North–South Expressway (Malaysia)

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For North–South Expressway in Singapore, see North–South Expressway, Singapore.

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North–South Expressway
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Route of the North-South Expressway
Route information
Part of AH2
Maintained by PLUS Malaysia Berhad with its subsidiary Projek Lebuhraya Usahasama Berhad
Length: 772 km (480 mi)
E1 Northern Route: 460 km (286 mi)
E2 Southern Route: 312 km (194 mi)
Existed: 1982 – present
History: Completed in 1994
Major junctions
North end: Bukit Kayu Hitam, Kedah
  E15 AH140 Butterworth-Kulim Expressway
E36 Penang Bridge
E28 Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Bridge
(Penang Second Bridge)
E35 Guthrie Corridor Expressway
E1 AH2 AH141 New Klang Valley Expressway
E6 AH2 North–South Expressway Central Link
E18 Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway
E29 Seremban-Port Dickson Highway
E3 AH143 Second Link Expressway
E14 AH2 Johor Bahru Eastern Dispersal Link Expressway
South end: Johor Bahru, Johor
Location
Major cities: Jitra, Alor Star, Sungai Petani, Butterworth, Taiping, Kuala Kangsar, Ipoh, Gopeng, Tapah, Tanjung Malim, Rawang, Kuala Lumpur, USJ, Putra Heights, Putrajaya, Sepang, Nilai, Seremban, Alor Gajah, Melaka, Yong Peng, Ayer Hitam, Skudai, Johor Bahru
Highway system

The North–South Expressway (NSE) (Malay: Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan; Jawi: ليبوهراي اوتارا-سلتن; Chinese: 南北大道) is the longest expressway in Malaysia with the total length of about 772 km (480 mi) running from Bukit Kayu Hitam in Kedah near the Malaysian-Thai border (connects with Phetkasem Road (Route 4) in Thailand) to Johor Bahru at the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia and to Singapore. The expressway links many major cities and towns in western Peninsular Malaysia, acting as the 'backbone' of the west coast of the peninsula. It is also known as PLUS Expressway, named after the highway's concessionaire, Projek Lebuhraya Utara Selatan Berhad (North South Expressway Project; abbreviated as PLUS). But today the company changed its name into Projek Lebuhraya Usahasama Berhad (PLUS) which is a company subsidary of PLUS Malaysia Berhad (PMB).

This expressway passes through 7 states on the peninsula: Johor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak, Penang and Kedah. It provides a faster alternative to the old Federal Route 1, thus reducing travelling time between various towns & cities. The expressway is part of the Asian Highway Network of route AH2.

Overview[edit]

It is divided into a few main routes; E1 (northern route from Bukit Kayu Hitam to Kuala Lumpur) which also incorporates the E36 Penang Bridge, E2 (southern route from Kuala Lumpur to Johor Bahru). The New Klang Valley Expressway (NKVE), part of the E1 route, starts from Bukit Raja, Klang to Jalan Duta exit in Kuala Lumpur. The North–South Expressway Central Link (ELITE) E6, opened in 1997, is a highway built to bypass Kuala Lumpur. It starts from the Shah Alam interchange on the NKVE E1, past Subang Jaya, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur International Airport, and ends at the Nilai Utara interchange on the E2. The E3 is the Second Link Expressway (Linkedua), which is connected to Malaysia-Singapore Second Link, starting at Senai Airport and ends in Tanjung Kupang before crossing. PLUS also obtained the Seremban-Port Dickson Highway, E29, which starts at Mambau in Seremban with an interchange at Lukut and ending near the town centre in Port Dickson and Butterworth–Kulim Expressway, E15 which starts from Butterworth, Penang to Kulim in Kedah.

E1 and E2 end in Kuala Lumpur. The E1 from the North becomes the New Klang Valley Expressway which further links into the NSE Central Link or for people travelling to Kuala Lumpur exit at the Jalan Duta Toll Plaza which links to the Sprint Expressway E23 and the Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 1 (MRR1) 28. The E2 from the South ends in Sungai Besi which then changes into the E37 Kuala Lumpur-Seremban Expressway with interchanges to the Federal Highway Route 2 via Salak Expressway E37, Sungai Besi Expressway E9 and heads towards the city centre.

