|— Comune —|
|Comune di Monza|
|Province||Monza and Brianza (MB)|
|• Mayor||Roberto Scanagatti (PD)|
|• Total||33.03 km2 (12.75 sq mi)|
|Elevation||162 m (531 ft)|
|Population (April 30, 2009)|
|• Density||3,700/km2 ( 9,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||Saint John the Baptist, Saint Gerardo dei Tintori|
|Saint day||June 24, June 6|
Monza listen (help·info) (Lombard: Mùnscia; Latin: Modoetia) is a city and comune on the river Lambro, a tributary of the Po in the Lombardy region of Italy, about 15 km north-northeast of Milan. It is the capital of the Province of Monza and Brianza. Monza is best known for its Grand Prix motor racing circuit, the Autodromo Nazionale Monza.
On June 11, 2004 Monza was designated the capital of the new province of Monza and Brianza. The new administrative arrangement came fully into effect in summer 2009; previously, Monza was a comune within the province of Milan. Monza is the third-largest city of Lombardy and is the most important economic, industrial and administrative centre of the Brianza area, supporting a textile industry and a publishing trade. Monza also hosts a Department of the University of Milan Bicocca, a Court of Justice and several offices of regional administration. Monza Park is one of the largest urban parks in Europe.
Geography and topography
Monza is located in the high plains of Lombardy, between Brianza and Milan, at an altitude of 162 metres (531 ft) above sea level. It is 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the centre of the region's capital, although when considering the cities borders, they are separated by less than 5 km (3 mi). Monza ia about 40 km (25 mi) from Lecco and Como. Monza shares its position with Milan in the same metro area, and is a big part of its new province.
Monza is crossed from north to south by the river Lambro. The river enters Monza from the north, between Via Aliprandi and Via Zanzi streets. This is an artificial fork of the river, created for defensive purposes in the early decades of the 14th century. The fork is known as Lambretto and it rejoins the main course of the Lambro as it exits to the south, leaving Monza through the now demolished ancient circle of medieval walls. Another artificial stream is the Canale Villoresi, which was constructed in the late 19th century.
Quality of life
Monza has a typical submediterranean climate of the Po valley, with cool, short winters and warm summers; temperatures are very similar to nearby Milan, averaging 2 °C (36 °F) in January, the coldest month, to about 23 °C (73 °F) in July, the warmest. Precipitation is abundant, with most occurring in fall and the least in winter and summer; despite this, the city and surrounding area usually doesn't suffer drought in any season.
Monza Park and the gardens of the Royal Palace are of notable interest.
This is one of the principal historic parks in Europe, and one of the biggest to be enclosed by walls. The park has an area of approximately 685 hectar (1693 acres) and is located in the northern part of the city, between the towns of Lesmo, Villasanta, Vedano al Lambro and Biassono. The gardens of Villa Reale in Monza Park are an invaluable natural, historical, and architectural monument.
The Royal Villa is one of the most important monuments of the city. The villa was built during the period of Austrian rule in the Duchy of Milan as a symbol of luxury and magnificence of the Habsburg court. It was commissioned by the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and dedicated to her fourth son, the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, who at that time, resided in Milan as governor of Lombardy. He wanted a Villa outside the city to spend the summer season and for hunting. Work began in 1777 under the guidance of Giuseppe Piermarini. and it consists of a central body and two wings that branch off at right angles. It is possible to access Monza Park from the gardens of the Royal Villa.
Earliest known settlement in the Bronze Age
Funerary urns found in the late-19th-century show that humans were in the area dating at the least to the Bronze Age, when people would have lived in pile dwelling settlements raised above the rivers and marshes.
The Roman period
During the reign of the Roman Empire, Monza was a town known as Modicia. During the 3rd century BCE, the Romans subdued the Insubres, who were Gauls that had crossed the Alps and settled around Mediolanum (now Milan). A Gallo-Celtic tribe, who may also been Insubres, founded a village on the Lambro. The ruins of a Roman bridge named 'Arena' can be seen near today's Ponte dei Leoni (Lions Bridge).
