||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (May 2014)|
|Author||Arkady and Boris Strugatsky|
|Original title||Пикник на обочине|
|Translator||Antonina W. Bouis|
|Cover artist||Richard M. Powers|
|Genre||Science fiction novel|
Published in English
|Media type||Print (Hardcover)|
Roadside Picnic (Russian: Пикник на обочине, Piknik na obochine, IPA: [pʲikˈnʲik na ɐˈbotɕɪnʲe]) is a short science fiction novel written by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky in 1971. By 1998, 38 editions of the novel were published in 20 countries. The novel was first translated to English by Antonina W. Bouis. The preface to the first American edition of the novel (MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc, New York, 1977) was written by Theodore Sturgeon. The film Stalker is loosely based on the novel, with a screenplay written by the Strugatskys.
- 1 Book title
- 2 Plot
- 3 Artifacts left by Visitors in the Zones
- 4 Writing the novel and Soviet censorship
- 5 Awards and nominations
- 6 Cultural influence
- 7 Translation
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Roadside Picnic is a work of fiction based on the aftermath of an extraterrestrial event (called the Visitation) which simultaneously took place in half a dozen separate locations around Earth for a two-day period. Neither the Visitors themselves nor their means of arrival or departure were ever seen by the local population who lived inside the relatively small (a few square kilometers) area of each of the six Visitation Zones. Such zones exhibit strange and dangerous phenomena not understood by humans, and contain artifacts with inexplicable, seemingly supernatural properties. The name of the novel derives from an analogy proposed by the character Dr. Valentine Pilman who compares the extraterrestrial event to a picnic.
A picnic. Picture a forest, a country road, a meadow. Cars drive off the country road into the meadow, a group of young people get out carrying bottles, baskets of food, transistor radios, and cameras. They light fires, pitch tents, turn on the music. In the morning they leave. The animals, birds, and insects that watched in horror through the long night creep out from their hiding places. And what do they see? Old spark plugs and old filters strewn around... Rags, burnt-out bulbs, and a monkey wrench left behind... And of course, the usual mess—apple cores, candy wrappers, charred remains of the campfire, cans, bottles, somebody’s handkerchief, somebody’s penknife, torn newspapers, coins, faded flowers picked in another meadow.
In this analogy, the nervous animals are the humans who venture forth after the Visitors left, discovering items and anomalies which are ordinary to those who discarded them, but incomprehensible or deadly to those who find them.
This explanation implies that the Visitors may not have paid any attention to or even noticed the human inhabitants of the planet during their "visit" just as humans do not notice or pay attention to grasshoppers or ladybugs during a picnic. The artifacts and phenomena left behind by the Visitors in the Zones were garbage, discarded and forgotten without any preconceived intergalactic plan to advance or damage humanity. There is little chance that the Visitors will return again, since for them it was a brief stop for reasons unknown on the way to their actual destination.
The novel is set in a post-visitation world where there are now six Zones known on Earth (each zone is approximately five square miles/kilometers in size) which are still full of unexplained phenomena and where strange happenings have briefly occurred, assumed to have been visitations by aliens. World governments and the UN try to keep tight control over them to prevent leakage of artifacts from the Zones, fearful of unforeseen consequences. A subculture of stalkers, thieves going into the Zones to get the artifacts, evolves around the Zones.
The introduction is a live radio interview with Dr. Pilman who is credited with the discovery that the six Visitation Zones' locations weren't random. He explains it so: "Imagine that you spin a huge globe and you start firing bullets into it. The bullet holes would lie on the surface in a smooth curve. The whole point (is that) all six Visitation Zones are situated on the surface of our planet as though someone had taken six shots at Earth from a pistol located somewhere along the Earth-Deneb line. Deneb is the alpha star in Cygnus."
The story revolves around Redrick "Red" Schuhart, a tough and experienced stalker who regularly enters the Zone illegally at night in search for valuable artifacts for profit. Trying to clean up his act, he becomes employed as a lab assistant at the International Institute, which studies the Zone. To help the career of his boss, whom he considers a friend, he goes into the Zone with him on an official expedition to recover a unique artifact (a full "empty"), which leads to his friend's death later on. This comes as a heavy shock when the news reaches Redrick, heavily drunk in a bar, and he blames himself for his friend's fate. While at the bar, a police force enters looking for any stalkers about. Redrick is forced to use an "itcher" to make a hasty getaway.