South section of North–south Expressway, facing towards Kuala Lumpur, near Ayer Keroh, Malacca
Signs in the expressway

History[edit]

The planning of the national expressway started in the mid-1970s. In 1977, the Malaysian Ministry of Works received official instructions to draw plans of an expressway from the Malaysia-Thailand border (Bukit Kayu Hitam) to the Johor Causeway. In 1980, the Malaysian Highway Authority (LLM) was established to monitor all the work progress of the first national expressway.

At that time, all construction works of the expressway between 1982 to 1988 was solely administered by Malaysian Highway Authority before being transferred to Projek Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan Berhad (PLUS) on 13 May 1988. As the construction works continued, segments of the highway were opened to traffic as they were finished to help fund the construction works. PLUS continued all the construction works from 1988 until completion in 1994, 15 months earlier than scheduled. The expressway was officially opened on September 8, 1994 by Malaysian prime minister at that time, Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad.

Pioneer routes[edit]

The pioneer route for E1 North–South Expressway Northern Route was the Bukit Kayu HitamJitra section (both in Kedah), which was initially a part of the Federal Route 1, opened in 1 April 1985.

The pioneer route for E2 North–South Expressway Southern Route was a toll section of the Kuala Lumpur-Seremban Expressway (Sungai Besi - Labu), opened on 16 June 1982. However, the section from Razak Mansion to Sungai Besi toll plaza was not acquired by PLUS Malaysia Berhad but rather by ANIH Berhad (Formerly known as MetaCorp Sdn Bhd) – as a result, the section was not included in the southern route.

Monuments[edit]

The North-South Expressway monument in Rawang Rest and Service Area (R&R) (North bound), Selangor.

The North-South Expressway Monument was erected at Rawang Rest and Service Area (R&R) (North bound) near Rawang, Selangor on 8 September 1994. At this monument there is a capsule that contains documents that have been cultivated by the Fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohammad in conjunction with the official opening of the North-South Expressway on September 8, 1994.

Malay[edit]

"Tugu ini melambangkan mercu kejayaan Pembinaan Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan yang menghubungkan Bukit Kayu Hitam di sempadan Thailand di Utara dengan Johor Bahru di tambak bersempadan dengan Singapura di Selatan. Pembinaan Lebuhraya sepanjang 848km ini, yang merentasi paya gambut dan hutan yang belum pernah diterokai serta bukit-bukit granit, merupakan suatu pencapaian yang menakjubkan. Juga mengkagumkan ialah cara pragmatik di mana gabungan usaha di antara pihak awam dan swasta yang telah berjaya menghasilkan pencapaian ini. Lebuhraya ini adalah hasil usaha bersama Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia, sebuah badan berkanun, yang telah membuat perancangan awal dan memulakan pembinaan, dengan Projek Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan Berhad, sebuah syarikat swasta yang telah dianugerahkan Konsisi untuk membiayai, merekabentuk, membina, mengendali dan menyelenggarakan Lebuhraya ini. Hasil usaha ini mempamerkan kejayaan satu wawasan menjadi sebuah kenyataan setelah merintangi pelbagai cabaran yang mengancam untuk menghalangnya. Ia memberi pengesahan terhadap kejayaan dasar penswastaan Kerajaan dan melambangkan suatu usaha kebangsaan yang dibiayai dan dikendalikan dengan jayanya oleh rakyat Malaysia. Tugu ini juga memperingati usaha gigih pemimpin-pemimpin Kerajaan, perkhidmatan awam, ahli perniagaan, institusi kewangan, perunding, jurutera dan pakar-pakar bidang, serta kontraktor dan tenaga buruh, yang telah memainkan peranan penting masing-masing dalam menghadapi cabaran-cabaran dan membawa projek ini kepada tahap kejayaannya. Mereka yang menggunakan Lebuhraya ini diharap bukan sahaja akan menikmati sumbangan usaha pelbagai pihak dalam pembinaannya bahkan dapat menghargai sumbangan Lebuhraya ini terhadap pembangunan negara."

