Achziv

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Achziv
History
Events Battle of Casal Imbert (1232), part of the War of the Lombards
For Arab the former village at the site see Az-Zeeb

Achziv is a national park on the northern coast of Israel, 15 kilometers north of Acre, within the municipal area of Nahariya. It is a former town, settled for about three millennia. It was first settled in the Middle Canaanite (Bronze) II period by the Phoenicians.[1] In the Bible, it is described as falling within territory assigned to the tribe of Asher. An Arab village, Az-Zeeb, was established on the site during the Mamluk period. Today Achziv is a national park.

History[edit]

The mosque of al-Zib, restored at Achziv National Park

Iron Age; in the Hebrew Bible[edit]

Originally a Phoenician city (Ekdippa, Έκδιππα in Ancient Greek), it was assigned to the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:29; Judg. 1:31)

And the fifth lot came out for the tribe of the children of Asher ... and the outgoings thereof are at the sea from the coast to Achzibh.

King David added the city into his Kingdom, but King Solomon returned it to Hiram as part of the famous pact. During the invasions of Sennacherib (Sancheriv), the Assyrians conquered the city.

Hellenistic Period[edit]

During the reign of the Seleucids, the border was established at Rosh HaNikra, just north to Achziv, making it a border city and under the control of Acre.

Roman Period; Byzantine Period (Mishnaic and Talmudic Period)[edit]

A maritime city named Cziv, nine miles (14 km) north of Acre, is mentioned by Josephus Flavius, and later by Eusebius. Achziv (Cheziv) is mentioned in Jewish rabbinic writings, for example Midrash Vayikra Rabba 37:4. Additionally, Achziv is mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud, and by the relating Middle Age commentators, concerning the location of Achziv in regards to historical borders of Israel.

Crusader Period[edit]

During the Crusader period, the site was known as Casale Umberti[2] or Casal Humberti, after Hubert of Pacy which held the casale and is documented in 1108.[3] European farmers settled there in 1153 under Baldwin III. In 1232 it was the site of the Battle of Casal Imbert between German and French Crusaders as part of the War of the Lombards.

Mamluk and Ottoman Periods[edit]

The Arab village of Az-Zeeb was established during the Mamluk and Ottoman periods, the houses erected using the stones of the Crusader castle.

British Mandate and 1948 war[edit]

In 1946, The Jewish Resistance Movement attempted to blow up the railroad bridge over the creek at Achziv in an operation known as Night of the Bridges. A monument to the 14 soldiers killed there was erected on the site.

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the Arab villagers of az-Zib fled to Lebanon.

Archaeology[edit]

Ancient grinding stones at Achziv National Park

Remnants of ancient Achziv, now known as Tel Achziv, are located on a sandstone mound between two streams, Kziv on the north and Shaal on the south, close to the border with Lebanon.

An ancient port was located on the coast, and another secondary port is located 700 m to the south.

Archeological excavations have revealed that a walled city existed at the location from the Middle Bronze period. History of Achziv goes back to the Chalcolithic period (4500-3200 BC).

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Achziv exhibit at the Hecht Museum
  2. ^ Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  3. ^ Murray, Alan, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125 (Unit for Prosopographical Research, Linacre College, Oxford, 2000) p. 210.

Coordinates: 33°03′N 35°06′E / 33.050°N 35.100°E / 33.050; 35.100