Red's girlfriend Guta is pregnant and decides to keep the baby no matter what. It is widely rumored that frequent incursions into the Zone by stalkers carry a high risk of mutations in their children. They decide to marry.
Disillusioned Redrick returns to stalking. In the course of his joint expedition into the Zone with a fellow stalker named Buzzard Burbridge, the latter steps into a substance known as "witch's jelly" which slowly turns his legs into rubber. Amputation must be urgently performed to avoid certain death. Redrick pulls Burbridge out of the Zone and drops him off at a surgeon, avoiding the patrols. Later on Redrick is confronted by Burbridge's daughter who gets angry at him for saving her father.
Guta has given birth to a heavily mutated, but happy and intelligent daughter, fully normal, but with short and light full body hair. They lovingly call her "Monkey."
Redrick meets with his clients in a posh hotel, selling them a fresh portion of the Zone artifacts, but what they are really after is "witch's jelly." It's hinted that they need it for military research. Redrick claims he doesn't have it yet and leaves. Shortly after, Redrick is arrested, but escapes. He then contacts his clients, telling them where he hid the "jelly", which he had smuggled out previously. Redrick insists that the proceeds from the sale be sent to Guta. Redrick realizes that the "jelly" would be used for some kind of a weapon of mass destruction, but sees no other choice to provide for his family. He then gives himself up to the police.
Red's old friend Richard Noonan (a supply contractor with offices inside The Institute), is revealed as a covert operative of an unnamed, presumably governmental, secret organization working hard to stop the contraband outflow of artifacts from the Zone. Content he's nearing the successful completion of his multi-year assignment, he is confronted and scolded by his boss who reveals to him the flow is stronger than ever, and is tasked with finding who is responsible and how they operate.
Noonan's investigation reveals that the stalkers are now organized under the cover of the "weekend picnics-for-tourists" business set up by Burbridge. They jokingly refer to the setup as "Sunday school". Noonan then meets with Dr. Valentine Pilman for lunch and have an in-depth discussion of the Visitation and humanity in general. This is where the idea of "Visitation as a roadside picnic" is pronounced.
Meanwhile Redrick is released from jail. Guta is depressed because her daughter gradually loses human appearance, resembling a monkey more and more. The latest medical examination concludes that she is no longer human. Redrick's dead father comes home from the cemetery inside the Zone, as other animated dead are now slowly returning to their homes all around town (but, unlike in typical horror stories, they are completely harmless). Together Redrick's father and daughter symbolize the complete inhumanity of the Zone.
Red goes into the Zone one last time in order to reach the wish-granting "Golden Sphere" because he wants his daughter to become normal. He has a map, given to him by Burbridge, whose son Arthur joins him on the expedition. Red knows one of them has to die in order to deactivate a phenomenon known as "meatgrinder", for the other to reach the sphere, and keeps this a secret from his companion.
After they get to the location, surviving many obstacles, the young man rushes towards the sphere shouting out his wishes only to be savagely dispatched by the meatgrinder. Spent and exhausted, Red starts analyzing his own motives for pursuing the Sphere and sacrificing Arthur. He looks back on his worthless life, struggling to find meaning and hope, hoping the Sphere will dig up something good in his heart - legend says it grants only the dearest and the most desired wish - and in the end can't think of anything other than repeating the now dead youngster's words: "HAPPINESS FOR EVERYBODY, FREE, AND LET NO ONE GO AWAY UNSATISFIED (be left out)!".
Artifacts left by Visitors in the Zones
The artifacts left behind by the Visitors can be broken down into four categories:
- Objects beneficial to humans, yet whose original purpose, how precisely they work or how to manufacture them is not understood. The 'So-So' and 'Bracelets' are among the artifacts that fall into this category.
- Objects whose functionality, original purpose or how to use them to benefit humans can not yet be understood. The 'Black Sprays' and 'Needles' are among the artifacts that fall into this category.
- Objects that are unique. Their existence is passed along as legends by Stalkers; were never seen by scientists, whose functionality is so dangerous and so far beyond human comprehension that they are better off left undisturbed. The 'Golden Sphere' and the 'Jolly Ghost' are among the artifacts that fall into this category.