English[edit]

"This monument symbolizes the pinnacle of successful for the construction of the North-South Expressway that connects Bukit Kayu Hitam bordering with Thailand in the North to Johor Bahru in the Causeway bordering with Singapore in the South. The construction of the 848km expressway, across the peat swamps and forests and hill untapped granite hills, is an amazing achievement. Also impressive is the pragmatic way in which the combined efforts between the public and private sectors has resulted in this achievement. The expressways is the result of joint efforts of the Malaysian Highway Authority, a statutory body, which has been planned early and begin construction, with the Projek Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan Berhad (PLUS) (North-South Expressway Project), a private company that was awarded concessions to finance, design, construct, operate and maintain the expressways. Such efforts shows an improvement visions into a reality after across a variety of challenges that threaten to stop. It acknowledged the success of the Government and represents a national effort funded and operated successfully by Malaysians. This monument also commemorates the efforts of leaders of the Government, public services, businesses, financial institutions, consultants, engineers and consultants, as well as contractors and labours, which has played an important role in facing their challenges and bring this project to a level of success. Those who use this expressway will be expected not only to enjoy the various parties in the construction efforts, but also can even appreciate this expressway contribution towards national development."

Current developments[edit]

Six-lane widening works[edit]

Plans to upgrade the stretches from Slim River to Tanjung Malim, Tanjung Malim to Rawang (Northern route), Seremban to Senawang, and Senawang to Ayer Keroh (Southern route) was approved by the government for better traffic flow. It was completed in 2007.

Kuala Lumpur-Penang Through Traffic (Ipoh North (Jelapang) – Ipoh South)[edit]

The Jelapang and Ipoh South toll plazas were demolished in 2009 to make a non-stop route across Ipoh. This is achieved through the construction of two local-express lanes for each side, which are only accessible via EXIT 138 Ipoh South Exit (for northbound traffic) and EXIT 141 Ipoh North Exit (for southbound traffic). The toll plazas in Ipoh are therefore relocated at each ends of the local-express lanes.

The decision to demolish both toll plazas was made as a result of accidents which happened at Jelapang toll plaza. Since the toll plaza was opened in 28 September 1987, there were many accident cases which involved brake failure in heavy vehicles due to hard braking when proceeding downhill to the toll plaza. On 7 June 2008, the new Ipoh North toll plaza (South bound) replacing old Jelapang toll plaza opened to traffic, followed by north bound on 15 August 2008. Beginning 11:00 am on 14 July 2009, the Kuala Lumpur-Penang through traffic is now opened to traffic. With the opening of the 14.7-kilometre (9.1 mi) between Ipoh North (Jelapang) and Ipoh South stretch, highway users are no longer required to stop for toll transactions at the Ipoh North and Ipoh South Toll Plazas.

Fourth Lane additions[edit]

On July 2010, the operator PLUS Expressways Berhad announced that the government has awarded contracts to build a fourth lane on certain stretches of the highway, namely from Shah Alam to Jalan Duta, from Shah Alam to Rawang and from Nilai (North) to Port Dickson. On October 2012, the upgrading works for this project began.

Highways of PLUS[edit]

Codes Highways
E1 and E2
(both AH2)
North–South Expressway (NSE)
E15 Butterworth–Kulim Expressway
E36 Penang Bridge
E6 AH2 North–South Expressway Central Link (NSECL/ELITE)
E3 Second Link Expressway (MSSC/LINKEDUA)
E29 Seremban-Port Dickson Highway (SPDH)
E1 AH2 New Klang Valley Expressway (Part of NSE)
1 (AH2) Skudai Highway (until 1 March 2004 only) and Johor-Singapore Causeway
2 Federal Highway Route 2 (FHR2)

Carriageways[edit]

Generally the expressway consists of 4 lanes, 2 for each direction.

