List of countries where French is an official language
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where French is an official or de facto language.
Countries where French is an official language
The following is a list of the 29 countries where French is an official language. In most of these countries, French is not the only language, and therefore the population does not indicate the number of French-speakers.
In Belgium, the official languages are French, Dutch, and German. The country is divided in four linguistic parts: Brussels (officially bilingual, de facto French-speaking majority), Wallonia (French) and Flanders (Dutch) and the German-speaking Community. See further: Languages of Belgium.
French in Cameroon is another example of the heterogeneous Francophone world. It is different from the French spoken in France, Canada, or Gabon. There are different varieties of Cameroon French. French of Cameroon’s North part is different from French of the country’s South part. This is due to the fact that the country is neither socially nor culturally uniform. As a consequence, French will be different from one province/department to another. See further: Languages of Cameroon.
In Canada, French was introduced during the 17th century with the French explorer Jacques Cartier in 1554. Quebec was founded by the French Samuel de Champlain in 1608. There are high chances that French immigrants going to Nouvelle-France (New France) had to have good knowledge of regional French before their departure. Nowadays, the official languages in Canada are English and French; however, only the province of Quebec has a French-speaking majority. Sizable French-speaking minorities exist in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Manitoba.
|Nr.||Country||Continent||Population (2010)||French-speakers (2005 estimation)||Partial-French speakers (2005 estimation)||French-speakers, full and partial combined|
|#||-||Francophone World||367,428,669||NA||NA||194,790,000|
|1.||Democratic Republic of the Congo||Africa||67,827,000||28,000,000||25,110,000||31,190,000|
|20.||Central African Republic||Africa||4,410,873||945,000||NA||1,310,000|
|21.||Republic of the Congo||Africa||4,043,318||1,200,000||1,200,000||2,130,000|
|27.||Vanuatu||Oceania||239,651||99,000||NA||99,000[not in citation given]|
Dependent entities where French is an official language
|1.||French Polynesia||Oceania||267,000||Overseas Collectivity of France|
|2.||New Caledonia||Oceania||224,824||Overseas Collectivity of France|
|3.||Aosta Valley||Europe||128,000||Autonomous Region of Italy|
|4.||Jersey||Europe||91,533||British Crown dependency|
|5.||Guernsey||Europe||66,000||British Crown dependency|
|6.||Saint-Martin||North America||29,376||Overseas Collectivity of France|
|7.||Wallis and Futuna||Oceania||16,448||Overseas Collectivity of France|
|8.||Saint-Barthélemy||North America||7,492||Overseas Collectivity of France|
|9.||Saint-Pierre and Miquelon||North America||7,044||Overseas Collectivity of France|
|10.||French Southern and Antarctic Lands||Antarctica, Africa||140||TAAF districts|
|11.||Clipperton||North America||0||French state private property|
Sub-national regions located within countries where French is an official national language are not included in this list. The five overseas regions of France (Départements d'Outre-Mer, or DOM): Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion, have the same status as metropolitan France and are not listed here. French has a certain legal status in the American state of Louisiana but it's not considered de jure official.
- French language
- List of international organisations which have French as an official language
Notes and references
- Bbiloa, E. (2004), La langue française au Cameroun, Peter Lang SA, Bern (Germany).
- "World Atlas". World Atlas. 2010 estimates. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- "Google Public Data Explorer". World Bank. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Wolff, Alexandre (2010). La langue française dans le monde. Paris: Nathan. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- members of OIF[dead link] and other countries[dead link]