Phillis Wheatley

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Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley frontispiece.jpg
Phillis Wheatley, as illustrated by Scipio Moorhead in the Frontispiece to her book Poems on Various Subjects.
Born 1753
West Africa
(likely Gambia or Senegal)
Died December 5, 1784(1784-12-05) (aged 31)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Occupation Poet
Language English
Ethnicity African American
Period American Revolution
Spouse John Peters
Children three
Relatives unknown

Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753 – December 5, 1784) was both the second published African-American poet and first published African-American woman.[1] Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven and transported to North America. She was purchased by the Wheatley family of Boston, who taught her to read and write, and encouraged her poetry when they saw her talent.

The publication of her Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral (1773) brought her fame both in England and the American colonies; figures such as George Washington praised her work. During Wheatley's visit to England with her master's son, the African-American poet Jupiter Hammon praised her work in his own poem. Wheatley was emancipated after the death of her master John Wheatley.[2] She married soon after. Two of her children died as infants. After her husband was imprisoned for debt in 1784, Wheatley fell into poverty and died of illness, quickly followed by the death of her surviving infant son.

Early life[edit]

Phillis Wheatley's church, Old South Meeting House[3]

Although the date and place of her birth are not documented, scholars believe that Phillis Wheatley was born in 1753 in West Africa, most likely in present-day Gambia or Senegal.[4] Wheatley was brought to British-ruled Boston, Massachusetts on July 11, 1761,[5] on a slave ship called The Phillis.[6] It was owned by Timothy Fitch and captained by Peter Gwinn.[7]

At the age of eight, she was sold to the wealthy Boston merchant and tailor John Wheatley, who bought the young girl as a servant for his wife Susanna. John and Susanna Wheatley named the young girl Phillis, after the ship that had brought her to America. She was given their last name of Wheatley, as was a common custom if any surname was used for slaves.

The Wheatley’s eighteen-year-old daughter, Mary, first tutored Phillis in reading and writing. Their son Nathaniel also helped her. John Wheatley was known as a progressive throughout New England; his family gave Phillis an unprecedented education for an enslaved person, and for a female of any race. By the age of twelve, Phillis was reading Greek and Latin classics and difficult passages from the Bible. Recognizing her literary ability, the Wheatley family supported Phillis' education and left the household labor to their other domestic slaves. The Wheatleys often showed off Phillis' abilities to friends and family. Strongly influenced by her studies of the works of Alexander Pope, John Milton, Homer, Horace and Virgil, Phillis Wheatley began to write poetry.

Later life[edit]

In 1773, at the age of twenty, Phillis accompanied Nathaniel Wheatley to London in part for her health, but also because Susanna believed she would have a better chance publishing her poetry there.[8] She had an audience with the Lord Mayor of London (an audience with George II was arranged, but Phillis returned home beforehand), as well as with other significant members of British society, including Selina Hastings, the Countess of Huntingdon, who lent her support to Wheatley's work and allowed a volume of Wheatley's poems, published in London in 1773, to be dedicated to her.[9] In 1774, Phillis Wheatley wrote a letter to Reverend Samson Occom, commending him on his ideas and beliefs of how the slaves should be given their natural born rights in America. Along with her poetry, she was able to express her thoughts, comments and concerns to others.[10] In 1775, Phillis Wheatley sent a copy of a poem entitled, “To His Excellency, George Washington” to him. In 1776, Washington invited Wheatley to visit him at his headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which she did in March of 1776.[11] Thomas Paine republished the poem in the Pennsylvania Gazette in April of 1776.[12]

In 1778, Wheatley was legally freed from slavery by her master's will. His daughter Mary Wheatley died soon afterward. Three months later, Phillis Wheatley married John Peters, a free black grocer. They struggled with poor living conditions and the deaths of two infant children.[13]

Wheatley wrote another volume of poetry but was unable to publish it because of her financial circumstances, the loss of patrons after her emancipation (often publication of books was based on gaining subscriptions for guaranteed sales beforehand), and the competition from the Revolutionary War. However, some of her poems that were to be published in that volume were later published in pamphlets and newspapers.[14]

Her husband John Peters was imprisoned for debt in 1784, leaving an impoverished Wheatley with a sickly infant son. She went to work as a scullery maid at a boarding house to support them. The racism and sexism that marked the era had forced her into a kind of domestic labor that she had not been forced to do while her freedom was held by her masters. Wheatley died on December 5, 1784, at age 31. Her infant son died three and a half hours after her death.[15]

Poetry[edit]

In 1768, Wheatley wrote "To the King's Most Excellent Majesty," in which she praised King George III for repealing the Stamp Act.[2] As the American Revolution gained strength, Wheatley's writing turned to themes that expressed ideas of the rebellious colonists.