There are some exceptions to this; the following are stretches with 6 lanes or 8 lanes (3 or 4 each way):

Six lane carriageways[edit]

Highways Stretches
North–South Expressway Southern Route Sungai Besi to Ayer Keroh (except Nilai North to Port Dickson stretches)
New Klang Valley Expressway Bukit Raja to Shah Alam
North–South Expressway Northern Route Rawang to Slim River
North–South Expressway Northern Route Sungai Dua to Juru located at Penang
North–South Expressway Central Link Shah Alam to Nilai North
Second Link Expressway Pulai to Ayer Rajah Expressway (Tuas, Singapore)
Penang Bridge Prai to Gelugor

Eight lane carriageways[edit]

Highways Stretches
North–South Expressway Southern Route Nilai North to Port Dickson
New Klang Valley Expressway Shah Alam to Jalan Duta
North–South Expressway Northern Route Bukit Lanjan to Rawang

Speed limit[edit]

North–South Expressway is designed as a free speed expressway therefore the advisory speed limit similar to Autobahn (some stretches are speed restricted to the 110km/h, 120km/h and 130km/h) on the expressway is 110 km/h (70 mph). Although there is advisory speed limit; many drivers have no general limit. Many of them uses the expressway for driving at very high speed eventually.

There are some exceptions in some places for several reasons, including:-

60km/h[edit]

  • 1 km before every toll plaza: 60 km/h (to help the traffic to slow down)

80km/h[edit]

  • Bukit Lanjan Interchange : 80 km/h (to control traffic flow of NKVE and the main link of northern route to avoid accidents) (Selangor)
  • Kuala Kangsar - Jelapang: 80 km/h (highland stretch with dangerous corners) (Perak)

90km/h[edit]

  • Bukit Kayu Hitam - Jitra : 90 km/h (expressway section with at-grade junctions) (Kedah)
  • Sungai Dua - Juru : 90 km/h (due to heavy traffic at Penang Bridge) (Penang)
  • Jelapang – Ipoh South : 90 km/h for main carriageways; 70 km/h for toll-free local-express lanes (to control the traffic flow of the non-stop main carriageways and the toll-free local-express lanes) (Perak)
  • Gua Tempurung stretch : 90 km/h (highland stretch) (Perak)
  • Bukit Lanjan - Jalan Duta : 90 km/h (steep uphill/downhill stretch) (Kuala Lumpur)
  • Sungai Besi - Bangi : 90 km/h (due to high traffic capacity) (Kuala Lumpur- Selangor)

110km/h[edit]

  • Ayer Keroh - Pagoh (southbound)
  • Ayer Hitam - Yong Peng (northbound)
  • Second Link Expressway
  • Skudai - Johor Bahru
  • Bukit Lanjan - Sungei Buloh

120km/h[edit]

  • Sungei Buloh - Tanjung Malim

130km/h[edit]

  • Ipoh South - Simpang Pulai
  • Nilai South - Bangi

Generally those with police roadblocks and open tolling are speed restricted to 110km/h. However some of the expressway stretches are 120km/h and 130km/h.

Notable incidents[edit]

  • On March 27, 2008, a Singaporean family of 4 were killed in an accident near Tangkak, Johor, leaving behind a 2-month-old baby.
  • On December 2, 2008 at about 0315 hrs, a Singaporean biker, who was returning from a trip from Hat Yai, Thailand was killed after crashing his bike into an overturned lorry near Simpang Empat, Melaka.
  • On December 7, 2008, 10 passengers were killed in a bus crash at km 146.8 between Tangkak and Pagoh, Johor.
  • On 13 April 2009, six people were killed in double decker express bus crash at km 443 near Rawang, Selangor.
  • On 26 December 2009, ten passengers were killed and two injured after a northbound double-decker express bus skidded and hit the road divider at Km 272.8 about 8 km from the Ipoh South toll plaza near Ipoh, Perak.
  • On 10 October 2010, twelve people were killed and more than 50 others injured in an highway crash involving two buses, three cars and a van at Km 223, near the Simpang Ampat interchange, Melaka.

Measures taken to reduce accidents[edit]

Two-Lane 110 km/h highway.

Most heavy vehicles are only allowed to travel 80–90 km/h by law. Considering that two lanes are inadequate for smooth traffic flow, the expressway was widened due to the increasing number of accidents along this highway.

It has been recently decided that the two-lane 110 km/h highway will be upgraded to a three-lane 110 km/h highway to prevent accidents, however another lane was being added on the selected stretches to increase it to four-lane.

