List of female scientists before the 21st century

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This is an historical list, intended to deal with the time period when women working in science were rare. For this reason, this list ends with the 20th century.

Antiquity[edit]

  • Aemilia (c. 300-363), Gallo-Roman physician
  • Agamede (12th century BCE), (possibly mythical) physician in Ancient Greece
  • Aglaonike (2nd century BCE), the first woman astronomer in Ancient Greece
  • Agnodike (4th century BCE), the first woman physician to practice legally in Athens[1]:2
  • Arete of Cyrene (5th–4th centuries BCE), natural and moral philosopher, North Africa
  • Artemisia of Caria (c. 300 BCE), botanist
  • Aspasia (4th century BCE), philosopher and scientist
  • Aspasia the Physician (fl. 1st century CE), Greek physician
  • Cleopatra the Alchemist - wrote the alchemical book, Chrysopoeia, or "gold-making".[2]
  • Diotima of Mantinea (4th century BCE), philosopher and scientist, ancient Greece (sources vary as to her historicity; possibly a fictionalized character based on Aspasia of Miletus)
  • Enheduanna (c. 2285–2250 BCE), Sumerian/Akkadian astronomer and poet
  • Hypatia (370–415), mathematician and astronomer, Egypt[1]:137

Middle Ages[edit]

Herrad of Landsbert

15th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

Margaret Cavendish

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

Anthropology[edit]

Archeology[edit]

  • Zsófia Torma (1832–1899), Hungarian archeologist, paleologist, anthropologist

Astronomy[edit]

Biology or Natural History[edit]

Mary Anning

Chemistry[edit]

Engineers[edit]

Geology[edit]

Inventors[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (Ada Lovelace)

Microbiology[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Nuclear Physics[edit]

  • Lise Meitner (1878–1968), Austrian, Swedish, nuclear physicist

Physics[edit]

Psychology[edit]

Science Education[edit]

Sociology[edit]

20th century[edit]

Anthropology[edit]

Margaret Mead

Astronomy[edit]

Biology[edit]

Barbara McClintock

Chemistry[edit]

Alice Ball
Marie Curie

Geology[edit]

Mathematics or Computer Science[edit]

Science Education[edit]

Engineering[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Paleoanthropology[edit]

  • Mary Leakey (1913–1996), British Paleoanthropologist

Physics[edit]

