|Municipalité de Metz|
The Saint-Stephen Cathedral, view of the northern façade.
|Nickname(s): The Maid (15th century); The Unviolated (15th century); The Green City (20th century)|
|Agglomeration community||Metz Metropole|
|Founded||5th century BC|
|• Mayor||Dominique Gros (PS)|
|• Commune||41.94 km2 (16.19 sq mi)|
|• Metro||277 km2 (107 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||358 m (1,175 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||162 m (531 ft)|
|• Density||2,905/km2 (7,520/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ZIP codes||57000; 57050; 57070|
|Dialing code||+33 03|
|Website||Metz Ville; Metz Metropole|
Metz (French pronunciation: [mɛs] ( ); German pronunciation: [mɛts] ( )) is a city in the northeast of France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the capital and the prefecture of both the Lorraine region and the Moselle department. Located near the tripoint along the junction of France, Germany, and Luxembourg, the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion.
Metz has a rich 3,000-year-history, having variously been a Celtic oppidum, an important Gallo-Roman city, the Merovingian capital of the Austrasia kingdom, the birthplace of the Carolingian dynasty, a cradle of the Gregorian chant, and one of the oldest republics of the common era in Europe. The city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has been strongly influenced by Germanic culture due to its location and history.
Because of its historical, cultural, and architectural background, Metz has been submitted on the France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List. The city features noteworthy buildings such as the Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral, the Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains, its Imperial Station Palace, or its Opera House, the oldest one working in France. Metz is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum.
A basin of urban ecology, Metz gained its nickname of The Green City (French: La Ville Verte), as it has extensive open grounds and public gardens. The historic downtown is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France.
A historic garrison town, Metz is the economic heart of the Lorraine region, specializing in information technology and automotive industries. Metz is home to the University of Lorraine and a centre for applied research and development in the materials sector, notably in metallurgy and metallography, the heritage of the Lorraine region's past in the iron and steel industry.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Law and government
- 6 Cityscape and environmental policy
- 7 Economy
- 8 Culture and contemporary life
- 9 Education
- 10 Transport
- 11 Main sights
- 12 International relations
- 13 References
In ancient times, the town was known as "city of Mediomatrici," being inhabited by the tribe of the same name. After its integration into the Roman Empire, the city was called Divodurum Mediomatricum, meaning Holy Village or Holy Fortress of the Mediomatrici, then it was known as Mediomatrix. During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to "Mettis", which gave rise to Metz.
Metz has a recorded history dating back over 3,000 years. Before the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, it was the oppidum of the Celtic Mediomatrici tribe. Integrated into the Roman Empire, Metz became quickly one of the principal towns of Gaul until the barbarian depredations and its transfer to the Franks about the end of the 5th century. Between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city became then the residence of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. Consecutively to the Treaty of Verdun in 843, Metz became the capital of the kingdom of Lotharingia and was ultimately integrated into the Holy Roman Empire granting semi-independent status. During the 12th century, Metz rose to the status of Republic and the Republic of Metz ruled until the 15th century. With the signature of the Treaty of Chambord in 1552, Metz was passed to the hands of the Kings of France. Under the French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics and became a strategic fortified town. With creation of the departments by the Estates-General of 1789, Metz was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle. After the defeat of France during the Franco-Prussian War and according to the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871, the city was annexed into the German Empire, being part of the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine and serving as capital of the German Department of Lorraine. Metz remained German until the end of World War I, when it reverted to France. However, after the Battle of France during the Second World War, the city was annexed once more by the German Third Reich. In 1944, the attack on the city by the U.S. Third Army freed the city from German rule and Metz reverted one more time to France after World War II.
During the 1950s, Metz was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine region. With the creation of the European Communities and the latter European Union, the city has became a central place of the Greater Region and the SaarLorLux Euroregion.
Metz is located on the banks of the Moselle and the Seille rivers, at 43 km (26.7 mi) from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France, Germany, and Luxembourg meet. The city was built in a place where many branches of the Moselle river creates several islands, which are encompassed within the urban planning.
The land of Metz forms part of the Paris Basin and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction. Metz and its open countries are included into the forest and crop Lorraine Regional Natural Park, covering a total area of 205,000 ha (506,566.0 acres).
The weather in Lorraine is associated to a semi continental climate. The summers are humid and hot, sometimes stormy, and the warmest month of the year is August, when temperatures average approximately 26 °C (78.8 °F). The winters are cold and snowy with temperature dropping to an average of −0.5 °C (31.1 °F) in January. Lows can be much colder through the night and early morning and the snowy period extends from November to February.
The length of the day varies significantly over the course of the year. The shortest day is 21 December with 8:01 hours of sunlight; the longest day is 20 June with 15:58 hours of sunlight. The median cloud cover is 93% and does not vary substantially over the course of the year.
|Climate data for Metz, France|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.1
|Average high °C (°F)||4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−20.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||64
|Avg. precipitation days||11.5||9.6||11.5||9.3||10.2||9.8||9.2||9.1||8.8||11.0||11.2||11.8||123|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54||78||126||178||202||219||226||213||158||98||49||41||1,642|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2:  (precipitation days)|
The inhabitants of Metz are called Messin(e)(s). Statistics on ethnic and religious groups of the population of Metz are haphazard, as the French Republic prohibits performing census by making distinction between its citizens regarding their race, their beliefs, and their political and philosophic opinions.