Toll system[edit]

Toll booths at Sungai Besi Toll Plaza, leading to Kuala Lumpur. Almost all of the south section of the expressway is covered by the closed system.
Toll plaza with Smart Tag and Touch & Go lanes

The North–South Expressway is a toll expressway with two toll systems:-

  • Open system – Users only have to pay at certain toll plazas within the open system range for a fixed amount. "Open system" is used in the following stretches of the North–South expressway:
  1. Batu Tiga and Sungai Rasau, (Selangor)
  2. Bukit Kayu Hitam, (Kedah)
  3. Jitra, (Kedah)
  4. Penang Bridge,
  5. Kempas, (Johor)
  6. Johor-Singapore Causeway,
  7. Lukut and Mambau, (Negri Sembilan)
  8. Tanjung Kupang, Taman Perling and Lima Kedai (Johor).
  • Closed system – Users collect toll tickets or PLUSTransit cards before entering the expressway at respective toll plazas and pay an amount of toll at the exit toll plaza plus the distance from the plaza to the Limit of Maintenance Responsibility (LMR). Beginning 18 June 2013, the PLUSTransit reusable transit cards will be implemented at all PLUS expressways network to replace the transit ticket.

PLUS Travel Incentive Program[edit]

Effective 1 January 2009, Class 1 highway users traveling on the expressway (NSE) and North–South Expressway Central Link (ELITE) between 12:00 midnight and 7:00 am will be able to enjoy 10 percent toll discount. This is part of the PLUS’ initiatives to offer added value to its customers on both highways.

There are three toll incentive packages of the PLUS Travel Incentive Program which will be enjoyed by the customers on the PLUS and ELITE highways which are:-

Incentive One

  • Users of Class 1 vehicles using the highway between 12:00 midnight and 7:00 am will enjoy 10 percent toll discount.
  • Duration : 1 January 2009 until 31 December 2010.

Incentive Two

  • Additional 10 percent toll discount will be given to highway users (Class 1 vehicles only) traveling between 12.00 midnight to 7.00 am on selected six days during Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Chinese New Year, Deepavali and Christmas festive seasons.
  • Duration : 1 January 2009 until 31 December 2010.

Incentive Three

  • Electronic Toll Payment users spending monthly cummulative minimum amount of RM200 will enjoy 5 percent rebate (for usage on PLUS and ELITE highways only)
  • This offer is given to users who are registered with the PLUS Loyalty Program which will be launched later.
  • Duration : Beginning 1 January 2009

Toll rates[edit]

Toll rate classes for every PLUS Expressways Networks (except Penang Bridge)[edit]

Class Type of vehicles Payment Notes
0 Motorcycles
(Vehicles with two axles and two wheels)
Free Except:

Tanjung Kupang Toll Plaza (Malaysia-Singapore Second Link)
TnG
1 Private Cars
(Vehicles with two axles and three or four wheels (excluding taxi and bus))
RM (Cash) TnG TAG
2 Vans and other small good vehicles
(Vehicles with two axles and six wheels (excluding bus))
RM (Cash) TnG TAG
3 Large Trucks
(Vehicles with three or more axles (excluding bus))
RM (Cash) Cash only

Except:
TnG for:
Sultan Iskandar Building (Johor-Singapore Causeway)
Kempas Toll Plaza (North-South Expressway Southern Route)
Lima Kedai, Tanjung Kupang and Perling toll plazas (Second Link Expressway)
4 Taxis RM (Cash) Cash only, paid by passengers only.

Except:
TnG for:
Sultan Iskandar Building (Johor-Singapore Causeway)
Kempas Toll Plaza (North-South Expressway Southern Route)
Lima Kedai, Tanjung Kupang and Perling toll plazas (Second Link Expressway)
5 Buses RM (Cash) Cash only

Except:
TnG for:
Sultan Iskandar Building (Johor-Singapore Causeway)
Kempas Toll Plaza (North-South Expressway Southern Route)
Lima Kedai, Tanjung Kupang and Perling toll plazas (Second Link Expressway)

Toll rate classes for Penang Bridge[edit]

Class Type of vehicles Payment Notes
1 Motorcycles, bicycles or vehicles with 2 or less wheels RM (Cash) TnG
2 Motorcycle with sidecars, cars including station wagon and commercial vehicles on three wheels RM (Cash) TnG TAG For taxis, toll charges are paid by passengers only.
3 Lorries, vans and buses with two axles and four wheels RM (Cash) TnG TAG
4 Lorries, vans and buses with two axles and five and six wheels RM (Cash) Cash only
5 Vehicles with three axles RM (Cash) Cash only
6 Vehicles with four axles RM (Cash) Cash only
7 Vehicles with five or more axles RM (Cash) Cash only
Toll receipt
Toll ticket (Transit ticket)