The Lombard invasion of Italy (6th century CE) was an important event in Monza's history. Authari, the Lombard king married Theodelinda, the daughter of Garibald I, the Bavarian ruler. The new queen ordered the construction near the River Lambro of an oraculum, a sort of small church, that today is part of the basilica of Saint John. Paul the Deacon, an 8th-century historian of the Lombards writes about this:
"[...] Theudelinda regina basilicam costruxerat, qui locus supra Mediolanum duodecim milibus abest, [...]" ("Theodelinda built a queen basilica, whose position is twelve miles from Milan").
There is also a legend that Theodelinda, asleep while her husband was hunting, saw a dove in a dream that told her: modo (Latin for "here") indicating that she should build the oraculum in that place, and the queen answered etiam, meaning "yes". According to this legend, the medieval name of Monza, "Modoetia", is derived from these two words.
The Glossary of Monza probably dates to the early decades of the 10th century. Monza returned to the importance it had lost after the death of Queen Theodelinda. Berengar I of Italy (850–924) located the Imperial Headquarters in Monza, with the city government being issued several decrees to the empire itself. A fortified castrum was constructed to resist the incursions of the Hungarians.
Under Berengar's reign, Monza enjoyed a certain degree of independence: it had its own system of weights and measures, and could also seize property and mark the deeds with their signatures. Berengar was very generous evident by the donation of numerous works to the Monza Cathedral, including the famous cross, and by giving large benefits to its 32 canons and other churches.
In 980 Monza hosted emperor Otto II from Germany inside the walled city. In 1000 his son, Otto III became the protector of Monza and all of his possessions: Bulciago, Cremella, Lurago, Locate and Garlate.
The economic power of the city and its prestige as the seat of coronation was affirmed during the 10th century, and was further established over the next two centuries by prompting a rivalry with Milan that tried to subdue Monza with various vicissitudes. In 1018, Aribert (970–1045), Lord of Monza, was consecrated bishop of Milan, resulting in the city losing its independence from its powerful rival. These years saw a power struggle between the emperor Conrad II, and Aribert. When the emperor died, he left important donations to the church and clergy of Monza.
In the 12th century, it is estimated that the city of Monza had about 7000 inhabitants. Agriculture was the main occupation, although craftwork had begun to grow in importance. In 1128, at Monza in the Church of San Michele, Conrad III of Swabia, the Hohenstaufen family, was crowned King of Italy by the Archbishop of Milan, Anselmo della Pusterla. In the third decade of the century, Gerardo dei Tintori was born in Monza and was the founder of a hospital. He was later a saint.
In 1135 Conrad III was compelled to give his kingdom to Lothair III (according to another numbering, Lothair II). That same year, Pope Innocent II took the Church under the protection of Monza apostolic, and confirmed the property and privileges. The following year, Lothair guaranteed the independence of the clergy of Monza from Milan. Monza then regained its autonomy, which was not limited to the feudal government of lands and goods, but also extended to the spiritual realm. While it is denied to others, the archpriest of Monza was confirmed as having the authority to command the clergy of his church (year 1150). This autonomy was never absolute, as the church of Monza was not able to completely cut ties with the bishop of Milan.
Frederick I Barbarossa twice (1158 and 1163) visited his uncle Conrad III in the city of Monza. In this period the city again returned to great importance, regaining its independence from Milan, a city very hostile to the emperor. Frederick declared that Monza was his property and also gave the Curraria (the right to levy customs on the streets), a right usually granted only to the city of "home room".
During the period of the struggle against Milan and other cities of the Lombard League, Monza was primarily an administrative center for Barbarossa. Monzan independence lasted until 1185 when Barbarossa ended the conflict with the Lombard League with the peace of Constance. He allowed the city of Milan to self-rule its subjects again, while taking possession of the Treasury of the Cathedral.
