|Regions with significant populations|
The Magars (Nepali: मगर जाति) are an indigenous ethnic group of Nepal whose homeland extends from the western and southern edges of the Dhaulagiri section of the Himalayas range south to the Mahabharat foothills eastward into the Gandaki basin. Representing 7.125% of Nepal's population, according to the 2011 census, they are the largest indigenous group in Nepal.
Genetically and physically, Magar people are Mongoloid/east Asian. They are believed to have migrated from Tibet like the Gurungs and other prominent ethnic groups, however, there is an interesting mythical story describing Magar's origins and versions of three different language groups are presented.
The Magar of the Bara Magaranth (a group of twelve Magar kingdoms east of the Gandaki River) are said to have originated in the land of Seem. Two brothers, See Magar and Chintoo Magar, fought, and one remained in Seem, while the other left, ending up in Kangwachen in southern Sikkim. The Bhutia people lived at the northern end of this region. Over time, the Magars became very powerful and made the northern Bhutia their vassals. Sintoo Sati Sheng ruled in a very despotic manner, and the Bhutia conspired to assassinate him. Sheng's queen took revenge and poisoned 1,000 Bhutia people at a place now called Tong Song Fong, meaning "where a thousand were murdered". The Bhutia later drove the Magar out, forcing them to again migrate further south. As part of this migration, one group migrated to Simrongadh, one group moved towards the Okhaldhunga region, and another group seems to have returned to the east. No dates are given.
The Tarali Magar are said to have originated from a woman who fled the region of Jumla during a war between Kalyal kings. It is not known who her spouse, was but she arrived at Tarakot on the verge of giving birth to a son. One day the boy saw a strange phenomenon in the jungle lake where he went with his cattle. Lhe lake is said to have filled with milk, and seven shining creatures, like fairies, were bathing in the waters of the lake. He was enthralled and came to observe them daily. One day he told his mother about this strange sight, and she advised him to touch the youngest of these angels; this would cause her to become human so he could marry her, and he brought the beautiful damsel to his mother. When they asked her who she was she replied in an unknown tongue which was incomprehensible for them. The devi was offered some bread, and she uttered the words, "Tai khe nan." Slowly they began to learn the language of this woman, and Kaike was spread among themselves. The language was called "Kaike", meaning "language of the Gods".
The group was first mentioned in AD 1100, when the Magar King of Palpa and Butwal, Mukunda Sen, invaded and conquered the Nepal (Kathmandu) valley. It is always understood, however, that they have resided around Palpa from time immemorial and that they were probably the earliest settlers from the north. This part of the country was formerly divided into twelve districts, each under its own ruler, being known as the Barah, or twelve Magarant or twelve Thams, the members of each supposedly being of common extraction in the male line. Some records show these twelve areas as being Argha, Gulmi, Isma, Musikot, Khanchi, Ghiring, Rising, Bhirkot, Payung, Garhung, Dhor and Satung. However, it is probable that some of the latter places should have been excluded in favour of Palpa, Galkot, Dhurkot, Char Hajar, Parbat, and even Piuthan and Salyan.
The Magars of middle and western Nepal played a role in Nepal's formative history. Their kingdom was one of the strongest of west Nepal in and around Palpa District during the time of the 22 and 24 rajya principalities (17th and early 18th centuries). Hamilton, during his research in Nepal in 1802, came to a conclusion that all the kings of 24 principalities, including Sen King of Palpa in western Nepal, were Magars. Many of the Magar aristocracy joined the Thakuri caste and status. In recent years, many scholars and historians have claimed that Nepal's former Shah rulers were the descendants of Magar kings of the Barah Magarath/Kali Gandaki region. The 18th-century king, Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Nepal announced himself as a king of Magarant. According to Hamilton, Mincha and Khancha Khan, the forefathers of former Shah kings of Nepal, were of Magar descent. Baburam Acharya, a prominent historian of Nepal, also confirmed that Nepal's former Shah kings were the descendents of Magar kings.
