Esophagitis (or oesophagitis) is inflammation of the esophagus. It may be acute or chronic. Acute esophagitis can be catarrhal or phlegmonous, whereas chronic esophagitis may be hypertrophic or atrophic.
Symptoms may be relieved by antacids.
Forms of infectious esophagitis are typically seen in immunocompromised people. Types include:
Endoscopy can be used to distinguish among these conditions.
- The most common cause is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, or GORD in Standard English). If caused by GERD, the disease is also called reflux esophagitis.
- Chemical injury by alkaline or acid solutions may also cause esophagitis, and is usually seen in children, as well as in adults who attempt suicide by ingestion of caustic substances
- Physical injury resulting from radiation therapy or by nasogastric tubes may also be responsible.
- Pilel esophagitis
- Alcohol abuse
- Eosinophilic esophagitis is a poorly understood form of esophagitis, which is thought to be related to food allergies.
- Crohn's disease, an autoimmune disease where the immune system inflames the gastrointestinal tract and a type of IBD, can cause oesophagitis if it attacks the oesophagus.
- Certain medications, including doxycycline may cause oesophagitis if taken incorrectly.
Grading of severity
The severity of esophagitis is commonly classified into four grades according to the Los Angeles Classification:
||One or more mucosal breaks < 5 mm in maximal length
||One or more mucosal breaks > 5mm, but without continuity across mucosal folds
||Mucosal breaks continuous between > 2 mucosal folds, but involving less than 75% of the esophageal circumference
||Mucosal breaks involving more than 75% of esophageal circumference
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