As early as the 12th century Monza was a fortified place, although the free city within changed the very structure of the medieval city. In fact, agricultural activity was joined by the craftsman making shoes and wool processing developed and on large farms outside the city walls. During this period, the city was again linked to its political choices, and to Milan in 1221 when it supported Monza, where the mayor had been excommunicated by Enrico from Settala, the Archbishop of Milan.
In the 13th century, the city of Monza had a distinctive symbol in the Arengario. Monza was destined to clash in spirit with the Duomo, the center of religious power in the late 13th century. The thirteenth Pratum magnum is a notable place, with a large open market area, equivalent to today's Piazza Trento e Trieste.
In 1242, the archpriest of Monza Alberich from Oreno, agreed to commit the treasures of the city to help Milan who was fighting against Frederick II. Unfortunately at the time of their return, a golden cup heavy magnum was missing. To support a second war against Frederick II, the Milanese borrowed a cup of gold from Monza; for its return it was necessary to resort to excommunication, which was imposed in 1254: the cup was returned with 17 gems missing, as shown an inventory of 1275.
Monza was increasingly linked to events in Milan and shared its history and enemies: in 1255 the city was sacked by the Ghibellines, and in 1259 and Ezzelino Romano tried to seize the castle of Monza, but was repelled although the village was set on fire.
It was fate, however, that the treasure of the basilica still passed from hand to hand as a pledge as security for loans received: in 1273 it is held at the Humble of St. Agatha (the present church Carrobiolo) in Monza in 1311 and is engaged in some bankers that will safety transfer to Avignon. Among the members of the delegation was Martino Aliprandi, a resident of Milan, although he belonging to an important family of Monza. Only in 1319 was the treasure returned to Monza, thanks to Matteo I Visconti, former Vicar and Lord Imperial of Milan.
Monza remained involved in the struggles between the Della Torre and the Visconti. It was manned by soldiers of Milan in 1275. After the decisive 1277 victory of the Viscontis at the Battle of Desio was occupied by Archbishop Ottone Visconti and the Marquis of Monferrato, Guglielmo (1278). The following year, the town was declared a possession of the mayor and the people of Milan.
The first Jubilee in the history of Christianity occurred in 1300. It oversaw the start of the reconstruction of the Monza cathedral. The Jubilee was promoted by Matteo Visconti.
The new emperor Henry VII, who was to be crowned king of the Romans, was not crowned with the traditional iron crown at Monza (alienated by Torriani), as he brought a special crown with him. In 1312, Monza adhered to the Ghibelline faction.
Enrico Aliprandi, a member of an eminent family of Monza, joined the Torriani faction, with many enlisted soldiers under his command. He was acclaimed Lord of Monza by the people in 1322. The same year, Luchino Visconti and Francesco Garbagnate demolished the walls of Monza to prevent it from defending itself against attacks from those supporting Milan.
In 1325 Galeazzo I, after a long siege conquering the city, began building new defenses. Among the projects was the bifurcation of the River Lambro (the branch Lambretto) and the construction of a castle, the third in Monza. The first building consisted of a high tower 42 metres (138 ft) tall, becoming the site of the "prison of the ovens." The Castle of Monza was later expanded to such a degree that it was necessary to demolish the St. Mary of Ingino church as space was needed for new buildings. Two other towers were also built along the River Lambro. In 1327 Galeazzo I was imprisoned in the ovens of Monza, by order of emperor Louis IV. He was released the next year.
In April 1329, Pinalla Aliprandi, with a handful of Visconti knights, regained Monza, which was occupied by the troops of Louis IV the Bavarian. Azzone Visconti granted that Monza was again allowed construction of surrounding walls, the work beginning in 1333 and lasting until 1381. Martino Aliprandi was Chief of Monza from 1334 to 1336, overseeing the construction of the walls and the fortification of the fortress.
In 1354 Pope Innocent VI proclaimed the undisputed right to impose, in the Cathedral of Monza, the Crown of Italy, the Iron Crown. In 1380 Gian Galeazzo Visconti donated the castle to his wife Catherine of Monza. An outbreak of plague spread in 1402. His son, Giovanni Maria imprigionatavi, died in 1404. In 1407 Estorre Visconti was proclaimed Lord of Monza and began minting Monza's own coinage.