Many prominent historians of Nepal have claimed that Aramudi, an eighth-century ruler of the Kali Gandaki region, was a Magar King. "Aramudi" derives from the word for 'river' in the Magar language. 'Ari'-'Source of Water' + 'Modi'-'River'='Arimodi' or 'Aramudi', thus the literal meaning of Aramudi is 'source of river'. Jayapida [782-813 AD] also called Vinayaditta, a king of Kashmir, invaded Kali Gandaki Region, a traditional homeland of the Magars of Nepal. Aramudi resisted the invasion. After capture by Aramudi, Vinayaditta was taken to the right banks of the Kali Gandaki river, in a strongly built fort, where Aramudi imprisoned him. Jayapida was a powerful king of Kashmir who ruled for 31 years and defeated the kings of Kanyakubja(Kannauj), and Prayag/Allahabad in Utter Pradesh, India. He was in a conquering expedition to the valley of the Ganges.
The tribes are structured with septs followed by the sub-septs and the next smallest groups are the gotras. The Magar people are divided into three sub-tribes by linguistic classification, as there are three languages among the Magar people:
|Magarkura speakers||Rana, Ale, Gaha, Thapa,Rakhal, Sijali, most of Magars|
|Khamkura/Magar Pang speakers||Budha, Gharti, Roka, Pun, Jhankri|
|Kaike speakers||Tarali Magar of Dolpa/Budha, Gharti, Rokaya, Jhankri|
Of the 1,887,733 Magar people in Nepal, nearly 788,530 speak a Magar language as their mother tongue. The Kham Magar of Rapti Zone speak Kham language. In Dolpa District, the Magar speak Tarali or Kaike language. The Magar languages are rooted in the Bodic branch of the Tibetan family. Magarkura speakers are Ale, Thapa, Singjapati and Rana. Similarly Khamkura speakers are Budha, Gharti, Roka, Pun, Shrees, Jhankri, and Kaike speakers are Tarali Magar of Dolpa, Budha, Gharti, Roka, Jhankri. Language expert Madhav Pokhrel says that there is 16% similarity between Magar Language and Hungary's Magyar Language. The 1971 census put the total population of those who spoke the Magar language at 288,383, i.e. 2.49 percent of the total population of Nepal, of which more than half lived in the Western hills of Nepal.
Influence on Nepali
|This section's factual accuracy is disputed. (June 2011)|
The Khas language, originating in Jumla and the Sinja Valley, influenced Nepali language which incorporated words from Sanskrit and Magar language. Many Magar words are used even today, especially as location names. Magar toponyms in Nepali include: Tilaurakot ("place selling sesame seed"), Kanchanjunga ("clear peak"), and * Tansen("straight wood") Some scholars opine that the amount of Magar words in Nepali indicates that Magarat (historic Magar lands) were larger than generally believed, extending from Dhading to Doti. They note that the place suffix -Kot indicates a place from which Magar kings formerly ruled.
The majority of Magars are Hindu, although buddhists is common in the Magar area, though are less evident in Kham hinterlands, particularly in the ranges along the boundary between Rukum and Pyuthan-Rolpa districts . These hinterlands are geographically, and therefore culturally, isolated from the beaten tracks of transhimalayan trade routes and from rice-growing lowlands (Hitchcock, 1966:25-34).
Animists and shamanism form part of the local belief system; their dhami (the faithhealer or a kind of shaman) is called Dangar and their jhankri (another kind of faithhealer or shaman) is called Rama. Bhusal was the traditional spiritual and social leader of the Magars. Magars have an informal cultural institution, called Bhujel, who performs religious activities, organizes social and agriculture-related festivities, brings about reforms in traditions and customs, strengthens social and production system, manages resources, settles cases and disputes and systematizes activities for recreation and social solidarity. Some educated and prosperous Magars are shifting closer to traditional Hinduism in recent years.
