Qalansawe

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Qalansawe
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • Hebrew קַלַנְסֻוָה
 • ISO 259 Qalansuwa
 • Translit. Kalansuwa or Qalansuwa
 • Also spelled Kalansoueh,[1] Qalansuwa (unofficial)
Arabic transcription(s)
 • Arabic قلنسوة
Qalansuwa-541.jpg
Qalansawe is located in Israel
Qalansawe
Qalansawe
Coordinates: 32°16′56.34″N 34°59′0.27″E / 32.2823167°N 34.9834083°E / 32.2823167; 34.9834083Coordinates: 32°16′56.34″N 34°59′0.27″E / 32.2823167°N 34.9834083°E / 32.2823167; 34.9834083
Grid position 198600/687800 ITM
148/187 PAL
District Central
Government
 • Type City
 • Mayor (Incumbent: Abdel Baset Salame - Mahmoud Kahdega)
Area
 • Total 7,800 dunams (7.8 km2 or 3.0 sq mi)
Population (2008)
 • Total 18,500

Qalansawe also Qalansuwa (Arabic: قلنسوة‎, Hebrew: קַלַנְסֻוָה) (lit. "turban")[2][3] is an Arab city in the Center District of Israel. According to Israel Central Bureau of Statistics statistics for the end of 2007, the total population was 18,500.[4] Qalansawe is part of the Triangle.

History[edit]

Mosque built on Crusader ruins

From the ninth century and until the Crusader times, Qalansawe was a stop on the Cairo-Damascus road, between Lajjun and Ramla.[5]

During the Crusader period, the village was known as Calanson, Calansue, Calanzon or Kalensue.[6] In 1128, it was given to the Hospitallers by the knight Godfrey of Flujea.[7][6] Yaqut (†1229) wrote that Qalansawe, Castle of the Plans, of the Crusaders, was a fortress near Ramle. He adds that "many of the Omayyads were slain there."[8] It remained in Hospitallers hands (except for 1187–1191) until Baybars took it in 1265.[6] However, during this period the lord of Caesarea appears to have retained overlordship.[6] Remnants of a crusader fortress remain today.[6]

Ottoman period[edit]

In 1517, the village was included in the Ottoman Empire with the rest of Palestine, and in the 1596 tax-records it appeared located in the Nahiya of Bani Sa'b of the Liwa of Nablus. It had a population of 29 Muslim households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, summer crops, olives, goats or beehives, and a press for olives or grapes.[9] Pierre Jacotin called the village Qalensawi on his map from 1799.[10]

In 1870 the French explorer Victor Guérin found it to have 500 inhabitants.[1] He then "examined the remains of a beautiful church, built east and west, and divided into three naves, terminating to the east in three apses. It was formerly constructed of good cut stones, some of which were slightly embossed, as is proved by the portions still standing. The naves were separated one from the other by monolithic columns, only the positions of which can be traced. They were probably crowned by Corinthian capitals, for I found one in a house, of white marble, cut into a mortar by the inhabitants, who told me they brought it from the site of the church. The other capitals and shafts had disappeared. Probably they came from some more ancient building. An elegant door, with pointed arch, is still standing. Under the nave runs a vaulted crypt, now divided into several compartments, which serve as a shelter for as many families. The good walls seem ancient. One of these is near the church; the other below the village. The latter is large, and surmounted by a vaulted arcade in cut stones."[11]

In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as being of moderate size, and the seat of a Caimacam. In the centre of the village was a Crusader tower and hall, surrounded by the village houses, mostly made of adobe. Wells and a spring to the west supplied water.[12]

British Mandate of Palestine period[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Qualansawe had a population of 871, all Muslims,[13] increasing in the 1931 census to 1069, still all Muslim, in a total of 225 houses.[14]

By 1945, the village had 1540 Arab inhabitants, who owned a total of owned 17,249 dunams of land.[15] 473 dunams were for citrus and bananas, 759 plantations and irrigable land, 15,936 for cereals,[16] while 47 dunams were built-up (urban) land.[17]

1948, and after[edit]

During the 1948 Palestine war, Jewish forces had decided to "conquer and destroy" or later "expel or subdue" Qalansawe,[18] but the village was not taken[19] and was only transferred to Israeli sovereignty in May 1949 as part of the Israel-Jordan armistice agreement.[20] Political considerations then prevented the expulsion of the villagers.[21]

By 1962, land ownership had dropped to 6,620 dunams, mostly due to expropriation of land by Israel in 1953–1954.[22]

Demographics[edit]

In 2001, the ethnic makeup of the city was virtually all Arab Muslims without significant Jewish population. There were 7,700 males and 7,300 females. 53.2% of the residents were 19 years of age or younger, 17.1% were between 20 and 29, 17.9% between 30 and 44, 8.0% from 45 to 59, 1.6% from 60 to 64, and 2.2% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2001 was 3.5%.

Due to marriages among relatives, the residents suffer from a high percentage of genetic diseases, especially hearing impairment.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Guerin, 1875, p. 350
  2. ^ The turban tradition in Islam
  3. ^ Palmer, 1881, p.187
  4. ^ "Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 1,000 Residents and Other Rural Population" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  5. ^ Petersen, 2001, pp. 248-249, citing among others Hartmann, 1910, 675, 676
  6. ^ a b c d e Pringle, 1997, p. 77 - 78
  7. ^ Röhricht, 1904, RRH Ad, p. 9-10, No. 121a
  8. ^ Cited in le Strange, 1890, p.476
  9. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 139
  10. ^ Karmon, 1960, p. 170 Note that Karmon gives the wrong grid-numbers for Qalansawe
  11. ^ Guérin, 1875, pp. 350-352, 354 as translated in Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, pp. 201
  12. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 165
  13. ^ Barron, 1923, Table IX, Sub-district of Tulkarem, p. 28
  14. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 56
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970 p. 76
  16. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 127
  17. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 177
  18. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 246
  19. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 302
  20. ^ UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 of 3 April 1949
  21. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 531
  22. ^ S. Jiryis (1976). "The land question in Israel". MERIP Reports. No. 37: 5–20, 24–26. 
  23. ^ Warzberger, Rachel (2001-03-19). "Close Family Marriages and Polygamy" (RTF) (in Hebrew). Knesset. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]