Giovanni Maria Visconti (1412) the acclaimed Duke of Milan, contended that he succeeded Filippo Maria Visconti. While overseeing the repair to the besieged Castle of Monza, Visconti was hit in the leg by a stone that was thrown by a siege, dying from the fracture in the first days of January 1413.
In 1500, King Louis XII of France defeated and took prisoner Ludovico il Moro, occupying the Duchy of Milan and Monza soon after. With the battle of Pavia (1525) the French were defeated by the imperial forces of Charles V, with Francesco Sforza II returning to the Duchy of Milan. Spain was then the predominant power over Italy.
In 1526 there was a new siege in Monza. Antonio de Leyva, the governor of Milan and commander of the imperial troops, sacked the city in 1527. In the same year, a mine exploded causing the partial destruction of the Castle of Monza.
Antonio de Leyva became Lord of Monza in 1529, devoting himself to the government regulation of ecclesiastical affairs, controlling their taxes and duties and shutting the doors of those who did not pay.
After the Congress of Bologna (1529–1530), Charles V was crowned with the Iron Crown.
Francesco Sforza died without heirs in 1535, thereby opening the question of succession to the throne of the Duchy of Milan. Between 1537 and 1557 the estate was governed by Luigi de Leyva.
The plague, still raging in 1630, caused a profound demographic and economic crises. In 1648, Monza and its territory became the property of the Milanese Durini family.
The Duchy of Milan and Monza remain subject to the Spanish crown until the early 18th century. Undoubtedly this was the beginning of the economic decline of the region, and in general all of Italy, in the 17th century.
Coat of arms of the families
At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession (1713), the Duchy of Milan was assigned to the House of Habsburg of Austria. This historical period is a season of rebirth of the city, with a considerable development of agriculture and crafts.
The Empress Maria Theresa, built the Royal Villa of Monza for her son Ferdinand, Governor of Milan (1777–1780). The choice of Monza was due not only to the beauty of the landscape, but also its strategic position and the fact of that it was connected to Vienna as well as for its proximity to Milan. The construction was completed in three years by the architect Giuseppe Piermarini from Foligno.
At the conclusion of the Italian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte (1796), the Duchy of Milan was sold to the French Republic and then entered the Cisalpine Republic (which, in 1802, became the Italian Republic).
Disliked by the French as a symbol of aristocratic power, the Royal Villa was sold to be demolished, but the protests of citizens stopped the demolition even if the abandonment caused a degradation of the complex.
Two-thirds of the gold and silver treasures of the famous Duomo of Monza were delivered to the mint of Milan, which turned them into coins to pay for military expenses. Bonaparte also takes possession of the treasures of the Basilica and the Chapter Library books that are transferred to the National Library in Paris. Instead, the Iron Crown is left provisionally in Monza.
In 1805, the Italian Republic became the Kingdom of Italy with its capital in Milan. On May 26, 1805, the Iron Crown was in Milan for the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte, who only puts on his head, uttering the famous phrase "God gave it to me, woe to anyone who touches it." Napoleon also established the Order of the Iron Crown. Monza received the title of Imperial City. The Viceroy of Italy, Eugene de Beauharnais was appointed in August 1805 and he settled in the Villa of Monza. The building was restored back to life a new and brilliant period, on this occasion, took the name of Villa Reale. In 1807 the Castle was finally demolished in Monza, with its stone wall is built the fence of the park from Beauharnais wanted to complement the Villa Reale.
In the fall of the First Empire (1815), Austria was annexed by the Italian territories in the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia them with their own oppressive government officials: Monza is included in the province of Milan. The Monzesi asked for the restoration of all the treasures that Napoleon had taken from Monza. Promoter of the request was the Dean Monsignor Prugnola: March 2, 1816, the city back in the possession of the books of the Treasury and Chapter Library. The return codes and also handsomely bound, but is missing from the treasury of the Crown Agilulf, stolen and melted in Paris.
