Nicolás Bravo

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Nicolás Bravo
Nicolas Bravo.jpg
Half-length, posthumous portrait.
Seal of the Government of Mexico.svg
11th President of Mexico
In office
10 July 1839 – 19 July 1839
Preceded by Antonio López de Santa Anna
Succeeded by Anastasio Bustamante
In office
26 October 1842 – 4 March 1843
Preceded by Antonio López de Santa Anna
Succeeded by Antonio López de Santa Anna
In office
28 July 1846 – 4 August 1846
Preceded by Mariano Paredes
Succeeded by José Mariano Salas
Regent of the Mexican Empire
In office
11 April 1822 – 18 May 1822
Succeeded by Augustine I of Mexico
1st & 4th Vice President of Mexico
In office
10 October 1824 – December 1827
Succeeded by Anastasio Bustamante
In office
12 June 1846 – 6 August 1846
Preceded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Succeeded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Personal details
Born (1786-09-10)10 September 1786
Chilpancingo, Mexico
Died 22 April 1854(1854-04-22) (aged 67)
Chilpancingo, Mexico
Political party Centralist

Nicolás Bravo Rueda (10 September 1786 – 22 April 1854) was a Mexican politician and soldier. He distinguished himself in both roles during the 1846–1848 U.S. invasion of Mexico.

Army[edit]

During the War of Independence (1810–21), Bravo fought alongside Hermenegildo Galeana and after alongside José María Morelos in the campaign of the south. In 1811 with Hermenegildo Galeana, Bravo obtained the military command of the province of Veracruz. He was also involved in the defense of the Congress of Chilpancingo.

In 1817 the royalists took him prisoner and it was only in 1820 that he was able to recover his freedom. He allied himself with the Plan de Iguala and, on 27 September 1821, he entered Mexico City with the trimphant Ejército Trigarante (in the "Army of the Three Guarantees").

Politics[edit]

Presidential portrait.

When independence was attained, he was named advisor of state by the constituent congress.

When Agustín de Iturbide was crowned emperor, he took up arms in opposition and formed a governing body in Oaxaca. Bravo created an army and marched on Mexico City, by way of Puebla. When Iturbide was overthrown, Bravo, Guadalupe Victoria and Pedro Celestino Negrete governed the country until in 1824 there was elections, Bravo lost the elections and held the position of vice-president of the republic under the presidency of Guadalupe Victoria (1824–29).

Political parties had not yet formed at this time in Mexican history, and in their place the political elites of the country were associated with two Masonic lodges, the centrist Scottish Rite (los escoseses) and the somewhat more liberal York Rite (los yorquinos). Bravo was the Grand Master of the Scottish Rite lodge in Mexico between 1823 and 1827, a time when this lodge had captured most positions of political influence in the country. Over the course of 1827, however, the opposing York Rite Masons began to gain swiftly in power and influence. Fearing that his side would lose its privileged position, Bravo led a military insurrection (known variously as the Revolution of Tulancingo, after the central Mexican town where it was centered, or the Revolt of Montaño, after a minor political figure who nominally headed it) against the York-controlled federal army. The rebellion was a fiasco; launched on 23 December 1827, it only attracted a few hundred rebels and fell apart when Bravo was captured on 7 January 1828. Despite calls for his execution, Bravo was exiled to Ecuador. He returned to Mexico in 1829 after a change in national government.

He occupied several governmental positions and in 1839 was named temporary president of the republic.

During the Mexican War he fought against the United States in the battle of Castillo de Chapultepec - Battle of Chapultepec; on 13 September 1847 he was made prisoner.

Death[edit]

He died in his hacienda de Chichihualco in Guerrero on 22 April 1854, he died at the same time that his wife, then a rumor that they were poisoned began.

References[edit]

  • Zárate, Julio (1880), «La Guerra de Independencia», en Vicente Riva Palacio, México a través de los siglos, III volumen, México: Ballescá y compañía, consultado en 6 de mayo de 2012.
Political offices
Preceded by
Antonio López de Santa Anna
President of Mexico
10−19 July 1839
Succeeded by
Anastasio Bustamante
President of Mexico
1842−1843
Succeeded by
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Preceded by
Mariano Paredes
President of Mexico
28 July - 4 August 1846
Succeeded by
José Mariano Salas
Preceded by
Office creation
Vice President of Mexico
1824−1827
Succeeded by
Anastasio Bustamante