The French national census of 2009 estimated the population of Metz to be 121,841, while the population of Metz urban agglomeration was about 389,851. Through history, Metz's population has been impacted by the vicissitudes of the wars and the annexations involving the city and avoiding a continuous population growth. More recently, the city has suffered from the military and metallurgy industry restructurings. The historical population for the current area of Metz municipality is as follows:
|Number of inhabitants||36,878||32,099||39,131||42,030||42,793||39,767||56,888||51,332||53,131||60,186||58,462|
|Number of inhabitants||68,598||62,311||78,767||70,105||102,771||111,869||114,232||119,594||123,776||121,841|
Several well-known figures have been linked to the city of Metz throughout its history. The city has been the native town of renown Messins, including poet Paul Verlaine, composer Ambroise Thomas, and mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet, and numerous well-known German figures were also born in Metz notably during the annexation periods. Moreover, the city has also been the residence of people such as writer François Rabelais, Cardinal Mazarin, political thinker Alexis de Tocqueville, French patriot and American Revolutionary War hero the Marquis de La Fayette, and Luxembourgish-born German-French statesman Robert Schuman.
Law and government
The local law (French: droit local) applied in Metz is a legal system, which operates in parallel with French law. Created in 1919, it preserves the French laws applied in France before 1870 and maintained by the Germans during the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, but were repealed in the rest of France after 1871. It also maintains German laws enacted by the German Empire between 1871 and 1918, the specific provisions adopted by the local authorities, and the French laws that have been enacted after 1919 to be applicable only in Alsace-Lorraine. This specific local legislation encompasses different areas, such as religion, social, work, and finance.
The most striking of the legal differences between France and Alsace-Lorraine is the absence in Alsace-Lorraine of a strict secularism, even though a constitutional right of freedom of religion is guaranteed by the French government. Alsace-Lorraine is still governed by a pre-1905 law established by the Concordat of 1801, which provides for the public subsidy of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist churches and the Jewish religion.
As every commune of the actual French Republic, Metz is managed by a mayor (French: maire) and a municipal council (French: conseil municipal), democratically elected by two-round proportional voting for six years. The mayor is assisted by 54 municipal councilors, and the municipal council is held the last Thursday of every month. Since 2008, the mayor of Metz is socialist Dominique Gros.
The city is member of the Metz Metropole union of cities, gathering the 40 cities of the Metz urban agglomeration. Also, Metz is home to the Lorraine region and the prefecture of the Moselle, held in the formers Saint-Clement Abbey and Intendant palace, respectively.
City administrative divisions
The city of Metz is divided into 14 administrative divisions:
|2||Metz-Nord Patrotte||Harbour zone|
|3||Les îles||Lorraine Parliament, University of Lorraine, Fabert High School, Cogeneration Plant|
|4||Plantières-Queuleu||Queuleu Fort, Museum of Resistance and Deportation of Metz|
|6||Metz-Vallières||Robert Schuman private hospital|
|7||Borny||University of Lorraine, Contemporary Music Venue|
|8||Grigy-Technopôle||Metz Science Park, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, University of Lorraine, Georgia Tech Lorraine, Supélec|
|9||Grange aux Bois||Trade Fair Center, Regional Hospital of Metz-Thionville|
|10||Sablon||Centre Pompidou-Metz, Indoor Sports Arena, Caisse d'Épargne regional headquarters, Metz-Metropole Conference Centre Hall (project)|
|11||Magny||Saint-Clement and Leusiotte woods|
|12||Nouvelle Ville||Imperial Station-Palace, INSEE and Banque Populaire regional headquarters, Central Post Office, Chamber of Commerce|
|13||Metz Centre||City Hall, Prefecture, Diocese of Metz and Saint-Stephen Cathedral, Arsenal Concert Hall, Opera House|
|14||Ancienne Ville||Golden Courtyard Museum, Regional Contemporary Art Fund of Lorraine, Jazz Concert Venue|
Cityscape and environmental policy
Metz is home to a mishmash of architectural layers, witnessing its millennium history at the crossroad of different cultures, and features architectural landmarks. The city possesses one of the largest Urban Conservation Areas in France, and more than 100 buildings of the city are classified on the Monument Historique list. Because of its historical and cultural background, Metz benefits from its designation as French Town of Art and History, and has been submitted on the France's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List. French aerial photographer Yann Arthus-Bertrand captured Metz from high up, giving a privileged view of Metz's urban area and monuments. Highlights include Metz Cathedral, the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum (night and day views), several skyscapes, and Metz's wooded hillsides.
The city is famous for its yellow limestone architecture, due to the extensive use of the Jaumont stone. The historic district has kept part of the Gallo-Roman city planning with the Divodurum's Cardo Maximus, then called Via Scarponensis (today the Trinitaires, Taison, and Serpenoise streets), and the Decumanus Maximus (today En Fournirue and d'Estrées streets). At the Cardo and Decumanus intersection was situated the Roman forum, today the Saint-Jacques Square.
The Saint-Louis square with its vaulted arcades remains a major symbol of the High Medieval heritage of the city, as well as, a Knights Templar chapel. The Gothic Saint-Stephen Cathedral, several churches and Hôtels, and two remarkable municipal granaries reflect the Late Middle Ages. Examples of Renaissance architecture can be seen in Hôtels from the 16th century, such as the House of Heads (French: Maison des Têtes).