By decree of the emperor Francis I of Austria in the year 1816 Monza officially became a city. In 1818 the Archduke Ranieri, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia reuses the Villa of Monza.
The next emperor Ferdinand I of Austria had himself crowned King of Lombardy and Venetia in Milan with the Iron Crown (September 6, 1838), with the opportunity to extend various benefits to the city. New roads are opened, including the way of King Ferdinand (now Via Vittorio Emanuele), in 1842 the Bridge of Lions is erected near the old Roman bridge Arena; installed gas lighting at night. In 1841 was inaugurated the first railway in northern connecting Milan and Monza.
The craft of wool was in decline and becoming more important than the felt hat industry and connected. The first rail road built in North Italy was the Milan and Monza railroad opened for service on August 17, 1840.
During the Five Days of Milan (March 22–23, 1848) also rose Monza chasing the Austrian garrison regiment Geppert. Monza The Patriots, who joined the Lecco, then fought in Milan Porta Tosa (now Port Victoria). Driven out the Austrians, in Monza formed a "City Guard" at which women give the banner Monza. After the first war of Independence, the return of the Austrians in 1849, the General Radetzky and then the Archduke Maximilian (brother of emperor Franz Joseph, then Emperor of Mexico) settled in the Villa Reale.
The thing that mattered most was, as usual, the treasure of the basilica, which was taken by General Radetzky and brought to Mantua in 1849, but returned in the same year. In 1859, at the end of the second war of independence, the whole of Lombardy was freed by the Austrians and enters the Kingdom of Sardinia. But the treasure and the Iron Crown, after a stop in Verona, had been transferred to Vienna by the Austrians, all solemnly back at Monza only at the conclusion of the third war of independence, December 6, 1866. And the Iron Crown at Monza has remained there permanently, with two exceptions: in 1878, when, in Rome, it was placed on the coffin of Vittorio Emanuele II and during the two world wars when it was held in the Vatican.
In 1861, after the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, the city had about 25,000 inhabitants. In 1862, Giuseppe Garibaldi visited Monza. On the death of the hero, twenty-five years after his visit, Monza dedicated a monument by the sculptor Bazzaro, in the homonymous square.
In 1868, King Vittorio Emanuele II created the Order of the Crown of Italy whose sign appears in the Iron Crown. In 1870 the public library was opened, housed at first in various municipal offices (later, in 1938, transformed the seminary will be transferred in the ancient Palazzo degli Studi). On August 22, 1891 was opened the first hospital dedicated to Saint Gerardo dei Tintori, patron of the city with Saint John the Baptist, thanks to the large donation by King Umberto I.
On December 31, 1895 Monza had about 37,500 permanent inhabitants, with "internal roads 31" length of about 42 km. Around these streets there were lands that produced wheat, corn, fodder, potatoes, oats, rye and vegetables in general. Other source of wealth was the breeding of silkworms which were processed for spinning cocoons of Brianza. On August 17, 1899 founded the Catholic weekly "The Citizen" (director was the lawyer Filippo Meda), still in operation.
The anarchist Gaetano Bresci, who had left from United States, arrived on July 27, 1900 at Monza, and took lodgings at a house. As the royal park, near the Royal Villa that was open to the public, he went there to inquire into the habits of the King Umberto I. He obtained information that the king would go to the gym for a meeting on the evening of Sunday 29. That evening at 22.30 or so, Bresci shot the king who had stood on the carriage and waved to the crowd. To conmemorate the spot and atone for the crime, his successor Vittorio Emanuele III ordered the construction of an Expiatory Chapel on Via Matteo da Campione.
At the beginning of the century Monza counted 41,200 inhabitants; in 1911 it was among the eight most industrialized centers of Italy. The main activities are those related to the processing of cotton, the mechanics of the hat factories and industries.
The First World War (1915–1918) also involved Monza as the other cities of Italy, at the end of the war the city has decided to recall its six hundred grandiose monument to the fallen (1932) by sculptor E. Pancera, located in the square Trento and Trieste (the Old Market Square).