Dress and ornaments
The Magar of the low hills wear the ordinary kachhad or wrap-on-loincloth, a bhoto or a shirt of vest, and the usual Nepali topi. The women wear the pariya or sari or lunghi, chaubandhi cholo or a closed blouse and the heavy patuka or waistband and the mujetro or shawl-like garment on the head. The higher-altitude Magars wear an additional bhangra, and the ones living in the Tarakot area even wear the Tibetan chhuba. The ornaments are the madwari on the ears, bulaki on the nose and the phuli on the left nostril, the silver coin necklace and the pote (green beads) with the tilhari gold cylinder and kuntha. Magar males do not wear many ornaments, but some are seen to have silver or gold earrings, hanging from their earlobes, called "gokkul". The magar girls wear the amulet or locket necklace, and women of the lower hills and the high-altitude ones wear these made of silver with muga stones imbedded in them and kantha. The bangles of gold and glass are also worn on their hands along with the sirbandhi, sirphuli and chandra on their heads. These are large pieces of gold beaten in elongated and circular shapes.
Agriculture and the military are the primary sources of income. Magars constitute the largest number of Gurkha soldiers outside Nepal. Sarbajit Rana Magar became the head of government during the regency of Queen Rajendra Laxmi. Biraj Thapa Magar, General Abhiman Singh Rana Magar and Sarbajit Rana Magar headed the Nepal army. Biraj Thapa Magar was the very first army chief in Nepal Army's history. Magars are famous as gallant warriors wherever they served in the past. The Magars are well represented in Nepal's military, as well as in the Singapore Police Force, the British and Indian Gurkha regiments, and they are also employed as professionals in the fields of medicine, education, government service, law, journalism, development, aviation and in business in Nepal and other countries.
Dor Bahadur Bista's observation of Magar's occupation during the 1960s was:
Some of the northernmost Magars have become quite prosperous by engaging in long-range trading that takes them from near the northern border to the Terai, and even beyond to Darjeeling and Calcutta. Were it not for their role in the Gurkha regiments of the Indian and British armies, their self-sufficiency might be endangered.
Toni Hagen, who did his field research in Nepal during the 1950s, observed:
Magars possess considerable skill as craftsmen: they are the bridge builders and blacksmiths among the Nepalese, and the primitive mining is largely in their hands. On the lower courses of the Bheri & Karnali rivers, a great number of Magars annually migrate to the Terai & there manufacture bamboo panniers, baskets, and mats for sale in the bazaars along the borders. In their most northerly settlement, on the other hand, the important trading centre of Tarakot on the Barbung river, they have largely adopted their way of life, their clothes, and their religion to that of the Tibetans; like the latter, they also live by the salt trade. As regard race, the Magars have almond-shaped eyes or even open eyes, whereas Mongoloid eyes are very rare.
Magars, often those serving in the British Indian Army in the 19th century, were skilled mountaineers. Subedar Karbir Budhathoki from 5th Gorkha Rifles (GR) scaled Mount Trishul (23,400 feet or 7,130 metres) in the Garhwal Hills, Uttarakhand, India. Parbir Thapa, Amarsingh Thapa, Karbir Budhathoki and Harkabir Thapa, all from 5th GR accompanied mountaineering expeditions in the Alps on three occasions between 1891 and 1899. Dr Harka Gurung confirmed that Karbir Budhathoki and Amarsingh Thapa were pioneers of mountaineering expeditions in Nepal's history. They climbed 39 high-altitude passes and 21 mountain peaks in 86 days in the Karakoram mountain range. Corporal Tejbir Budha from 3rd Gorkha Rifles stayed at Chomolongma/Mt Everest at 7,772 metres (25,499 ft) for two nights in 1922. He was awarded an Olympic Medal by the French president for his courage in 1927.