The city hall and buildings surrounding the town square are works of French architect Jacques-François Blondel, awarded by the Royal Academy of Architecture to redesign and modernize the centre of Metz in 1755 in a context of Enlightenment. Also, Neoclassical edifices from the 18th century, such as the Opera House, the Intendant palace (the present-day prefecture), and the Royal Governor palace (the present-day courthouse) built by Charles-Louis Clérisseau, are found in the city.
The Imperial District was built during the first annexation of Metz by Otto von Bismarck to the German Empire. In order to "germanify" the city, Emperor Wilhelm II decided to create a new district shaped by a distinctive blend of Germanic architecture, including Renaissance, neo-Romanesque or neo-Classical, mixed with elements of Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Alsatian and mock-Bavarian styles. Moreover, the Jaumont stone, commonly used everywhere else in the city, was replaced by stones used in the Rhineland, like pink and grey sandstone, granite and basalt. The district features noteworthy buildings including the impressive Station Palace and the Central Post Office by German architect Jürgen Kröger.
Modern architecture can also be seen in the town with works of French architects Roger-Henri Expert (Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus church, 1934), Georges-Henri Pingusson (Fire Station, 1960), and Jean Dubuisson (subdivisions, 1960s). The refurbishment of the former Ney Arsenal into a Concert Hall in 1989 and the erection of the Metz Arena in 2002, by architects Spanish Ricardo Bofill and French Paul Chemetov respectively, represent the Postmodern movement.
The Centre Pompidou-Metz museum represents a strong architectural initiative marking the entrance of Metz into the 21st century. Designed by Japanese architect Shigeru Ban, the building is remarkable for the complex, innovative carpentry of its roof, and integrates concepts of sustainable architecture. The Centre Pompidou-Metz is the cornerstone of the Amphitheatre District, currently under construction and conceived by French architects Nicolas Michelin, Jean-Paul Viguier, and Christian de Portzamparc and designer Philippe Starck. The urban project is expected to be completed by 2023.
Under the leadership of people like botanist Jean-Marie Pelt, Metz pioneered a policy of urban ecology during the early 1970s. Because of the urban and popular signs of failure of the post-war urban planning and housing estate occurring in Europe during the 1960s and mostly based on the concepts of CIAM, Jean-Marie Pelt, then municipal councilor of Metz, initiated a refoundation of the approach on urban environment.
Based initially on the ideas of the Chicago School, Pelt's theories pled for a better integration of humans into their environment and developed a concept centered around the relation between "stones and waters". His policy was materialized in Metz by the establishment of extensive open grounds surrounding the Moselle and the Seille rivers and the development of large pedestrian areas. So, Metz displays over 37 m2 (400 sq ft) of open ground per inhabitant through multiple public gardens dispatched into the city.
Since, the concepts of urban ecology are still applied in Metz with the implementation of a local Agenda 21 action plan. The municipal, ecological policy encompasses the sustainable refurbishment of ancient buildings, erection of sustainable districts and edifices, green public transports, and creation of public gardens via landscape architecture concepts.
Also, the city has also developed its own combined heat and power station, using waste wood biomass from the surrounding forests as renewable energy source. With a thermal efficiencies above 80%, the 45MW boiler of the plant provides electricity and heat for 44,000 dwellings and the power station of Metz is the first local producer and distributor of energy in France.
As a historic Garrison town, Metz has also been largely influenced by military architecture throughout its history. From Ancient history to the present, the city has been successively fortified or complemented in order to receive the troops stationed there. So, defensive walls from classical antiquity to the 20th century are still visible today and are included in public gardens designed along the Moselle and Seille rivers. A medieval bridge castle from the 13th century, named Germans' Gate (French: Porte des Allemands), has become one of the landmarks of the city. Remains of the citadel from the 16th century and fortifications built by Louis de Cormontaigne are still visible today. Important barracks, mostly from the 18th and 19th centuries, are spread around the city, and some of them which are of architectural interest have reconverted to civilian facilities, such as the Arsenal Concert Hall by Spanish architect Ricardo Bofill.
Ringing the city are extensive fortifications of Metz, that include early examples of Séré de Rivières system forts. Other forts were incorporated into the Maginot Line. A hiking trail on the Saint-Quentin plateau passes through former military training zone and ends at the now abandoned military forts, providing a high ground from which to survey the city.
Though steel industry has historically dominated Moselle's economy, Metz's efforts in economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of commerce, tourism, and information technology and automotive industries. The city is the economic heart of the Lorraine region and around 73,000 people are working daily within the urban agglomeration area. The transportation facilities found in the urban agglomeration, including the international high-speed rail, motorway, and inland connections and the local bus rapid transit system, have placed the city in an exchange hub in the European union's heart. So, Metz is home to the biggest harbour handling cereals in France with over 4,000,000 tons/year.
Metz is home to the chamber of commerce of Moselle. Some international companies, such as PSA Peugeot Citroën, ArcelorMittal, SFR, and TDF, have established plants and centres in the Metz urban agglomeration. Also, Metz hosts the regional headquarters of Caisse d'Epargne and Banque Populaire banking groups.
Metz is an important commercial centre of northern France with France's biggest retailer federation, gathering around 2,000 retailers. Important store companies are found in the city, such as the Galeries Lafayette and Printemps department stores and the Fnac entertainment retail chain. The historical downtown displays one of the largest commercial, pedestrian areas in France and a mall, the Saint-Jacques centre, in addition to the multiplex movie theatre and malls found in the urban agglomeration.
