Western pattern diet
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The Western pattern diet, also called Western dietary pattern or the meat-sweet diet, is a dietary habit chosen by many people in some developed countries, and increasingly in developing countries. It is characterized by high intakes of red meat, sugary desserts, high-fat foods, and refined grains. It also typically contains high-fat dairy products, high-sugar drinks, and higher intakes of processed meat.
The term is used to describe this pattern of diet in medical literature, regardless of where the diet is found, and is often contrasted with the "prudent" diet,[vague] which has higher levels of fruits, vegetables, whole-grain foods, poultry and fish. Other dietary patterns described in the medical research include "drinker" and "meat-eater" patterns. Because of the variability in diets, individuals are usually classified not as simply "following" or "not following" a given diet, but instead by ranking them according to how closely their diets line up with each pattern in turn. The researchers then compare the outcomes between the group that most closely follows a given pattern to the group that least closely follows a given pattern.
Standard American Diet 
The "Standard American Diet" (S.A.D.) is a similar term, specifically used to denigrate what some authors say is the stereotypical diet of Americans. The typical American diet is about 50% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 35% fat which is over the dietary guidelines for the amount of fat (below 30%), below the guidelines for carbohydrate (above 55%), and at the upper end of the guidelines for the amount of protein (below 15%) recommended in the diet.
The quality of the carbohydrate, protein, and fat is at least as important as the quantity. Complex carbohydrates such as starch are believed to be more healthy than the sugar so frequently consumed in the Standard American Diet. Fischer 344 rats fed cornstarch ad libitum lived nearly 10% longer than Fischer 344 rats fed sucrose ad libitum.
The Standard American Diet is high in saturated fat, but it is estimated that for every 1% of saturated fat energy that is replaced with polyunsaturated fat there would be more than a 2-3% reduction in coronary heart disease incidence And even for polyunsaturated fat, the high levels of omega-6 fatty acids compared to omega-3 fatty acids in the Western diet is believe to contribute to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease.
A review of eating habits in the United States in 2004 found that about 3/4 of restaurant meals were from fast-food restaurants, whereas only 1% were fine food dining restaurants. Nearly half of the meals ordered from a menu were hamburger, French fries, or poultry — and about one third of orders included a carbonated beverage drink. From 1970 to 2008, the per capita consumption of calories increased by nearly one-quarter in the United States and about 10% of all calories were from high-fructose corn syrup.
Health concerns 
Compared to the "prudent" diet,[vague] the Western pattern diet, based on epidemiological studies of Westerners, is positively correlated with an elevated incidence of obesity, death from heart disease, cancer (especially colon cancer), and other 'Western pattern diet' related diseases.
Physicians John A. McDougall, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Barnard, Dean Ornish, Michael Greger, and nutritional biochemist T. Colin Campbell, argue that high animal fat and protein diets, such as the standard American diet, are detrimental to health, and that a low-fat vegan diet can both prevent and reverse degenerative diseases such as coronary artery disease and diabetes.[improper synthesis?] A 2006 study by Barnard found that in people with type 2 diabetes, a low-fat vegan diet reduced weight, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and did so to a greater extent than the diet prescribed by the American Diabetes Association.
See also 
- European cuisine (also called Western cuisine)
- Fast food
- Healthy diet
- Junk food
- Mediterranean diet
- Metabolic syndrome
- Nutritional gatekeeper
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- Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn; Elwood, Peter; Hermansen, Kjeld; Hu, Frank B; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Kok, Frans J; Krauss, Ronald M et al. (2011). "The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: Where does the evidence stand in 2010?". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93 (4): 684–8. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.004622. PMC 3138219. PMID 21270379.
- Simopoulos, Artemis P. (2008). "The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases". Experimental Biology and Medicine 233 (6): 674–88. doi:10.3181/0711-MR-311. PMID 18408140.