Sergeant Till Bikram Budhathoki (Gulmi) from 1/1 GR scaled Mt Everest on 23 May 2001, as a team member of the Indian Army Everest Expedition 2001. During the Mt. Everest Golden Jubilee Celebration, three Magars from the Nepalese Army scaled Mt. Everest as team members of the Indo Nepal Army Everest Massif Expedition. Sergeant Lok Bahadur Magar from Okhaldhunga and Corporal Dutta Bahadur Budha from Gulmi scaled Mt Everest on 22 May 2003 and Gunner Kul Bahadur Ale Magar from Lamjung scaled on 26 May 2003.
A number of Magar have distinguished themselves in military service under the British military. In total, 5 Victoria Crosses (out of 13 VCs awarded to Gurkhas) were awarded to the Magars:
- First World War:
- Second World War:
- Subedar Lalbahadur Thapa, Nepal Tara was from 2nd GR. He received VC in Tunisia in 1943.
- Subedar Parte Pun,Chimkhola, Myagdi awarded MM in 2nd WW in 1945
- Rifleman Tul Bahadur Pun,(born 23 March 1923) was from Myagdi. He served 6 GR. He received VC in Burma in 1944. He is a living recipient of the VC. He later achieved the rank of Honorary Lieutenant. In addition to the VC, Pun has been awarded 10 other medals, including the Burma Star.
- Subedar Netrabahadur Thapa, was from 5th GR. He received VC in Burma in 1944.
In the modern era, Sergeant Dip Prasad Pun was decorated with the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross (CGC), Britain's 2nd highest medal for bravery. He was born in Bima Village Development Committee, Myagdi district, West Nepal, and joined British Gurkha Army in January 2000.
Under the leadership of minister Giri Prasad Burathoki, a first ever Magar Convention was held in Bharse of Gulmi District, one of the 12 Magarats in 1957. The objective of the conference was to sensitize the Magars to come forward in the national spectrum.
- Lakhan Thapa (1835–1877), The first martyr of Nepal.[clarification needed]
- Harsha Bahadur Budha Magar, first PHD degree holder from Magar community,
- Master Mitrasen Thapa, folk singer
- Regent Dowager Queen of Nepal Sri Sri Sri QUEEN LALIT TRIPURA SUNDARI DEVI ( SHAH)(1806-32)
- Bhimsen Thapa, Prime minister /Commander-in-chief, Nepalese Army
- Amar Sing Thapa, Kaji, Nepalese Army, During Anglo Nepal War
- Bhakti Thapa, Nepalese Army, During Anglo Nepal War
- UjirSingh Thapa, Colonel< Jitgadi fort, Butwal >, Nepalese Army, During Anglo Nepal War
- Kul Bir Thapa, FIrst VC
- Tul Bahadur Pun, Live VC
- Sher Jung Thapa, Mahavir Chakra (MVC), Indian Army
- Dal Bahadur Rana, famous boxer of Nepal.
- Dhan Singh Thapa, Paramvir Chakra (PVC), Indian Army
- Dip Prasad Pun, Gallantry Award, British Army
- Arun Thapa, popular Nepali singer,
- Giri Prasad Burathoki, Defence Minister
- Balaram Gharti Magar, former Cabinet minister, 11 times minister, and a famous politician.
- Mahabir Pun, recipient of Magsaysay Award, considered Asia's Nobel prize.
- Khagendra Thapa Magar, the shortest man of the world.
- Narayan Singh Pun, founder President of Nepal Samata Party.
- Dr. Govind Prasad Thapa, Additional Inspector General, Nepal Police
- Kuber Singh Thapa, Inspector General, Nepal Police
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- Angelo Ogbonna Mgr, the Overpowered Mgr.
- Subarnakar Rana (1000 AD), writer of 'Treatise on Buddhism'.
- Ganga Rana, from Lamjung, Nepal, wrote Asta Saahasrika Pragya Paarmita in 1070 and Treatise on Buddhism in 1069.