In recent years, Metz municipality have promoted an ambitious policy of the tourism development, including urban revitalization and refurbishment of edifices and public squares. This policy has been spurred by the creation of the Centre Pompidou-Metz in 2010. Since its inauguration, the institution has became the most visited cultural venue in France outside Paris with 550,000 visitors/year. Still, the Saint-Stephen Cathedral is the most visited edifice of the city accommodating 652,000 visitors/year.
Culture and contemporary life
Museums and exhibition halls
The Centre Pompidou-Metz is a museum of modern and contemporary arts, the largest temporary exhibition area outside Paris in France. The museum features exhibition from the extensive collection of the Centre Pompidou, the Europe's largest collection of 20th-century art. The Centre Pompidou-Metz displays around 3 to 4 unique temporary exhibitions per year, which are not presented somewhere else. In addition of the temporary exhibitions, the Centre Pompidou-Metz features seasonal programming with contemporary live shows in its theater and organizes meetings and conferences in its auditorium with worldly recognized, as well as, local artists. The museum also works in close collaboration with the Mudam in joint initiatives.
Also, the FRAC Lorraine is a public collection of contemporary art of the Lorraine region. It is located in the 12th-century Saint-Liver Hôtel and organizes exhibitions of local and international contemporary artists.
The Saint-Stephen Cathedral is the Gothic cathedral of the city built during the 13th century. The cathedral exhibits the millennium rich collection of the Bishopric of Metz, including paraments and items used in the service of the Eucharist. Metz Cathedral is sometimes nicknamed the Good Lord's Lantern (French: la Lanterne du Bon Dieu), displaying the largest expanse of stained glass windows in the world with 6,500 m2 (70,000 sq ft). Those stained glass windows include works by Gothic and Renaissance master glass makers Hermann von Münster, Théobald of Lixheim, and Valentin Bousch and romantic Charles-Laurent Maréchal, tachist Roger Bissière, cubist Jacques Villon, and modernist Marc Chagall. Another church of the city displays a complete set of stained glass windows of French modernist Jean Cocteau.
In addition, Metz features other museums and exhibition venues. The Golden Courtyard (French: la Cour d'Or) is a museum dedicated to the history of Metz, divided into four sections (e.g. archeology, medieval, architecture, and fine arts). The Golden Courtyard displays a rich collection of Gallo-Roman and medieval finds and the vestiges of Gallo-Roman baths of Divodurum Mediomatricum, revealed by the extension works to the museums in the 1930s.
The Museum of the 1870 War and of the Annexion in Gravelotte, village located within the Metz-Metropole agglomeration and the site of the Battle of Gravelotte, is the only one museum dedicated to the Franco-Prussian War in Europe. The museum exhibits military and everyday items from the period, as well as, artworks related to the 1870 warfare. A mausoleum erected in 1904 honoring the soldiers who died during the battle, the Memory Hall (French: La Halle du Souvenir), has been included to the museum.
The House for Europe, located in the estate of Robert Schuman in Scy-Chazelles within the Metz-Metropole agglomeration, has been transformed into a museum and convention centre. Across the street lies the fortified 12th Century church where Robert Schuman now rests. The Robert Schuman House for Europe organises cultural and educational events that initiate the visitor to the life and works of Robert Schuman himself, as well as the way Europe has been constructed and continues to develop today.
Also, the House of Verlaine (French: la Maison de Verlaine) is museum located in the native house of poet Paul Verlaine and dedicated to his artworks, featuring permanent and temporary exhibitions. The Solange Bertrand foundation, located in the former house of the artist, conserves and presents her artworks. The municipal archives preserve and exhibit the historical records of Metz's municipality dating from medieval times to present.
Entertainment and performing arts
Metz displays several venues accommodating performing arts. So, the Opera House of Metz, the oldest opera house working in France, features plays, dance, and lyric poetry. The Arsenal Concert Hall, dedicated to art music, is widely renowned for its excellent acoustics and considered as one of the most beautiful concert halls in Europe. The Trinitarians Club is a multi-media arts complex housed in an ancient convent, which vaulted cellar and chapel have been the city's prime venue for jazz music. The Music Box (French: Boite à Musique) is the concert venue dedicated to rock and electronic musics. The Braun Hall and the Koltès Theater features plays, and the city possesses two movie theaters specialized in Auteur cinema. The Saint-Jacques Square, surrounded by busy bars and pubs whose open-air tables fill the centre of the square, participates to the quality of life in Metz. Numerous other associations and private music bars and theaters collaborate to the entertaining life in Metz.
Metz in the arts
Metz was an important cultural centre during the Carolingian Renaissance. For example, Gregorian chant was created in Metz during the 8th century as a fusion of Gallican and ancient Roman repertory, and remains the oldest form of music still use in Western Europe. Then called Messin Chant, the bishops of Metz, notably Saint-Chrodegang, promoted its use for the Roman liturgy in Gallic lands in the favorable atmosphere of Carolingian monarchs. The Messin chant made two major contributions to the body of chant: it fitted the chant into the ancient Greek octoechos system, and invented an innovative musical notation, using neumes to show the shape of a remembered melody. Also, Metz was an important centre of illumination of Carolingian manuscripts, producing some monuments of Carolingian book illumination such as the Drogo Sacramentary.
