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The term pre-Celtic refers to the period in the prehistory of Central and Western Europe postdating the emergence of the Proto-Celtic language and cultures and predating the expansion of the Celts or their culture in Iron Age Europe and Anatolia (9th to 6th centuries BCE). The area involved is that of the maximum extent of the Celtic languages in about the mid 1st century BC. The extent to which Celtic language, culture and genetics coincided and interacted during this period remains very uncertain and controversial.
Research based on Glottochronology has suggested that the Proto-Celtic language branched from the Indo-European tree between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago. However, other sources suggest that Proto-Indo-European itself emerged only about 6,000 years ago.[who?]
In continental Europe, pre-Celtic languages of the European Bronze Age may be taken to comprise two distinct groups.
- Non-Indo-European languages (i.e. Pre-Indo-European languages); these include Basque, Etruscan, and Rhaetic. Comparisons of Etruscan and Rhaetic with examples of the Lemnian language (in an inscribed stele, and an inscription just off the coast from Troy in Anatolia), groups them in the Tyrrhenian language family, which may suggest that they originated in Anatolia or from Minoan settlement.
- Indo-European dialects, such as Illyrian, possibly Lusitanian, the hypothetical Proto-Italo-Celtic dialects, Belgian and "Old European".
It has been suggested that results of large-scale genetic surveys, undertaken since the late 20th century, cast serious doubt on the belief that the present-day speakers of pre-Indo-European languages represent relict populations. For instance, Basques show a dominance of the Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b, which a majority of scholars now propose spread through Europe relatively recently, from southwest Asia in the Neolithic period or later (4,000 to 8,000 years ago). However, present-day Basques also harbour some very rare and archaic lineages, such as the mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup U8a. Moreover, it is a truism that the composition of any particular normative racial, linguistic group and/or material culture may represent an anthropological "Ship of Theseus": the links between members of such groups (e.g. DNA, language and artifacts) may vary to a significant degree over time.
In the later Celtic areas there were many archaeological cultures.
When the Celts are first recorded about 600 BC they are already widespread across Iberia, Gaul, and Central Europe.
In Ireland the Book of Invasions gives a pseudo-history for a number of incoming peoples.
- Neolithic Europe
- Old European culture
- Bronze Age Europe
- Old European hydronymy
- Vasconic languages
- Atlantic (Semitic) languages
- Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
- Prehistoric Britain
- Bronze Age Britain
- Prehistoric Ireland
- Paleolithic Continuity Theory
- Goidelic substrate hypothesis
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