Between the two world wars, the city's industrial structure did not undergo substantial changes, while recording significant increases in production volumes. The building development was resulting in significant and sometimes messy and in 1925 he tried to impose order on urban development with a specific plan. Old buildings were torn down that looked like an obstacle, it was modified the old Market Square in Piazza Trento e Trieste in front of which was built the new City Hall, designed by architect Brusconi. Inside the park are built the Autodromo (1922) and a golf course (1925).
The Second World War, between 1940 and 1945, meant for Monza bombing, destruction and civilian casualties, and, after the September 1943 Italian Armistice, German occupation. The Monza events were significant in particular for the partisan resistance. In 1943 was founded the Anti-Fascist Action Front spearheaded by Gianni Citterio. In 1945, with the city in the garrison of German troops, some Monza tried to weave relations with the German command to the population to avoid reprisals and obtained an armistice from zero hours of April 25, while discussing the latest agreements reached. Order of capitulation to the Germans who then left the city. On April 25 the new city administration took office. After the war, Monza counted 85 fallen partisans, including Gianni Citterio (Gold Medal of Military Valor), Ferdinando Tacoli (Silver Medal of Military Valor) and Elisa Sala.
In the second half of the century the city experienced a significant increase in population and a subsequent building development. With the development of various activities occurring problems related to traffic and links to nearby towns, especially with Milan.
At the beginning of the century Monza had about 120,000 inhabitants.
The University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza set up its campus for the Faculty of Medicine and Science organization. For the economic importance and its surroundings, the city became the capital of the Province of Monza and Brianza (June 11, 2004).
In the spring of 2009 completes the controversial relocation of the Piazza Trento e Trieste (the ancient medieval Pratum magnum). With the opportunity is brought to light part of the course of the canal once used by craftsmen weavers.
In 1996 the association of "Committee San Fruttuoso", launched the idea of a tunnel instead of Viale Lombardia (SS36), one of the busiest streets in Europe, six-lane through the houses. The province responded with a proposed partial burial discovered, raised ramps and interchanges, the project immediately returned to the sender. From 1996 to 2008, it spent twelve years full of surprises. The modern idea of a tunnel coalesces first civil society, mayors and former mayors, local politicians and even the world without distinction of party. The Province proposes remedies and the artificial tunnel. Anas, Region and other government agencies will try several times but without success, to clear this. In 2008, the Minister of Infrastructures, Antonio Di Pietro, accepted to agrees to approve the project for the burial of the SS36 between Monza and Cinisello Balsamo. The work began in January 2009 with some preliminary and completed in April 2013. The project is fully funded (230 million euros) from State, regional, provincial and municipalities of Monza, Cinisello Balsamo and Muggiò ALSI and Spa (South Lambro Spa water – the water purifier Monza and Brianza).
The Coat of Arms
The medieval coat of arms
The oldest coat of arms used by the town of Monza is a celestial shield,which depicts a crescent moon red with a white semi-circle to the chin. The coat of arms, goes back to 13th century. If it finds a representation in miniature of the cover placed on the Code of Statutes of the City is still preserved in the Chapter Library of the Duomo of Monza. According to the interpretation of the historic Bonincontro Morigia, which refers to the medieval symbolism, the moon is a symbol of imperial power, reflected in the white sun that is related to the papal power.
The current coat of arms
The coat of arms bearing the motto and the iron crown was originally granted a seal, according to the Morigia, by Otto III, at the time of his coronation in 996 at Monza. It was later recognized by decree of May 6, 1835 Emperor of Austria Ferdinand I of Austria was confirmed in almost identical form by a decree of 1933. In 2003 it was redesigned so that it was a version used uniformly by all municipal offices.
In the course of its history Monza withstood thirty-two sieges, but the Porta d'Agrate is all that remains of its original walls and fortifications. Nearby is the nunnery in which the nun of Monza was enclosed in Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi.