The Metz School (French: École de Metz) was an art movement in Metz and its region gathering around Charles-Laurent Maréchal between 1834 and 1870. Originally the term was proposed in 1845 by poet Charles Baudelaire, who appreciated the works of the artists. They were influenced by Eugène Delacroix and inspired by the medieval heritage of Metz and its romantic surroundings. The Franco-Prussian War and the annexation of the land by the Germans resulted in the dismantling of the movement. Main figures of Metz School are Charles-Laurent Maréchal, Auguste Migette, Auguste Hussenot, Louis-Théodore Devilly, Christopher Fratin, and Charles Pêtre. Their works encompass paintings, engravings, drawings, stained-glass windows, and sculptures.
The Graoully dragon as symbol of the city
The Graoully is depicted as a fearsome dragon, vanquished by the sacred powers of Saint Clement of Metz, the first Bishop of the city. The Graoully quickly became a symbol of Metz and can be see in numerous insignia of the city, since the 10th century. Authors from Metz tend to present the legend of the Graoully as a symbol of Christianity's victory over paganism, represented by the harmful dragon.
Local specialties include the quiche, the potée, the Lorrain pâté, and also the suckling pig. Different recipes, such as jam, tart, charcuterie and fruit brandy, are made from the Mirabelle and Damson plums. Also, Metz is the cradle of some pastries like the Metz cheese pie and the Metz Balls (French: boulet de Metz), a ganache-stuffed biscuit coated with marzipan, caramel, and dark chocolate. Local beverages include Moselle wine and Amos beer.
The Covered Market of Metz is one of the oldest, most grandiose in France and is home to traditional local food producers and retailers. Originally built as the bishop's palace, the French Revolution broke out before the Bishop of Metz could move in and the citizens decided to turn it into a food market. The adjacent Chamber's Square (French: Place de la Chambre) is surrounded by numerous local food restaurants.
Celebrations and events
Many events are celebrated in Metz throughout the year. The city of Metz dedicates two weeks to the Mirabelle plum during the popular Mirabelle Festival held in August. During the festival, in addition to open markets selling fresh prunes, mirabelle tarts, and mirabelle liquor, there is live music, fireworks, parties, art exhibits, a parade with floral floats and competition, and the crowning of the Mirabelle Queen and a gala of celebration.
In addition, a festival of literature is held in June. The Montgolfiades hot air balloon festival is organized in September. The second most popular Christmas Market in France occurs in November and December. Finally, a Saint Nicholas parade honors the patron saint of the Lorraine region in December.
Metz is also home to the Football Club of Metz (FC Metz), a football association club in Ligue 2, the second highest division of French football. FC Metz has twice won the French Cup (in 1984 and 1988), the French League Cup (in 1986 and 1996), and the Ligue 2 (1935 and 2007), and was French championship runner-up in 1998. FC Metz has also gained recognition in France and Europe for its successful youth academy, winning the Gambardella Cup 3 times in 1981, 2001, and 2010. The Saint-Symphorien stadium is the home of the FC Metz since the creation of the club.
The Metz Handball is a Team Handball club. Metz Handball has won 18 times the French Women's First League championship, eight times the French Women's League Cup, and six times the Women's France Cup. The Metz Arena is the home of Metz Handball since 2002.
|FC Metz||Association Football||Ligue 2||Saint-Symphorien stadium|
|Metz Handball||Team Handball||French Women's First League||Metz Arena|
|Metz Hockey Club||Hockey||French Men's Second League||Saint-Symphorien Ice Ring|
|Metz Ronde Pétanque||Pétanque||French championship||Saint-Symphorien Arena|
|Metz TT||Table Tennis||French Women's Pro A; French Men's Pro B||Saint-Symphorien Arena|
|Moselle Open||Tennis||ATP World Tour 250 tournament||Metz Arena|
|Golden Mirabelle Open||Golf||Allianz Golf Tour||Technopole Golf Course|
|Mirabelle Metz Marathon||Athletics||Metz Urban Agglomeration|
Metz is home to numerous high schools, such as the Fabert High School or the Lycée of communication. Some of these institutions offer higher education programs such as classes préparatoires (undergraduate school) or BTS (technician certificate).
University of Lorraine
Metz is also home to the University of Lorraine (often abbreviated in UdL). The university is divided into two university centers, one in Metz (material sciences, technology, and management) and one in Nancy (biological sciences, health care, administration, and management). The University of Lorraine has a student body of over 55,000 and offers 101 accredited research centers organized in 9 research areas and 8 doctoral colleges. The campus of Metz, developed on three different sites within the city, enjoys a privileged position at a hub opening up to Germany and the Benelux and has gained recognition for the development of joint Franco-German curricula. The University of Lorraine is ranked in 2013 at the 14th place among the French universities and is among the top 300 universities in the world, according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities.
At the end of the 1990s, the city expanded and the Metz Science Park was created in the southern area. Along with this expansion, several graduate schools took this opportunity and chose to establish a campus on the park. In a first time, facilities were grouped around the lake Symphony, like Supélec in 1985 and Georgia Tech Lorraine in 1990. In 1996, the engineering school Arts et Métiers ParisTech (ENSAM) built a research and learning center next to the golf course. This opened the way to the development of a new area, where the Franco-German university (ISFATES) and the ENIM moved in 2010. These graduate schools often cooperate with the University of Lorraine. For instance, the university and ENSAM share research teams, laboratories, equipments, and doctoral programs.