- Lobb, Annelena (September 17, 2005). "Eating Habits -- A Look At the Average U.S. Diet". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
- Philpott, Tom (April 5, 2011). "The American diet in one chart, with lots of fats and sugars". Industrial Agriculture. Grist. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
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- For T. Colin Campbell on cancer, heart disease and diabetes, see Freston, Kathy (2011). "Straight from the Source: T. Colin Campbell, PhD, on Diet and Cancer". Veganist: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, Change the World. Weinstein Publishing. pp. 41–2. ISBN 978-1-60286-141-1.
- For Caldwell Esselstyn on heart disease, see Freston, Kathy (2011). "Straight from the Source: Caldwell Esselstyn, MD, on Heart Disease". Veganist: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, Change the World. Weinstein Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-60286-141-1.
- For Neal D. Barnard on diabetes, see Freston, Kathy (2011). "Straight from the Source: Neal Barnard, MD, on Diabetes". Veganist: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, Change the World. Weinstein Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-60286-141-1.
- For Dean Ornish on weight loss and reversing heart disease, see Freston, Kathy (2011). "Straight from the Source: Dean Ornish, MD, on Losing Weight". Veganist: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, Change the World. Weinstein Publishing. pp. 21–2. ISBN 978-1-60286-141-1.
- For Michael Greger on factory farming and superbugs, see Freston, Kathy (2011). "Straight from the Source: Michael Greger, MD, on Factory Farming and Superbugs". Veganist: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, Change the World. Weinstein Publishing. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-60286-141-1.
- Also see:
- Ornish, Dean (1990). Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease. Random House.[page needed]
- Campbell, T. Colin; Campbell, Thomas M. (2004). The China Study. BenBella Books.[page needed]
- Barnard, Neal (2007). Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes. Random House.[page needed]
- Esselstyn, Caldwell (2007). Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease: The Revolutionary, Scientifically Proven, Nutrition-Based Cure. Avery.[page needed]
- Selection of articles:
- Ornish, D.; Brown, S.E.; Billings, J.H.; Scherwitz, L.W.; Armstrong, W.T.; Ports, T.A.; McLanahan, S.M.; Kirkeeide, R.L. et al. (1990). "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?". The Lancet 336 (8708): 129–33. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91656-U. PMID 1973470.
- Esselstyn, Caldwell B (1999). "Updating a 12-year experience with arrest and reversal therapy for coronary heart disease (an overdue requiem for palliative cardiology)". The American Journal of Cardiology 84 (3): 339–41, A8. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(99)00290-8. PMID 10496449.
- Segelken, Roger (June 28, 2001). "China Study II: Switch to Western diet may bring Western-type diseases". Cornell Chronicle.
- "China-Cornell-Oxford Project On Nutrition, Environment and Health at Cornell University". Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University. Archived from the original on December 2002.
- McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary (2002). "Effects of a Very Low-Fat, Vegan Diet in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 8 (1): 71–5. doi:10.1089/107555302753507195. PMID 11890437.
- Goldhamer, Alan C.; Lisle, Douglas J.; Sultana, Peter; Anderson, Scott V.; Parpia, Banoo; Hughes, Barry; Campbell, T. Colin (2002). "Medically Supervised Water-Only Fasting in the Treatment of Borderline Hypertension". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 8 (5): 643–50. doi:10.1089/107555302320825165. PMID 12470446.
- Trapp, Caroline B.; Barnard, Neal D. (2010). "Usefulness of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets for Treating Type 2 Diabetes". Current Diabetes Reports 10 (2): 152–8. doi:10.1007/s11892-010-0093-7. PMID 20425575.
- Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Jaster, Brent; Seidl, Kim; Green, Amber A. et al. (2006). "A Low-Fat Vegan Diet Improves Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes". Diabetes Care 29 (8): 1777–83. doi:10.2337/dc06-0606. PMID 16873779.
- Barnard, Neal D. (2007). Dr. Neal Barnard's Program for Reversing Diabetes. Random House. pp. 40–50. ISBN 978-0-7393-2670-1.