- Not object but effects on people who were present inside the Zones during the Visitation. Humans who survived the Visitation without going blind(apparently from a loud noise) or infected by the plague caused unexplained problems if they emigrated away. A barber who survived the Visitation emigrated to a far off city and within a year 90% of his customers died in mysterious circumstances as well as a number of natural disasters foreign to the area (typhoons, tornadoes) hit his city. Even people who were never present during the Visitation but frequently visit the Zone are changed somehow, for example by having mutated children or by having duplicates of their dead relatives return to their homes.
Writing the novel and Soviet censorship
The story was written by the Strugatsky brothers in 1971 (the first outlines written January 18–27, 1971 in Leningrad, with the final version completed between October 28 and November 3, 1971 in Komarovo.) It was first published in the Avrora literary magazine in 1972, issues 7-10. Parts of it were published in the Library of Modern Science Fiction book series, vol. 25, 1973. It was also printed in the newspaper Youth of Estonia in 1977-1978.
In 1977, the novel was first published in the United States in English.
Roadside Picnic was refused publication in book form in the Soviet Union for eight years due to government censorship and numerous delays. The heavily censored versions published between 1980 and 1990 significantly departed from the original version written by the authors. The Russian-language versions endorsed by the Strugatsky brothers as the original were published in the 1990s.
Awards and nominations
- The novel was nominated for a John W. Campbell Award for best science fiction novel of 1978 and won second place.
- In 1978 the Strugatskys were accepted as honorary members of the Mark Twain Society for their "outstanding contribution to world science fiction literature."
- A 1979 Scandinavian congress on science fiction literature awarded the Swedish translation the Jules Verne prize for best novel of the year published in Swedish.
- In 1981 at the sixth festival of science fiction literature in Metz the novel won the award for best foreign book of the year.
- A 1979 science fiction film, Stalker, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky, with a screenplay written by Boris and Arkady Strugatsky, is loosely based on their novel Roadside Picnic.
- While not a direct adaptation, the video game series S.T.A.L.K.E.R. is heavily influenced by Roadside Picnic. The first game in the series, "S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl", references many important plot points from the book, such as the wish granter and the unknown force blocking the path to the center of the zone. It also contains elements such as anomalies and artifacts that are similar to those described in the book, but are created by an experimental science station, not alien visitors. Few characters are also very similar to those in books.
- The book is referenced in the post-apocalyptic video game Metro 2033. A character shuffles through a shelf of books in a ruined library and finds Roadside Picnic. He states that it is "something familiar". Metro 2033 was created by individuals who had worked on S.T.A.L.K.E.R. before founding their own video game development company.
- The science fiction novel Sphere by Michael Crichton (1987), also a film of the same name directed and produced by Barry Levinson and starring Dustin Hoffman, Sharon Stone, and Samuel L. Jackson (1998).
- In 2003, the Finnish theater company Circus Maximus produced a stage version of Roadside Picnic, called Stalker. Authorship of the play was credited to the Strugatskys and to Mikko Viljanen and Mikko Kanninen.
- M. John Harrison's novel Nova Swing, published 2006, is so similar to the Roadside Picnic that one reviewer[who?] quipped that Nova Swings at a Roadside Picnic would be a more appropriate title. The plot features an "Event Zone" where strange and unpredictable events occur and bounty hunters risk their life to retrieve unusual artifacts for profit.
- A tabletop roleplaying game in 2012 called Stalker was developed by Ville Vuorela of Burger Games with the permission of Boris Strugatsky. The game was originally released in 2008 in Finnish by the same author.
- A Finnish low-budget indie film Vyöhyke (Zone), directed by Esa Luttinen, was released in 2012. The film is set in a Finnish visitation zone, and refers to material in the novel as well as the Tarkovsky film.
- British progressive rock band Guapo's 2013 album "History Of The Visitation", is based on the novel.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic / Tale of the Troika (Best of Soviet Science Fiction) translated by Antonina W. Bouis. New York: Macmillan Pub Co, 1977, 245 pp. ISBN 0-02-615170-7. LCCN: 77000543.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic. London: Gollancz, April 13, 1978, 150 pp. ISBN 0-575-02445-3.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic / Tale of the Troika. New York: Pocket Books, February 1, 1978. ISBN 0-671-81976-3.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic. London: Penguin Books, September 27, 1979, 160 pp. ISBN 0-14-005135-X.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic. New York: Pocket Books (Timescape), September 1, 1982, 156 pp. ISBN 0-671-45842-6.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic (SF Collector's Edition). London: Gollancz, August 24, 2000, 145 pp. ISBN 0-575-07053-6.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic (S.F. Masterworks). London: Gollancz, February 8, 2007. ISBN 0-575-07978-9.