Public transport includes a bus rapid transit system, named Mettis. Mettis vehicles are high-capacity hybrid bi-articulated buses built by Van Hool, and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with disability access. Mettis has its own planned and integrated transportation system, which includes two dedicated lines spread into Metz agglomeration. Mettis lanes A and B deserve the major facilities of the city (e.g. city centre, university campus, and hospitals), and a transport hub is located next to the railway station.
The Railway Station of Metz is connected to the French high speed train (TGV) network, which provides a direct rail service to Paris and Luxembourg. The time from Paris (Paris Eastern Station) to Metz is 82 minutes. Additionally, Metz is served by the Lorraine TGV railway station, located at Louvigny, 25 km (16 mi)to the south of Metz, for high speed trains going to Nantes, Rennes, Lille, or Bordeaux (without stopping in Paris). Also, Metz is one of the main stations of the regional express trains systems named Métrolor.
Metz is located at the intersection of two major road axes: the Eastern Motorway, itself a part of the European route E50 connecting Paris to Prague, and the A31 Motorway, which goes north to Luxembourg and south to the Mediterranean Sea towards Nancy, Dijon, and Lyon.
The Luxembourg International Airport is the nearest international airport connected to Metz by Métrolor train. Also,the Lorraine TGV Station is at 75 minutes by train from France international Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. Finally, Metz-Nancy-Lorraine Airport is located in Goin, at 16.5 km (10.25 mi) Metz southeast.
Metz is located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers, both navigable waterways. The marina connects Metz to the cities of the Moselle valley (i.e. Trier, Schengen, and Koblenz) via the Moselle river.
- the Gothic Saint-Stephen cathedral built during the 13th century. The cathedral is nicknamed the Good Lord's Lantern (French: la Lanterne du Bon Dieu), possessing the largest expanse of stained glass windows in the world and the tenth highest nave in the world.
- the Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains basilica, one of the oldest churches in the world and cradle of the Gregorian Chant.
- the Saint-Maximin church featuring stained glass windows of French artist Jean Cocteau, and the Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Enfant-Jésus church built by French architect Roger-Henri Expert.
- the Romanesque Knights Templar's chapel from the 13th century, once part of the Templar commandery of Metz, the oldest Templar institution of the Holy Roman Empire.
- the opera house of Metz Metropole built during the 18th century in Tuscany-influenced neo-Classical style. It is the oldest opera house working in France and one of the oldest ones in Europe.
- the native houses of Paul Verlaine, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, André Schwarz-Bart, Gustave Kahn, Gabriel Pierné, Charles Pêtre, and Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle.
- the house of François Rabelais, when he came in Metz, then a free imperial city and a republic, to escape the condemnation for heresy by the University of Paris.
- numerous medieval edifices including two granaries and several Hôtels.
- the town square and its surrounding Neoclassical buildings, built by French architect Jacques-François Blondel.
- the Neoclassical courthouse (former Governor palace), built by French artist Charles-Louis Clérisseau, place in 1775 of the Diner of Metz while Lafayette met Marquis of Ruffec and Duke of Gloucester and decided to support the American Revolutionary War.
- the Romanesque Revival Station-Palace and Central Post Office, built by German architect Jürgen Kröger.
- the Northeast France defense headquarters (former Kaiser headquarters), built by German architects Schönhals and Stolterfoth in a neo-Flemish style.
- the German's Gate from the 13th century, last medieval bridge castle in France. The fortification played a crucial defensive role during the siege of Metz in 1552–1553 by Emperor Charles V.
- the ruins of the city's defensive walls from ancient history to the 18th century, and the extensive 19th- and 20th-century fortifications of Metz.
- the Fort of Queuleu, also called the Hell of Queuleu (French: l'Enfer de Queuleu), was used by Germans as a detention and interrogation centre for members of the French Resistance during the Second World War.
- the war memorial, art deco sculpture by French sculptor Paul Niclausse representing a mother cradling the dead body of her son.
Metz is a member of the QuattroPole(FR)(DE) union of cities, along with Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, and Trier (neighbouring countries: Luxembourg, France, and Germany). Metz forms a central place of the Greater Region and of the economic SaarLorLux Euroregion. Metz is also twin town with:
- Gloucester, United Kingdom, since 1967
- Karmiel, Israel, since 1984
- Kansas City, Missouri, USA, since 2004 
- Djambala, Republic of Congo, since 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metz.|
- "Official website of the prefecture of Lorraine". Retrieved 6 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Lorraine region". Retrieved 6 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the prefecture of Moselle". Retrieved 6 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Moselle department". Retrieved 6 July 2012. (French)
- Says J.M. (2010) La Moselle, une rivière européenne. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-857-2 (French)
- "Official website of the Greater Region". Retrieved 6 July 2012. (French)
- Bour R. (2007) Histoire de Metz, nouvelle édition. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-728-5 (French)
- Vigneron B. (1986) Metz antique: Divodurum Mediomatricorum. Eds. Maisonneuve. ISBN 2-7160-0115-4 (French)
