaliland
Wright, WallaceWallace Wright 0022nd Regiment of Foot Kano-Sokoto Expedition 1903-02-2626 February 1903 Northern Nigeria
Grant, JohnJohn Grant 0088th Gurkha Rifles Armed Mission to Tibet 1904-07-066 July 1904 Gyantse Fortress
000.5627 First World War recipients[B] 000.5 First World WarFirst World War 1914–19181914–1918 000.5
Agar, AugustusAugustus Agar HM Coastal Motor Boat 4 North Russia Relief Force 1919-06-1717 June 1919 Kronstadt, Russia
Sullivan, ArthurArthur Sullivan Royal Fusiliers North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-1010 August 1919 Sheika River, Russia
Dobson, ClaudeClaude Dobson HM Coastal Motor Boat 31 North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-1818 August 1919 Kronstadt, Russia
Steele, GordonGordon Steele HM Coastal Motor Boat 88 North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-1818 August 1919 Kronstadt, Russia
Pearse, SamuelSamuel Pearse Royal Fusiliers North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-2929 August 1919* Emtsa, Russia
Andrews, HenryHenry Andrews Indian Medical Service Waziristan Campaign 1919-10-2222 October 1919* Khajuri, Waziristan
Kenny, WilliamWilliam Kenny 03939th Garhwal Rifles Waziristan Campaign 1920-01-022 January 1920* Kot Kai, Waziristan
Singh, IsharIshar Singh 02828th Punjab Regiment Waziristan Campaign 1921-04-1010 April 1921 Haidari Kach, Waziristan
Henderson, GeorgeGeorge Henderson Manchester Regiment Arab Revolt 1920-07-2424 July 1920* Hillah, Mesopotamia
Meynell, GodfreyGodfrey Meynell 01212th Frontier Force Regiment Second Mohmand Campaign 1935-09-2929 September 1935* Mamund Valley, India
000.6181 Second World War recipients[C] 000.6 Second World WarSecond World War 1939–19451939–1945 000.6
Muir, KennethKenneth Muir Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders Korean War 1950-09-2323 September 1950* Songju, Korea
Carne, JamesJames Carne Gloucestershire Regiment Korean War 1950-04-2222–23 April 1951 Imjin River, Korea
Curtis, PhilipPhilip Curtis Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry Korean War 1950-04-2222–23 April 1951* Imjin River, Korea
Speakman, BillBill Speakman Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) Korean War 1951-11-044 November 1951 Hill 217, Korea
Limbu, RambahadurRambahadur Limbu 01010th Gurkha Rifles Malaysia-Indonesia Confrontation 1965-11-2121 November 1965 Sarawak, Borneo
Wheatley, KevinKevin Wheatley Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1965-11-1313 November 1965* Tra Bong, Vietnam
Badcoe, PeterPeter Badcoe Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1967-02-2323 February 1967
7 March 1967
7 April 1967*
Huong Tra, Vietnam
Simpson, RayRay Simpson Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1969-05-066–11 May 1969 Kon Tum province, Vietnam
Payne, KeithKeith Payne Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1969-05-2424 May 1969 Ben Het, Vietnam
Jones, HerbertHerbert Jones Parachute Regiment Falklands War 1982-05-2828 May 1982* Goose Green, Falkland Islands
McKay, IanIan McKay Parachute Regiment Falklands War 1982-06-1212 June 1982* Mount Longdon, Falkland Islands
Beharry, JohnsonJohnson Beharry Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment Iraq War 2004-05-011 May 2004
11 June 2004
Al-Amarah, Iraq
Budd, BryanBryan Budd Parachute Regiment War in Afghanistan 2006-07-2727 July 2006
20 August 2006*
Sangin, Afghanistan
Ashworth, JamesJames Ashworth Grenadier Guards War in Afghanistan 2012-06-1313 June 2012* Nahiri Saraj District, Afghanistan

Notes[edit]

  • ^ Between 1858 and 1881, the Victoria Cross could be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy. O'Hea single handedly put out a fire in an ammunition cart, and was awarded the VC for that action. This rule was changed in 1881 to allow only acts "in the presence of the enemy".[14]
  • ^ 628 Medals were awarded to 627 recipients. Two Bars were awarded; Noel Godfrey Chavasse was awarded the Victoria Cross and Bar for two separate actions; Arthur Martin-Leake was awarded a VC in the Second Boer War, and his Bar for actions in the First World War.
  • ^ 182 medals were awarded to 181 recipients; Charles Upham was awarded the Victoria Cross and Bar.

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ Ashcroft, Michael; preface; XI–XIII
  2. ^ The Gazette publishing the original Royal Warrant
    The London Gazette: no. 21846. pp. 410–411. 5 February 1856. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  3. ^ Ashcroft, Michael; pp.7–10
  4. ^ Ashcroft, Michael; Preface to Victoria Cross Heroes
  5. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27986. p. 325. 15 January 1907. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  7. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 31946. p. 6702. 18 June 1920. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
  9. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, Introduction: A brief History of the VC (pp.14–18)
  10. ^ Arthur, Max; pp.185–371
  11. ^ http://collections.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.941
  12. ^ Arthur, Max; p.XIV
  13. ^ "Press kit related to July 2007 gallantry awards (NZ)" (PDF). NZ Government through news agency. 2 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007. 
  14. ^ "VC background". British War Graves Memorial. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2008.