In 1770 Wheatley wrote a poetic tribute to the evangelist George Whitefield, which received widespread acclaim. Her poetry expressed Christian themes, and many poems were dedicated to famous figures. Over one-third consist of elegies, the remainder being on religious, classical, and abstract themes.[16] She seldom referred to her own life in her poems. One example of a poem on slavery is "On being brought from Africa to America":[17]

Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land,
Taught my benighted soul to understand
That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too:
Once I redemption neither sought nor knew.
Some view our sable race with scornful eye,
"Their colour is a diabolic dye."
Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain,
May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train.

Historians have commented on her reluctance to write about slavery. Perhaps it was because she had conflicting feelings about the institution. In the above poem, critics have said that she praises slavery because it brought her to Christianity. But, in another poem, she wrote that slavery was a cruel fate.

Many white colonists found it difficult to believe that an African slave was writing excellent poetry. Wheatley had to defend her authorship of her poetry in court in 1772.[18][19] She was examined by a group of Boston luminaries, including John Erving, Reverend Charles Chauncey, John Hancock, Thomas Hutchinson, the governor of Massachusetts, and his lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver. They concluded she had written the poems ascribed to her and signed an attestation, which was included in the preface of her book of collected works: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, published in London in 1773. Publishers in Boston had declined to publish it, but her work was of great interest in London. There Selina, Countess of Huntingdon and the Earl of Dartmouth acted as patrons to help Wheatley gain publication.

In 1778, the African-American poet Jupiter Hammon wrote an ode to Wheatley. He does not refer to himself in the poem, but by choosing Wheatley as a subject, he may have been acknowledging their common ethnicity.[citation needed]

Style, structure, and influences on poetry[edit]

Wheatley believed that the power of poetry is immeasurable.[20] John C. Shields notes that her poetry did not simply reflect novels which she read but was based on her personal ideas and beliefs. Shields writes, "Wheatley had more in mind than simple conformity. It will be shown later that her allusions to the sun god and to the goddess of the morn, always appearing as they do here in close association with her quest for poetic inspiration, are of central importance to her." For example, her poem “Ode to Neptune” signifies her life in many ways. The language of the poem starts out shaky and chaotic but the mood is adventurous yet scary (reflecting much of her life experiences). By the end of the poem the language and attitude seems to generate an emotion of a calm peaceful journey that served of great importance. This poem is arranged into three stanzas of four lines in iambic tetrameter followed by a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter. The rhyme scheme is ababcc."[20][21] Her structure or form of the poetry expressed the tone.

She used three primary elements: Christianity, classicism, and hierophantic solar worship.[22] The hierophantic solar worship is what she brought with her from Africa; the worship of sun gods is expressed as part of her African culture. As her parents were sun worshipers, it may be why she used so many different words for the sun. For instance, she uses Aurora eight times, "Apollo seven, Phoebus twelve, and Sol twice."[22] Shields believes that the word "light" is significant to her as it marks her African history, a past which she has left physically behind.[22]

He notes that Sun is a homonym for Son, and that Wheatley intended a double reference to Christ.[22] Wheatley also refers to "heav'nly muse" in two of her poems: "To a Clergy Man on the Death of his Lady" and "Isaiah LXIII," signifying her idea of the Christian deity.[23]

Shields believes that her use of classicism set her work apart from that of her contemporaries. He writes, "Wheatley’s use of classicism distinguishes her work as original and unique and deserves extended treatment."[24] Shields sums up Wheatley’s writing by characterizing it as "contemplative and reflective rather than brilliant and shimmering."[21]

Legacy and honors[edit]

With the 1774 publication of Wheatley's book Poems on Various Subjects, she "became the most famous African on the face of the earth."[25] Voltaire stated in a letter to a friend that Wheatley had proved that black people could write poetry. John Paul Jones asked a fellow officer to deliver some of his personal writings to "Phillis the African favorite of the Nine (muses) and Apollo."[25] She was honored by many of America's founding fathers, including George Washington, who told her that "the style and manner [of your poetry] exhibit a striking proof of your great poetical Talents."[26]

