Mayor of Manila
|Mayor of The City of Manila|
Seal of the City of Manila
|Appointer||Elected via popular vote|
|Term length||3 years|
|Inaugural holder||Arsenio Cruz-Herrera|
|Website||Office of the Mayor of Manila|
The Mayor of Manila (Tagalog: Alkalde ng Lungsod ng Maynila) is the head of the executive branch of the Manila's government. The mayor holds office at Manila City Hall. Like all local government heads in the Philippines, the mayor is elected via popular vote, and may not be elected for a fourth consecutive term (although the former mayor may return to office after an interval of one term). In case of death, resignation or incapacity, the vice mayor becomes the mayor.
Prior to the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi, Manila was a Muslim chiefdom headed by datus. From the defeat of Rajah Sulayman's forces in 1595 to the passage of the Maura Law in 1895, the chief executive of the city was appointed by the Spanish government to a person of Spanish descent. The highest position a Filipino was able to hold was the cabeza de barangay. With the passage of the Maura Law, the office of capitan municipal was established, with the people electing their own town heads, although the Spanish retained considerable influence and can veto decisions.
With the eruption of the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War, the position reverted to an appointive head. With the advent of World War II, President Manuel L. Quezon appointed Jorge B. Vargas as "mayor of Greater Manila" (forerunner of Metro Manila) in 1941. With the liberation of Manila in 1945 by combined Filipino and American soldiers under the United States Army and the Philippine Commonwealth Army including local recognized guerrillas against the Japanese Imperial forces, the earlier setup was used once again.
With the amendment of the city's charter in 1951, the position became an elective post. The first mayoral election was in 1951, and Manila's congressman from the 2nd district Arsenio Lacson defeated incumbent Manuel de la Fuente. After the declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos, Manila and nearby cities like Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay and Makati, were overshadowed by the office of the governor of the newly created Metro Manila, whom Marcos appointed his wife, Imelda Marcos, to the position.
With Arsenio Lacson becoming the first elected Mayor, the City of Manila underwent The Golden Age, was revitalized, and once again became the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the outbreak of the war. After Mayor Lacson's term in the fifties, the city was led by Mayor Antonio Villegas during most of the 60's, and Mayor Ramon Bagatsing for nearly the entire decade of the 70's until the 1986 Edsa revolution.
Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are often collectively considered as "the Big Three of Manila" for their rather long tenures as the City Hall's chief executive (continuously for over three decades, from 1952 - 1986), but more importantly, for their indelible contribution to the development and progress of the City and their lasting legacy in uplifting the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila.
With the ouster of Marcos during the People Power Revolution, President Corazon Aquino vacated all local executive officials and appointed officers in charge (OIC) in their place; she appointed party-mate Mel Lopez as OIC of Manila. Local elections were held in 1988, and Lopez was elected as mayor. The Local Government Code was enacted in 1991, and standardized the powers of Manila's mayor making it at par with other cities in the country.
The office of the mayor is often used as a springboard for further political ambitions. In 1961, Lacson bolted the Nacionalista Party to become the campaign manager of the Liberal Party's Diosdado Macapagal's presidential campaign. After Macapagal's victory, Lacson returned with the Nacionalistas and became a critic of the Macapagal administration. Lacson would've been likely the Nacionalista's candidate for the presidency in 1965, had not death intervened in 1962. In 1998, the sitting mayor of Manila, Alfredo Lim, did run as the Liberal Party's candidate for the presidency, but was beaten by Joseph Estrada, finishing fifth in a field of ten candidates, garnering 9% of the vote.
The longest serving Mayor of the City of Manila is Mayor Ramon Bagatsing, who continuously served as the city's chief executive from 1971 until 1986. His tenure could have been longer if his term was not disrupted by the forced resignation of all local government unit heads and the appointment of officers in charge in their place after the 1986 revolution, to which Bagatsing fully supported and complied with, voluntarily handing over his position to the officer in charge Mel Lopez.