- Shohab Rana, Panchali Pradhan of Magwar Bisaya,(Magar Kingdom - present Dullu-Dailekha area) 1100 AD.
- Gangaram Rana, of Gorkha who helped Drabya Shah, the founder of the Shah Dynasty, to found Gorkha Kingdom in 1559.
- Kaji Jayanta Rana, Army Chief during King Nara Bhupal Shah's rule, later chief (Umrao) of Nuwakot force, 18th century.
- Kaji Ramkrishna Thapa, Army Chief during King Nara Bhupal Shah's rule.
- Kaji Biraj Thapa, the first Chief of Nepalese Army, 1743–1744.
- Kaji Sarbajit Ran, Moolkaji, Army Chief of Nepal (for 4 months) 1785. Upon relinquishing Army Chief, The Chief Administrator i.e. Prime Minister.
- Bandu Rana, Moolkaji.
- Prabal Rana, Moolkaji.
- Abhimansingh Rana Magar, Nepalese Army Chief, 1845–1846.
- Puran Singh Ale Magar, commander of Gorkhali unification war against Limbuwan and Sikkim in the rule of Pratap Singh Shah.
- Hobir Ale (1907–1990), freedom fighter, then government had declared bounty on head for his political conviction.
- Dal Bahadur Thapa (1907–1945), joined the Indian National Army, supporting the Japanese against the British in World War II, for which he was executed at Delhi.
- Ek Dev Ale (1924–1969), freedom fighter, fought during Indian independence movement by joining Aajad Hind Army (1941–1947), was a social reformer.
- Dilip Singh Ale (1926–2003), freedom fighter. Took part in Janamukti Sena, Birat Nagar Camp Quarter Master, to topple autocracy and bring democracy in 1950.
- Buddha Singh Rana (1934–1962) took part in Indian Independence Movement.
- Suresh Ale, founding Secretary General (executive chief) of Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities
- Professor Jagat Bahadur Singh Burathokey, Head of the Geography Department (Tribhvan University). Father of Geography in Nepal.
- M. S. Thapa, political thinker, first Magar Attorney of Nepal, President of Rastriya Janamukti Party (राष्ट्रिय जनमुक्ति पार्टी )- a political party for the liberation of Nepalese people on the basis of proportionate representation.
- Gore Bahadur Khapangi (b. August 10, 1946), Minister
- Bam Kumari Budha, first Magar woman to become member of then Nepal's parliament ( Rastriya Panchyat).
- Ram Bahadur Thapa / Badal, Defence Minister, General Secretary, Communist Party of Nepal (United Maoist).
- Major General Bhagwan Singh Thapa, Rai Bahadur Sahib, Commander Kashmir State Forces, I.O.M (Indian Order of Merit)
- Brigadier Bhupendra Thapa Magar, Brigadier General of Nepal Army and Secretary of Royal Palace during Gyanendra Shah's Government.
- Colonel Lacchman Singh Thapa, Adjutant Quarter Master General, Kashmir State Forces, Resident of Srinagar, Kashmir State (India).
- DIG Parbati Thapa, first Magar woman to hold a distinguished position as the Deputy Inspector General of Nepal Police.
- Sangini Rana, leading figures of Women's Rights Movement in Nepal.
- Rashmi Thapa Magar, founding President of National Indigenous Women's Forum
- Raj Pal Thapa, radio comedian
- Bal Ram Thapa, political cartoonist
- Hemata Thapa, first Magar entrepreneur in Canada
- Kabita Ale, folk singer Nepal
- Shyam Thapa, football player of India
- Sanjeev Kumar Thapa, Indian Army as a Brigade Commander.
- Pyar Singh Thapa, architect
- J.P. Thapa, engineer
- Nar Bahadur Budhathoki, first Magar Maj General of Nepalese Army after the fall of Rana autocracy.
- Lt Colonel Lal Bahadur Pun, first Nepalese citizen to pick up the rank of Lt Col in two century old service to the British Army.
