European Union Customs Union

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European Union Customs Union
Type Customs union
Member states
Establishment 1958
 -  Total 5,200,000 km2
2,007,731 sq mi
 -  2014 estimate 585,000,000
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $19.6 trillion
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $19.2 trillion

The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU) and some of its neighbouring countries: Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Turkey.

The customs union is a principal task of the European Economic Community, established in 1958, and now succeeded by the European Union. No customs are levied on goods travelling within the customs union and—unlike a free trade area—members of the customs union impose a common external tariff on all goods entering the union. One of the consequences of the customs union is that the European Union can negotiate as a single entity in international trade deals such as the World Trade Organisation, instead of individual member states negotiating for themselves.

Non-EU members[edit]

EU applicant Turkey and two bordering microstatesAndorra and San Marino — are in customs union with the EU. Monaco, while not a member of the EU, is part of the EU customs territory through an agreement with France.

State Agreement Date Notes
 Andorra Agreement between the EEC and Andorra[1] 1991 Excludes agricultural products
 Monaco Franco-Monegasque Treaty[2][3] 1958
 San Marino Co-operation and Customs Union Agreement[4] 1991
 Turkey European Union–Turkey Customs Union[5][6] 1995 Excludes agricultural products


While all EU members are part of the customs union, not all of their respective territories form part of the customs union. This may be because a territory is not part of the EU, because the territories have opt-outs, or are excluded from the customs union because of their economic or geographic circumstances; see Special member state territories and the European Union.

See also[edit]