Critics consider her work fundamental to the genre of African American literature.[27] She is honored as the first African American woman to publish a book and the first to make a living from her writing.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's Second Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers by Henry Louis Gates, Basic Civitas Books, 2010, page 5.
  2. ^ a b Women's Political and S ocial Thought: An Anthology by Hilda L. Smith, Indiana University Press, 2000, page 123.
  3. ^ Adelaide M. Cromwell (1994), The Other Brahmins: Boston's Black Upper Class, 1750-1950, University of Arkansas Press, OL 1430545M 
  4. ^ Carretta, Vincent. Complete Writings by Phillis Wheatley, Penguin Books; New York, 2001.
  5. ^ Odell, Margaretta M. Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and a Slave, Boston: Geo. W. Light, 1834
  6. ^ Doak, Robin S. Phillis Wheatley: Slave and Poet, Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2007
  7. ^ Doak (2007), 'Phillis Wheatley'
  8. ^ Charles Scruggs (1998). G. J. Barker-Benfield, ed. Portraits of American Women: From Settlement to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 106. 
  9. ^ Catherine Adams; Elizabeth H. Pleck (2010). Love of Freedom: Black Women in Colonial and Revolutionary New England. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  10. ^ White, Deborah. Freedom On My Mind. Bedford St.Martins. pp. 146–147. 
  11. ^ Grizzard, Frank E. (2002). George Washington: A Biographical Companion. Greenwood, CT: ABC-CLIO. p. 349. 
  12. ^ Vincent Carretta, ed. (2013). Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth Century. Louisville: University of Kentucky Press. p. 70. 
  13. ^ Darlene Clark Hine; Kathleen Thompson (2009). A Shining Thread of Hope. New York: Random House. p. 26. 
  14. ^ Yolanda Williams Page, ed. (2007). Encyclopedia of African American Women Writers, Volume 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 610. 
  15. ^ Encyclopedia of African American Women Writers, Volume 1. p. 611. 
  16. ^ Phillis Wheatley page, comments on Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, University of Delaware, accessed Oct. 5, 2007
  17. ^ http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/Wheatley/brought.html
  18. ^ Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, edited by Henry Louis Gates and Anthony Appiah, Basic Civitas Books, 1999, page 1171.
  19. ^ Ellis Cashmore, review of The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature, Nellie Y. McKay and Henry Louis Gates, eds., New Statesman, April 25, 1997.
  20. ^ a b Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism",!!! American Literature 52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 101.
  21. ^ a b Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism." American Literature 52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 100.
  22. ^ a b c d Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism", American Literature 52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 103.
  23. ^ Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism", American Literature 52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., p. 102.
  24. ^ Shields, John C. "Phillis Wheatley's Use of Classicism", American Literature 52.1 (1980): 97-111. Web. 2 Nov 2009., page 98.
  25. ^ a b Henry Louis Gates, The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers, Basic Civitas Books, p. 33.
  26. ^ http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mgw:@field(DOCID+@lit(gw040306))
  27. ^ Gates (2003), Trials, p. 5
  28. ^ http://www.lkwdpl.org/WIHOHIO/whea-phi.htm
  29. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  30. ^ [1]

Further reading[edit]

Primary materials
  • Wheatley, Phyllis (1988). John C. Shields. ed. The Collected Works of Phillis Wheatley. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506085-7
  • Wheatley, Phyllis (2001). Vincent Carretta. ed. Complete Writings. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-042430-X
Biographies
  • Borland, (1968). Phillis Wheatley: Young Colonial Poet. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Carretta, Vincent (2011). Phillis Wheatley: Biography of A Genius in Bondage Athens: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-3338-0
  • Gates, Henry Louis Jr. (2003). The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters With the Founding Fathers, New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01850-5
  • Richmond, M. A. (1988). Phillis Wheatley. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 1-55546-683-4
Secondary materials
  • Abcarian, Richard and Marvin Klotz. "Phillis Wheatley," In Literature: The Human Experience, 9th edition. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006: 1606.
  • Bassard, Katherine Clay (1999). Spiritual Interrogations: Culture, Gender, and Community in Early African American Women's Writing. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01639-9
  • Engberg, Kathrynn Seidler, The Right to Write: The Literary Politics of Anne Bradstreet and Phillis Wheatley. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 2009. ISBN 978-0-761-84609-3
  • Langley, April C. E. (2008). The Black Aesthetic Unbound: Theorizing the Dilemma of Eighteenth-century African American Literature. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-1077-2
  • Ogude, S. E. (1983). Genius in Bondage: A Study of the Origins of African Literature in English. Ile-Ife, Nigeria: University of Ife Press. ISBN 978-136-048-8
  • Reising, Russel J. (1996). Loose Ends: Closure and Crisis in the American Social Text. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1887-3
  • Robinson, William Henry (1981). Phillis Wheatley: A Bio-bibliography. Boston: GK Hall. ISBN 0-8161-8318-X
  • Robinson, William Henry (1982). Critical Essays on Phillis Wheatley. Boston: GK Hall. ISBN 0-8161-8336-8
  • Robinson, William Henry (1984). Phillis Wheatley and Her Writings. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-9346-1
  • Shockley, Ann Allen (1988). Afro-American Women Writers, 1746-1933: An Anthology and Critical Guide. Boston: GK Hall. ISBN 0-452-00981-2

External links[edit]