- Top Bahadur Magar, Justice of Supreme Court, Nepal.
- Govinda Prasad Thapa, former AIGP, PhD,
- Barshaman Pun, Minister, Nepal Government,
- Trilok Pati Thapa, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.
- Kesharjung Baral, PhD, Professor, Vice Chancellor, Pokhara University, Nepal.
- Som Ale, PhD, famous wildlife biologist, the Snow Leopard Conservency's Regional Conservation Director, USA.
- Pramila Thapa, Nepal's female black-belt champion and world black-belt Tae Kwon Do
- Khadga Garbuja Magar, popular folk singer.
- Bansi Rana, pioneer of the mobile vocational training sector in Nepal.
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- Shintoo Sati Sheng, Kangwachan, Sikkim and Nepal, before Lichhabi Rule in Nepal.
- Aramudi, Nepaladesyasya Raja, Kali Gandaki Region, 8th century.
- Jeetu Magar, Chha-Bisa Kot, Rolpa, donated present-day Dang district to his son-in-law.
- Bali Hang Rana Magar, Baldeng Gadhi extended from Pokhara to Gorakhpur, 12th century, west of Palpa.
- Mukunda Sen, Tansen-Palpa and Butwal, 11th century
- Gajalaxman Singh, Makawanpur Gadhi.
- Micha Khan, Nuwakot-Syangja
- Khancha, Dhor
- Dalsur Ghale Magar, Lig Lig Kot (Gorkha) 1548-1559
- Mansingh Khadka Magar, Gorkha, until 1559
- Tulu Paija Magar, Pakhapani
- 2011 Census, Nepal Government.
- http://www.ukmagar.com/abt%20magar.htm, Retrieved on 02 Nov 09.
- Ministry of Defence. 1965. Nepal and the Gurkhas. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.p.27.
- Tribal Ethnography of Nepal, Volume II, by Dr. Rajesh Gautam and Asoke K. Thapa Magar.
- Eden Vansittart. 1993 (reprint). Sohab Rana Magar was also a ruler in Dullu Dailekh, western Nepal in AD 1100 (the earliest copper plate inscription from Nepal, 1977); a copper plate. The Gurkhas. New Delhi:Anmol Publications. p.21.
- Northey, W. Brook & C. J. Morris. 1927. The Gurkhas Their Manners, Customs and Country. Delhi : Cosmo Publications. (122-125)
- Brian Hodgson and Captain T Smith also give this information. Eden Vansittart. 1993 reprint. The Gurkhas. p.84.
- Dor Bahadur Bista. 1972. People of Nepal. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar. p.62.
- Eden Vansittart. 1993 (reprint) The Gurkhas. New Delhi:Anmol Publications. p.82.
- Ministry of Defence. 1965. Nepal and the Gurkhas. London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office. p.23.
- Pradeep Thapa Magar. 2000. Shah Vanshiya Rajkhalak ra Magar haru. Kathmandu: Jilla Memorial Foundation.
- Tek Bahadur Shrestha. 2003. Parvat Rajyako Aitihasik Ruprekha. Kirtipur: T.U.
- Dr Swami Prapannacharya. (1994-95) Ancient Kirant History. Varanasi: Kirateshwar Prakashan. p.518.
- Hark Gurung, Iman Singh Chemjong, B.K. Rana, Prof. Raja Ram Subedi, Prof. Jagadish Chandra Regmi etc. support the conclusion of Aramudi being the king of Kali Gandaki Region.
- Mahesh Chaudhary. 2007. "Nepalko Terai tatha Yeska Bhumiputraharu". p.9
- Tek Bahadur Shrestha. Op. cit.
- Balaram Gharti Magar, who has been researching the names of different peaks, places, and rivers in Nepal for a long time, confirms the name is "Arimodi." The name was transcribed as "Aramudi" by Kashmiri Sanskrit historian Kalhana in his book Rajatarangini.
- Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- A Short Note on King Aramudi and Other Magar Rulers of Kali Gandaki Region, by B. K. Rana, http://www.nipforum.org/king_aramudi.pdf, Retrieved 2 November 2009.
- Baburam Acharya, Nepalako Samkshipta Itihasa (A short history of Nepal), edited by Devi Prasad Bhandari, Purnima No. 48, Chaitra 2037 (March–April 1981), Chapter VII: Pachhillo Licchavi Rajya (I. Sam. 642-880 Am.) (the later Licchavi Dynasty, circa AD 542-800). pp. 1-5.
- P.N.K. Bamzai. 1994. Culture and Political History of Kashmir. Vol 1. Ancient Kashmir. New Delhi: MD Publications Pvt Ltd. p.131.
- Sufi, G.M.D. 1974. Kashir a History of Kashmir. Vol 1. New Delhi:Light & Life Publishers. pp.54-55.
- Karna Bahadur Budha Magar, Nepali-Magar Pang-English Dictionary. Kathmandu.
- "Magar Haruko Europeli Natedar."Himal. Barsha 5.Anka 3.2052BS.p.38.
- Rishikesh Shaha. 1975. An Introduction of Nepal. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar. p.38.
- Balaram Gharti Magar. 1999. Roots. Tara Nath Sharma (Tr.). Lalitpur: Balaram Gharti Magar.
- Balaram Gharti Magar, 1999. Ibid.
- Bista, 1996:66
- Dhakal, 1996
- Dor Bahadur Bista. 1972. People of Nepal. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar. p.664.
- Eden Vansittart. 1993 (Reprint). The Gurkhas. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. p.67.
- Rishikesh Shaha. 1975. p.32.
- Army Chiefs' Historical Record. Army Museum. Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal.
- Dor Bahadur Bista. 1972. p.64.
- Tony Hagen. 1970. Nepal the Kingdom in the Himalayas. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. p.84.
- R.D. Palsokar. 1991. History of the 5th Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force), Vol III. 1858 to 1991. Shillong:The Commandant, 58 Gorkha Training Centre. p.31.
- Himal. 2010. Gorkha ra Sherpa. p.157. Lalitpur:Himal Association.
- Everest News - Sim, accessed on 9 February 2010.
- Y.M. Bammi. 2009. Gurkhas of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors. p.523.
- Everest South Side Expedition: Indian & Nepalese Army, webpage: K2News3, accessed on 4 February 2010.
- Y.M. Bammi. 2009. Gorkhas of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors. p.93.
- Pradeep Thapa Magar. 2000. Veer Haruka pani Veer Mahaveer. p.9.
- Gurkha gets UK's 2nd highest medal for bravery. Himalayan Times[when?]
- B. K. Rana - Sanchhipta Magar Itihas 2003 - pp 82
- Dr Harsha Bahadur Budha. Kiratvamsha & Magars. p.498.
- Tek Bahadur Shrestha. 2003. Parvat Rajya ko Itihasik Ruprekha. Kirtipur: Nepal & Asia Research Centre. p.99.
- Dhanabajra Bajracharya. 2064 BS. Gopalraj Vanshawali Aitihasik Vivechana. Kirtipur:T.U.
- B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas, 2003, pp.82/83.
- B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 - pp 83 - 87
- B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 - pp 87
- B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 -pp 88-90
- Subedi, Rajaram. Magar Jati ko Nalibeli. http://magarstudiescenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/magarjati.pdf
- King Aramudi and Other Magar Rulers of Kaligandaki region/Magarat
- 8th century
- defeated Kashmiri king Jayapida in Kali Gandaki Region."
- B. K. Rana, Sanchhipta Magar Itihas, 2003, p.25, p.96 Kalhana's Rajatarangini]. Op cit. "Kashmiretihas, Hanuman Prasad Shastri Acharya", 1968, New Delhi, India.
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- Nar Bahadur 'Naru Thapa'. ibid.
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