As of 2011 Nirmali had a population of 20,173. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Nirmali has an average literacy rate of 59%, lower than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 68%, and female literacy is 49%. In Nirmali, 17.6% of the population is under 6 years of age.
President special train has been used twice in Indian history. The first was used by Dr. Rajendra Prasad to come from Patna to Nirmali.
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Nirmali, a small town in the arms of two well known rivers, Koshi & Balaan. The famous leader Jayaprakash Narayan took refuge here after breaking away from Hanuman nagar Jail (Nepal) during the freedom struggle.The town has been famous for its extensive rice production.