Toll Abbreviation[edit]

Abbreviation Exits Name of interchanges
AHT 244 Ayer Hitam
AKH 231 Ayer Keroh
ALP 152 Alor Pongsu
ASS 177 Alor Setar South
ASU 178 Alor Setar North
BBR 153 Bandar Baharu
BDR 130 Bidor
BGR 237 Bukit Gambir
BGS 211 Bangi
BKB 118 Bukit Beruntung
BKH 185 Bukit Kayu Hitam
BKM 150 Bukit Merah
BKR 101 Bukit Raja
BRG 124 Behrang
BRT 166 Bertam
BSP 606 Bandar Saujana Putra
BTS 158 Bukit Tambun (South)
BTU 158 Bukit Tambun (North)
BTT Batu Tiga
BTR 119 Bukit Tagar
CKJ 146 Changkat Jering
DMR 106 Damansara
EBN 602 Ebor North
EBS 602 Ebor South
GPG 135 Gopeng
GRN 173 Gurun
HKG Hutan Kampung
HSB 114 Hospital Sungei Buloh
IPU 141 Ipoh North
IPS 139 Ipoh South
JLD 111 Jalan Duta
JRU 160 Juru
JSN 233 Jasin
JTR 182 Jitra
JWI 156 Jawi
KDR 107 Kota Damansara
KJG 210 Kajang
KKS 143 Kuala Kangsar
KLA 608 KLIA
KLI 252 Kulaijaya
KPS 255 Kempas
LBB 120 Lembah Beringin
LKT 2903 Lukut
MAC 245 Machap
MBU 2901 Mambau
NLI 215 Nilai
PBSB 161 Penang Bridge
PDG 175 Pendang
PDN 219A Port Dickson North
PDS 219B Port Dickson South
PGH 238 Pagoh
PLI 223 Pedas/Linggi
PPM 213 Putra Mahkota
PSR 126 Slim River
PTH 605 Putra Heights
PTJ 607 Putrajaya
RAW 116 Rawang
RWS 115 Rawang South
SAT 227 Simpang Ampat (Alor Gajah)
SBG 104 Subang
SBI Sungai Besi
SBN 218 Seremban
SBY 117 Sungai Buaya
SDK 250 Sedenak
SEA 603 Seafield
SGB 113 Sungai Buloh
SGD 165 Sungai Dua
SGR Sungai Rasau
SHA 103/601 Shah Alam
SKD 254 Skudai
SKI 128 Sungkai
SVC 212 Southville City
SNU 253 Senai North
SPP 137 Simpang Pulai
SPR 247 Simpang Renggam
SPS 168 Sungai Petani South
SPU 170 Sungai Petani North
STA 244 Setia Alam
SWG 220 Senawang
TGK 235 Tangkak
TGM 121 Tanjung Malim
TPH 132 Tapah
TPU 148 Taiping North
TBN 138 Tambun
TLK Lima Kedai
TTK Tanjung Kupang
TTP Perling
UPM 209 UPM
USJ 604 USJ
YPS 242 Yong Peng South
YPU 241 Yong Peng North

Facilities along the expressway[edit]

  • Rest and service areas located about 60 km from each other
  • Layby parking areas are located approximately every two junctions
  • Emergency phones every 2 km
  • PLUSLINE hotline number
  • PLUS Ronda (PLUS patrol) service to assist drivers in the event of vehicle problems on the expressway
  • PLUS helicopter patrol unit to monitor PLUS expressways

Records[edit]

Menora Tunnel

List of interchanges[edit]

See also

Commemorative Events[edit]

The North-South Expressway Commemorative Postage Stamps[edit]

The Commemorative Postage Stamps to mark the opening of the North-South Expressway on 1994 was issued by Pos Malaysia on 10 September 1994.[1] The denominations for these stamps were 30 cents, 50 cents, and RM 1.00.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]