- Huguenin A. (2011) Histoire du royaume mérovingien d'Austrasie. Eds. des Paraiges. ISBN 979-10-90185-00-5 pp. 134,275 (French)
- Settipani C. (1989) Les ancêtres de Charlemagne. Ed. Société atlantique d'impression. ISBN 2-906483-28-1 pp. 3–49 (French)
- Demollière C.J. (2004) L'art du chantre carolingien. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-555-9 (French)
- Roemer F. (2007) Les institutions de la République messine. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-709-4 (French)
- Weyland A. (2010) Moselle plurielle: identité complexe & complexes identitaires. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-748-3 (French)
- "Presentation of the specificity of Metz for the UNESCO World Heritage Site enlistment, January 2014." (PDF). Retrieved 17 November 2011. (French)
- "Metz Cathedral webcam" (VIDEO). Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Collectif (2009) Monumental 2009 - semestriel 1. Coll. Monumental. Eds. Guides archeologiques de la France. ISBN 978-2-7577-0055-6 (French)
- Delestre X. (1988) Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains (Metz - Moselle): de l'époque romaine à l'époque gothique. Eds. Guides archeologiques de la France. ISBN 978-2-85822-439-5 (French)
- Schontz A. (2008) La gare de Metz. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-833-6 (French)
- Masson G. (2002) L'Opéra-théâtre de Metz. Ed. Klopp, Gerard. ISBN 978-2-911992-38-4 (French)
- Pelt J.M. (1977) L'Homme re-naturé. Eds. Seuil. ISBN 2-02-004589-3 (French)
- "INA Archive (1977) Samedi et demi, interview with Jean-Marie Pelt. Prod. Antenne 2." (VIDEO). Retrieved 16 May 2011. (French)
- "Metz magazine (2007) 322:16-17." (PDF). Retrieved March 2007. (French)
- "Official municipal website, Public garden map of Metz" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- Hamel S. and Walter J. (2000) Metz. Ecologie urbaine et convivialité. Ed. Autrement. ISBN 978-2-86260-343-8 (French)
- "Official Metz municipality website, Agenda 21." (PDF). Retrieved November 2007. (French)
- "University of Lorraine. Research, innovation, and valorisation." (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2011. (French)
- Gendarme R. (1985) Sidérurgie en Lorraine, les coulées du futur. Eds. Presses Universitaires de Nancy. ISBN 2-86480-224-4 (French)
- Martin P. (2010) Metz, 2000 years of history. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-845-9 pp. 8–9
- Toussaint M. (1948) Metz à l'époque gallo-romaine. Eds. Impr. P. Even. pp. 21–22 (French)
- Di Rocco A. (2009) Année 451 : la bataille qui sauva l'Occident. Eds. Thélès. ISBN 978-2-303-00228-8 pp. 156–158 (French)
- Gibbon E (1788) History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 4:35
- Brasme P. (2011) Quand Metz reçoit la France. Eds. des Paraiges. ISBN 979-10-90185-03-6 pp. 17–34 (French)
- Vigneron B. (2010) Le dernier siècle de la république de Metz. Eds. du Panthéon. ISBN 978-2-7547-0356-7 (French)
- Roth F. (2011) La Lorraine Annexée - version 2011, nouvelle édition. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-866-4 (French)
- Berrar J.C. (2009) Metz, retour à le France. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-784-1 (French)
- Przybylski S. (2009) La Campagne de Lorraine de 1944, Panther contre Sherman. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-820-6 (French)
- Denis P. (2008) La Libération de la Lorraine, 1940–1945. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-764-3 (French)
- Roth F. (2012) Histoire politique de la Lorraine, de 1900 à nos jours. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-881-7 (French)
- "Metz and the Messin pays from above, full movie, by Yann Arthus-Bertrand" (VIDEO). Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Leza-Chomard A. and Pautrot C. (2006) Géologie et géographie de la Lorraine. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-632-6 (French)
- "Official website of the Lorraine Regional Natural Park.". Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Beck J.S. (2011) 2000 ans de climat en Alsace et en Lorraine. Eds. Coprur. ISBN 978-2-84208-209-3 (French)
- "Weatherspark webpage dedicated to Metz.". Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Average Weather for Metz, FR". MeteoFrance.com. Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- The Mutte is the name of the large bell of the Saint-Stephen cathedral.
- A law from 1872 forbids the collection by the state of census data based on questions about religious beliefs. The French Third Republic considered that kind of information to be private and that any citizen of the Republic should be considered as equal of his mates, regardless his private life. In accordance with the concept of laïcité, this principle was reaffirmed by the current French Fifth Republic in a law from 1978, stating that "it is forbidden to collect or process data of a personal nature related to racial or ethnic origins as well as political, philosophic, or religious opinions."
- "Historical census database of the population of Metz, INSEE.". Retrieved January 2012. (French)
- "Official Lorraine prefecture webpage on the military restructurings.". Retrieved Septembre 2008. (French)
- "Census of the population of Metz, INSEE.". Retrieved January 2012. (French)
- "Database Cassini, EHESS.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "Verlaine's native house - House of Verlaine (museum), video clip.". Retrieved 21 March 2013. (French)
- "Official French general code of territorial collectivities, French Republic". Retrieved June 2012. (French)
- "Official Metz municipality website, List of Metz municipal councilors.". Retrieved July 2012. (French)
- "Official Metz municipality website, agenda and procès-verbal of the Municipal Council of Metz.". Retrieved July 2012. (French)
- Since March 2009, the municipal council meetings are available in audio files in French.