- Strugatsky, Arkady and Boris. Roadside Picnic. Translated by Olena Bormashenko, foreword by Ursula K. Le Guin, afterword by Boris Strugatsky. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, May 1, 2012. ISBN 978-1-61374-341-6.
Michael Andre-Driussi explains that while rereading the 1977 translation of Roadside Picnic, he "discovered a magic key resolving a central problem that has baffled essayists for decades. The main sticking point is the novel's ambiguous ending." Andre-Driussi gives examples by Stephen W. Potts, Professor Carl Darryl Malmgren, Professor Brooks Landon, and Roland Boer as luminaries who missed an important internal-chronology clue that explains why the ending appears to be ambiguous:
- Section 0: Year 30 after the alien Visitation
- Section 1: Red is 23 years old
- Section 2: Red is 28, and it is Year 18
- Section 3: Red has spent 2 years in prison, so it is Year 20
- Section 4: Red is 31, so it is Year 21.
"Should a reader accept the introduction as an afterword, nearly all of the ambiguity is removed." However, when Andre-Driussi continued with his close reading, he realized that the introduction necessarily comes first, unless the authors were "to lie outright" to the reader. "One must be thorough. While I cannot read Russian, I found online a side-by-side version of Roadside Picnic in Russian and English. I found the suspect lines in Russian and fed them into Google Translation":
- "thirtieth anniversary" ([p.] 4): thirteenth
- "these thirty years" ([p.] 5): thirteen
- "exposed for thirty years" ([p.] 14): thirteen
- "way it was thirty years ago" ([p.] 14): thirteen.
Andre-Driussi concludes, "It seems as though the English translation had these errors from the start, and they have never been corrected. ... Where does this leave us? The ambiguous ending has been restored."
The 2012 English language printing is from a 2012 translation by Olena Bormashenko. In the introduction, the four references to the time of the visit are now translated as "thirteenth anniversary" (p. 2), "the last thirteen years" (p. 3), "Thirteen years they've stood" (p. 16), and "the same as thirteen years ago" (p. 16). This agrees with the translations Andre-Driussi generated from the side-by-side version, placing both the introduction and Section 1 at Year 13, indicating, as he concluded, that the original 1977 English translation was in error. 
- СТРУГАЦКИЙ АРКАДИЙ НАТАНОВИЧ (28.08.1925–12.10.1991) Life and Work of Arkady and Boris Strugatsky (in Russian)
- Atkady and Boris Strugatsky, Roadside Picnic, English ed., 1977
- OFF-LINE интервью с Борисом Стругацким. Октябрь 2003.
- (Russian) Борис Стругацкий: Комментарии к пройденному, 1998, section ПИКНИК НА ОБОЧИНЕ
- Roadside Picnic | Science Fiction & Fantasy Books | WWEnd. Worldswithoutend.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-17.
- Sci-fi writers brothers Strugatsky: Awards. Rusf.ru (1977-09-11). Retrieved on 2011-03-17.
- "Circus Maximus in English". 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Vyöhyke - Zone, the movie". Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Vyöhyke (2012)". IMDb. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- Andre-Driussi, Michael (January 2012). "A Roadside Picnic Triptych". The New York Review of Science Fiction (Pleasantville, NY: Dragon Press) 24 (5): 20–22.
- Arkady and Boris Strugatsky (2012). Roadside Picnic. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, Incorporated.
- Roadside Picnic, full text (Antonina W. Bouis translation)
- Roadside Picnic, parallel text in Russian and English.
- Download Roadside Picnic in one zip file from the official Strugatskys' page.
- Review of the Roadside Picnic on the Infinity Plus website.
- The SF Site Featured Review: Roadside Picnic
- Stanislaw Lem about the Strugatskys' Roadside Picnic
- Audio review and discussion of Roadside Picnic at The Science Fiction Book Review Podcast