Maria Goeppert-Mayer
Emmy Noether

Psychology[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Yount 2007
  2. ^ Brown, James Campbell (1920). A History of Chemistry from the Earliest Times. P. Blakiston's Son & Company. pp. 19–24. 
  3. ^ Gabriele Kass-Simon, Patricia Farnes, Deborah Nash, ed. (1999). Women of science : righting the record (First Midland Book ed.). Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Press. p. 301. ISBN 9780253208132. 
  4. ^ a b c d Walsh 1911
  5. ^ a b c d e Howard 2006
  6. ^ Marilyn Ogilvie & Joy Harvey: Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science
  7. ^ "Sarah Whiting". CWP.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rayner-Canham & Rayner-Canham 2001
  9. ^ Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoff (23 Feb 2009). "Fight for Rights". Chemistry World 6 (3): 56–59. 
  10. ^ "Janine Connes". CWP.
  11. ^ "Sandra Faber".  CWP.
  12. ^ "Vera Rubin".  CWP.
  13. ^ "Ellen Gleditsch".  CWP.
  14. ^ "Mary L. Cartwright".  CWP.
  15. ^ "Fay Ajzenberg-Selove".  CWP.
  16. ^ "Milla Baldo-Ceolin".  CWP.
  17. ^ "Katharine Blodgett".  CWP.
  18. ^ "Christiane Bonnelle".  CWP.
  19. ^ "Jenny Rosenthal Bramley". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  20. ^ "Jennry Rosenthal Bramley".  CWP.
  21. ^ "Nina Byers".  CWP.
  22. ^ "Yvette Cauchois".  CWP.
  23. ^ "Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat".  CWP.
  24. ^ "Patricia Cladis".  CWP.
  25. ^ "Esther Conwell".  CWP.
  26. ^ "Cécile DeWitt-Morette".  CWP.
  27. ^ "Nancy M. Dowdy".  CWP.
  28. ^ "Mildred Dresselhaus".  CWP.
  29. ^ "Helen T. Edwards".  CWP.
  30. ^ "Magda Ericson".  CWP.
  31. ^ "Judy Franz".  CWP.
  32. ^ "Phyllis S. Freier".  CWP.
  33. ^ "Mary K. Gaillard".  CWP.
  34. ^ "Fanny Gates".  CWP.
  35. ^ "Maria Goeppert-Mayer".  CWP.
  36. ^ "Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber".  CWP.
  37. ^ "Sulamith Goldhaber".  CWP.
  38. ^ "Gail Hanson".  CWP.
  39. ^ "Evans Hayward".  CWP.
  40. ^ "Caroline Herzenberg".  CWP.
  41. ^ "Shirley Jackson (physicist)".  CWP.
  42. ^ "Bertha Swirls Jeffreys".  CWP.
  43. ^ "Renata Kallosh".  CWP.
  44. ^ "Berta Karlik".  CWP.
  45. ^ "Bruria Kaufman".  CWP.
  46. ^ "Marcia Keith".  CWP.
  47. ^ "Margaret Kivelson".  CWP.
  48. ^ "Noemie Benczer Koller".  CWP.
  49. ^ "Doris Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf".  CWP.
  50. ^ "Elizabeth Laird".  CWP.
  51. ^ "Juliet Lee-Franzini".  CWP.
  52. ^ "Inge Lehmann".  CWP.
  53. ^ "Kathleen Lonsdale".  CWP.
  54. ^ "Margaret Eliza Maltby".  CWP.
  55. ^ "Helen Megaw".  CWP.
  56. ^ Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric (1988). Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric. Verlag Paul Haupt Bern und Stuttgart. ISBN 3258039739. 
  57. ^ "Kirstine Meyer".  CWP.
  58. ^ "Luise Meyer-Schutzmeister".  CWP.
  59. ^ "Marcia Neugebauer".  CWP.
  60. ^ "Gertrude Neumark".  CWP.
  61. ^ "Ida Tacke Noddack".  CWP.
  62. ^ "Marguerite Perey".  CWP.
  63. ^ "Melba Phillips".  CWP.
  64. ^ "Agnes Pockels".  CWP.
  65. ^ "P. Ya. Polubarinova-Kochina".  CWP.
  66. ^ "Edith Quimby".  CWP.
  67. ^ "Helen Quinn".  CWP.
  68. ^ "Myriam Sarachik".  CWP.
  69. ^ "Bice Sechi-Zorn".  CWP.
  70. ^ "Johanna Levelt Sengers".  CWP.
  71. ^ "Hertha Sponer".  CWP.
  72. ^ "Isabelle Stone".  CWP.
  73. ^ "Katharine Way".  CWP.
  74. ^ "Sau Lan Wu".  CWP.
  75. ^ "Xide Xie".  CWP.
  76. ^ Kemp, Hendrika Vande (2001). "Helen Flanders Dunbar (1902-1959)". The Feminist Psychologist 28 (1). Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  77. ^ Brown, A. M.; Lindsey, D. T. (2013). "Infant color vision and color preferences: A tribute to Davida Teller". Visual Neuroscience: 1–8. doi:10.1017/S0952523813000114. PMID 23879986.  edit
  78. ^ "Davida Y. "Vida" Teller, Ph.D". The Seattle Times (Seattle, WA). October 23, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Alic, Margaret (1986). Hypatia's heritage : a history of women in science from antiquity through the nineteenth century. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807067314. 
  • Byers, Nina. "Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics". UCLA. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  • Herzenberg, Caroline L. (1986). Women scientists from antiquity to the present : an index : an international reference listing and biographical directory of some notable women scientists from ancient to modern times. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill Press. ISBN 0-933951-01-9. 
  • Howard, Sethanne (2006). The hidden giants. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1430300762. 
  • Howes, Ruth H.; Herzenberg, Caroline L. (1999). Their day in the sun : women of the Manhattan Project. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press. ISBN 1-56639-719-7. 
  • Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey (1986). Women in science : antiquity through the nineteenth century : a biographical dictionary with annotated bibliography (3. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-15031-X. 
  • Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey (2001). Women in chemistry : their changing roles from alchemical times to the mid-twentieth century. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 978-0941901277. 
  • Stevens, Gwendolyn; Gardner, Sheldon (1982). The women of psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman. ISBN 9780870734434. 
  • Walsh, James Joseph (1911). "VIII. Medieval Women Physicians". Old Time Makers of Medicine: The Story of the Students and Teachers of the Sciences Related to Medicine During the Middle Ages. Fordham University Press. pp. 177–201. 
  • Yount, Lisa (2007). A to Z of Women in Science and Math (Rev. ed.). New York: Infobase Pub. ISBN 9781438107950. 

External links[edit]