Appointive position (1901–1951)
- Arsenio Cruz-Herrera - August 7, 1901-September 18, 1905
- Félix Roxas - September 19, 1905-January 15, 1917
- Justo Lukban - January 16, 1917-March 6, 1920
- Ramón Fernández - March 7, 1920-July 16, 1923
- Eulogio Rodriguez July 17, 1923-February 8, 1924, January 5, 1940-August 28, 1941
- Miguel Romuáldez - February 9, 1924-August 31, 1927
- Tomás Earnshaw - September 1, 1927-December 31, 1933
- Juan Posadas, Jr. - January 1, 1934-January 4, 1940
- Juan G. Nolasco - August 29, 1941-December 23, 1941
- Jorge B. Vargas - December 24, 1941-January 26, 1942
- Leon Guinto January 27, 1942-July 17, 1944
- Hermenegildo Atienza - July 18, 1944-July 18, 1945
- Juan G. Nolasco - July 19, 1945-June 6, 1946
- Valeriano Fugoso - June 7, 1946-December 31, 1947
- Manuel de la Fuente - January 1, 1948-December 31, 1951
Elective position (1952–present)
- Arsenio Lacson - January 1, 1952-April 15, 1962
- Antonio Villegas - April 16, 1962-December 31, 1971
- Ramon Bagatsing - January 1, 1972-March 26, 1986
- Mel Lopez - March 26, 1986-December 1, 1987, February 3, 1988-June 30, 1992
- Gregorio Ejercito - December 2, 1987-February 2, 1988
- Alfredo Lim - June 30, 1992-March 27, 1998, June 30, 2007-June 30, 2013
- Lito Atienza - March 27, 1998-June 30, 2007
- Joseph Estrada - June 30, 2013-June 30, 2016
- Manila mayoral election, 1951
- Manila mayoral election, 1955
- Manila mayoral election, 1959
- Manila mayoral election, 1963
- Manila mayoral election, 1967
- Manila mayoral election, 1971
- Manila mayoral election, 1980
- Manila local elections, 1988
- Manila local elections, 1992
- Manila local elections, 1995
- Manila local elections, 1998
- Manila local elections, 2001
- Manila local elections, 2004
- Manila local elections, 2007
- Manila local elections, 2010
- Manila local elections, 2013
- Manila local elections, 2016
Vice Mayor of Manila
The Vice Mayor is the second-highest official of the city. The vice mayor is elected via popular vote; although most mayoral candidates have running mates, the vice mayor is elected separately from the mayor. This can result in the mayor and the vice mayor coming from different political parties.
The Vice Mayor is the presiding officer of the Manila City Council, although he can only vote as the tiebreaker. When a mayor is removed from office, the vice mayor becomes the mayor until the scheduled next election.
Appointive position (1901–1951)
- Ramón J. Fernández - August 7, 1901-September 18, 1905
- Justo Lukban - September 19, 1905-September 18, 1908, January 16, 1917-March 6, 1920, March 7, 1920-July 16, 1923, July 17, 1923-February 8, 1924
- Juan Posadas, Jr. - September 19, 1908-September 18, 1911
- Ramón J. Fernández - September 19, 1911-January 15, 1917
- Honorio Lopez - February 9, 1924-August 31, 1927, September 1, 1927-December 31, 1933
- Jorge B. Vargas - January 1, 1934-January 4, 1940
- Hermenegildo Atienza - January 5, 1940-August 28, 1941, August 29, 1941-December 23, 1941, December 24, 1941-January 26, 1942, January 27, 1942-July 17, 1944
- Joaquin R. Roces - July 18, 1944-July 18, 1945, July 19, 1945-June 6, 1946, June 7, 1946-December 31, 1947, January 1, 1948-December 31, 1951
Elective position (1952–present)
- Jesus Marcos Roces - January 1, 1952-December 30, 1959
- Antonio J. Villegas - December 31, 1959-April 15, 1962
- Herminio A. Astorga - April 16, 1962-December 31, 1967
- Felicisimo Cabigao - January 1, 1968-December 31, 1970
- Mel Lopez - January 1, 1971-December 31, 1971
- Martin B. Isidro, Sr. - January 1, 1972-December 31, 1975
- James Barbers - January 1, 1976-March 26, 1986
- Jaime C. Lopez - March 26, 1986-March 27, 1987
- Gregorio Ejercito - March 28, 1987-December 1, 1987
- Ernesto A. Nieva - December 2, 1987-February 2, 1988, March 27, 1998-May 19, 1998
- Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr. - February 3, 1988-November 30, 1991, June 30, 1998-June 30, 2007
- Ernesto V.P. Maceda, Jr. - December 1, 1991-June 30, 1992
- Lito Atienza - June 30, 1992-March 27, 1998
- Hilario C. Silva - May 20, 1998-June 30, 1998
- Isko Moreno - June 30, 2007-June 30, 2016