Monza is famous for its Romanesque-Gothic Duomo of Saint John. There Theodelinda's centrally-planned Greek-cross oraculum ("chapel of prayer") from c. 595 (its foundations remaining under the crossing of nave and transept) was enlarged at the close of the 13th century by enclosing the former atrium within the building. The fine black and-white marble arcaded façade was erected in the mid-14th century by Matteo da Campione. The campanile was erected in 1606 to designs by Pellegrino Tibaldi. In the frescoed Chapel of Theodelinda is the Iron Crown of Lombardy, supposed to contain one of the nails used at the Crucifixion. The treasury also contains the crown, fan and gold comb of Theodelinda, and, as well as Gothic crosses and reliquaries, a golden hen and seven chickens, representing Lombardy and her seven provinces. Though the interior has suffered changes, there is a fine relief by Matteo da Campione representing a royal Lombard coronation, and some 15th-century frescoes with scenes from the life of Theodelinda.
The historical centre also include:
- the church of Santa Maria in Strada, with a rich terra-cotta façade of 1393
- the Broletto or Arengario, the 14th-century palace of the civic commune, raised on an arcade of pointed arches, with a tall square machiolated tower terminating in a sharp central cone.
- the church of San Pietro Martire
- the memorial Cappella Espiatoria, built in 1900 in memory of the assassinated King Umberto I of Italy
- Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie (15ht century)
- Oratory of St. Gregory (17th century)
- church of Santa Maria al Carrobiolo (16th century)
Nearby, the Villa Reale (royal palace) originally built by Giuseppe Piermarini in 1777 for the archduke Ferdinand of Austria, lies on the banks of the Lambro, surrounded by Monza Park, one of the largest enclosed parks in Europe.
Other villas includes the Mirabello, Mirabellino, Durini, Crivelli Mesmer, Prata, Archinto Pennati, Calloni and Villa Carminati-Ferrario.
Culture and education
The cuisine of Monza is typical of Insubria and Brianza. It is linked to culinary traditions and the bond with the nearby areas, especially with the Milanese cuisine. Some typical dishes are cassoeula, the buseca, risotto and polenta (combined with various ingredients).
There are at least seven libraries:
- Civica Library, Padre Reginaldo Giuliani 1/a, road
- Library of boys, Trento e Trieste 6 square
- Saint Gerard Library, Lecco 12 road
- Cederna Library, Zuccoli 16 road
- Triante Library, Monte Amiata 60 road
- S. Rocco Library, Zara 9 road
- Park of Monza Library, Villa Mirabello
The Duomo's (Cathedral) Museum collection keep treasures from the time of Queen Theodolinda, including the Hen with chicks, the Cross of Agilulf, and the famous Iron Crown.
Theatres and cinemas
Tourism and Events
- F1 Grand Prix, at the beginning of September
- Feast of Saint Gerardo dei Tintori, on June 6
Monza is internationally known for the Autodromo Nazionale Monza motor racing circuit, home to the Italian Grand Prix, and previously to the Alfa Romeo team. The circuit is inside the "Parco di Monza", a park that is double the size of New York's Central Park.
Monza is also known for the "Villa Reale", a Habsburg family residence built in 1777.
In 2006 Monza hosted the World Cyber Games tournament.
In July 2005 and July 2008, Monza hosted the "International Gran Galà Marching Show Bands" at Stadio Brianteo (with the USA band Blue Devils, 11 times WMSB Champion of the World).
Monza railway station is the most important railway junction in the Brianza area. Every few minutes, trains travel between Monza and Milano via the Suburban Railway (Line S9) and via local trains that connect Monza to Lecco, Como/Chiasso (CH) and Bergamo/Brescia. Also some EuroCity trains stop in Monza. In early 2008, work began on the expansion of Subway Line MM1 from Milano/Sesto San Giovanni to Monza Bettola. Monza railway station is located in Enrico Arosio Road.
Monza can be reached through the following motorways: A4-E64 (Turin-Milan-Venice), A52 (North Ring of Milan), A51 (East Ring of Milan). State road (SS.36 – Nuova Valassina) connects the city to Lecco and Sondrio. A 2 km long tunnel has been added and is alleviating traffic problems that are happening in the city. The center is off limits to cars and other motorized vehicles.
- Theodoric the Great, (454–526), King of Ostrogoths
- Agilulf, (c.550–616) King of Lombardy
- Theodelinda, (c.570–628), Queen of Lombardy
- Gundeberga, (c.591–652), Queen of Lombardy and Italy
- Adaloald, (602–626), King of Lombardy and Italy
- Rothari, (606–652), King of Lombard and Italy
- Berengar I of Italy, (c. 845–924) King of Italy
- Saint Gerardo dei Tintori, (c. 1134 or 1140–1207), saint
- Bonincontro Morigia, (14th century) historical writer
- Giuseppe Arcimboldo, (1527–1593) painter
- Carlo Amati, (1776–1852) architect
- Paolo Mantegazza, (1831–1910) neurologist, physiologist and anthropologist
- Mosè Bianchi, (1840–1904) painter
- Luigi Talamoni, (1848–1926) priest and blessed
- Emilio Borsa, (1857–1931) painter
- Gerolamo Gaslini, (1877–1964) olear industrialist and philanthropists
- Ernesto Ambrosini, (1894–1951) atlethe
- Costantino Nivola, (1911–1988) painter and sculptor
- Fiorenzo Magni, (1920) cyclist
- Valentino Giambelli, (1928) footballer and builder
- Vittorio Brambilla, (1937–2001) F1 racer
- Adriano Galliani, (1944) footbal manager
- Daniele Massaro, (1961) footballer
- Filippo Galli, (1963) footballer
- Fabrizio Barbazza, (1963) F1 racer
- Gianni Bugno, (1964) cyclist
- Marco Monti, (1964) footballer and youth coach
- Davide Van De Sfroos, (1965) singer
- Francesco Antonioli, (1969) footballer
- Pierluigi Casiraghi, (1969) footballer
- Marco Castoldi, (1972) singer
- Massimo Brambilla (1973), footballer
- Stefano Mauri, (1980) footballer
Gallery of Notable People
Agilulf, King of Lombardy
Theodelinda, Queen of Lombardy
Saint Gerardo dei Tintori, saint
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, painter
Paolo Mantegazza, neurologist, physiologist and anthropologist
Fiorenzo Magni, cyclist
Vittorio Brambilla, F1 racer
Adriano Galliani, football manager
Gianni Bugno, cyclist
Davide Van de Sfroos singer
Marco Castoldi, singer
Stefano Mauri, footballer
This city is the third place of Lombardy for number of population, with 122.712 citizens (58.744 males; 63.968 females). In Monza, the regular immigrants are 13.238, with 121 different nationalities.
The five most common surnames in 2011 in the city are :
The average age of the citizens of Monza from 2007 to 2011 is :
- 2007 – 43,8 years old
- 2008 – 44,0 years old
- 2009 – 44,2 years old
- 2010 – 44,3 years old
- 2011 – 44,4 years old
 – Demografic Stats
||Lissone, Desio, Seregno||Villasanta, Vedano al Lambro, Arcore||Vimercate, Cornate d'Adda, Merate|
|Muggiò, Limbiate, Varedo||Concorezzo, Agrate Brianza, Trezzo sull'Adda|
|Cinisello Balsamo, Paderno Dugnano, Bollate||Milan, Sesto San Giovanni, Segrate||Brugherio, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Melzo|
- AA.VV. Biographyc Dizionary of Italians. Rome, 1960 (Aliprandi Pinalla).
- AA.VV. Church of St. Mark in Milan. Milan, 1998. Pag. 56–57 (Aliprandi Martino).
- Il Duomo di Monza, 1300–2000, VII Centenary of foundation. Silvana Ed., 1999.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Monza|
- City of Monza
- Monza Transportation
- Province of Monza and Brianza
- Official website of the University of Milano-Bicocca
- Official website of Saint Gerard's Hospital, nationally relevant with very high specialization