- "List of mayors of Metz since 1790.". Retrieved March 2008. (French)
- "Official Metz municipality website, Resume of Dominique Gros.". Retrieved March 2008. (French)
- "Official Metz Metropole website, list of cities webpage". Retrieved June 2012. (French)
- "Official website of Metz municipality." (PHP). Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- Braun S. (2008) Metz, Portrait d'une ville. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-781-0 (French)
- Hubert P. (2004) Metz, ville d'architectures. Ed. Domini, Serge. ISBN 2-912645-70-0; pp. 164–165 (French)
- "Metz municipal council, January 2011." (PDF). Retrieved 28 January 2011. (French)
- "Metz municipal council, April 2010." (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2010. (French)
- "Towns and Lands of Art and History, official list from the French Minister of Culture, November 2011." (PDF). Retrieved 17 November 2011. (French)
- "Application folder of Metz municipality to the French Town of Art and History label" (PDF). Retrieved December 2011. (French)
- "Metz and the Messin pays from above, shortcut, by Yann Arthus-Bertrand" (VIDEO). Retrieved 19 May 2009.
- "Official website of the Jaumont stone companies.". Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- "An unknown Roman Quarter found in the heart of Metz, Official report of INRAP" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Collectif (2006) L'aqueduc antique de Gorze à Metz. Moselle 119. Coll. Itinéraires du patrimoine. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-306-8 (French)
- "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 1" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.
- "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 2" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.
- "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 3" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.
- "Animation of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral construction, part 4" (VIDEO). Retrieved June 2012.
- "Town square webcam" (VIDEO). Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Wagner P.E. and Jollin J.L. (1987) 15 siècles d'architecture et d'urbanisme autour de la cathédrale de Metz. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-004-0 pp. 123–276 (French)
- Collectif (2006) L'hôtel de l'Intendance, Préfecture de la Moselle et de la région Lorraine, Metz, N°310. Coll. Itinéraires du patrimoines. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-913411-22-3 (French)
- Pignon-Feller C. (2005) Metz 1848–1918. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-584-7 (French)
- Expert R.H. Roger-Henri Expert, 1882–1955. Volume 3 de Institut français d'architecture. Eds. du Moniteur. (French)
- Collectif (1997) Georges-Henri Pingusson, architecte de l'œuvre lorraine N°147. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-309-2 (French)
- Jodidio P. (2010) Shigeru Ban, complete works 1985–2010. Ed. Jodidio, Philip. ISBN 978-3-8365-1792-8 pp. 426–447
- "RIBA Awards, 2012 Eropean winners, Centre Pompidou-Metz webpage.". Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Centre Pompidou Metz, innovative architecture. Tribù, the art of leisure.". Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "Description of the project of the Amphitheatre District by Metz Metropole" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "Official Metz municipality website, Amphitheatre District webcam" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- Berrar J.C. (2011) Metz défigurée dans les années 60-70. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-909-8 (French)
- "INA Archive (1964) Quartiers anciens de Metz, chefs d'oeuvre en péril, ORTF." (VIDEO). Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "INA Archive (1964) Au secours des quartiers anciens, ORTF." (VIDEO). Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "INA Archive (1977) Restauration urbaine à Metz, Antenne 2." (VIDEO). Retrieved 4 July 2012. (French)
- "INA Archive (1980) Urbanisme à Metz : rénovation des quartiers anciens, France 3 Régions." (VIDEO). Retrieved 4 July 2012. (French)
- "Official municipal website, municipal council February 2010, Carbon Plan." (PDF). Retrieved 26 February 2010. (French)
- "Official municipal website, municipal council October 2010, Sustainable Energy Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2010. (French)
- "Official municipal website, municipal council July 2010, Bicycle Plan." (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2010. (French)
- "Official municipal website, municipal council February 2010, Public garden policy." (PDF). Retrieved 26 February 2010. (French)
- "Official website of the power plant of Metz". Retrieved 1 October 2012. (French)
- "Official municipal website, municipal council April 2011, Debate of the cogeneration boiler investment." (Audio). Retrieved April 2011. (French)
- "Official Pressbook of the power plant of Metz" (PDF). Retrieved 26 February 2010. (French)
- "Tour of Metz:Part 1, trailer from the Iron Men of Metz movie." (VIDEO). Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- Halleck W., Halleck H.W., and Halleck H. (2009) Elements of military art and science. Ed. Applewood Books. ISBN 978-1-4290-2206-4
- Le Hallé G. (2001) Le système Séré de Rivières ou le témoignage des pierres. Eds. Ysec. ISBN 2-84673-008-3 (French)
- Allcorn W. (2003) The Maginot Line 1928–45. Ed. Osprey Publishing, Oxford. ISBN 1-84176-646-1 pp. 57–58
- "Saint-Quentin plateau fortifications dossier". Retrieved 1 July 2011. (French)
- "Saint-Quentin fortification map". Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- "Intercommunal cooperation scheme of Metz Metropole" (PDF). Retrieved 8 July 2011. (French)
- "2nd seminar on the Greater Region transports" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official data sheet of Metz harbor, VNF". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official Metz retailer federation website.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official Metz municipality website, municipal council July 2012, local tourism development scheme." (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Metz tourism office." (PHP). Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "Pompidou centre puts Metz on the map, The Independent.". Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- "Official website of France tourism survey, 2011 Museum frequentation". Retrieved 30 December 2011. (French)
- "Official website of Moselle tourism office, 2011 key numbers. p 12." (PDF). Retrieved January 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Centre Pompidou-Metz.". Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Official website of the Centre Pompidou-Metz, live events and performances.". Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Ars Magazine, Mirrors and Echoes at the Museum.". Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Official website of the Lorraine Contemporary Arts Gallery.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Saint-Stephen Cathedral.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "INA Archive (1969) Trésor de la cathédrale de Metz, Lorraine soir, ORTF" (VIDEO). Retrieved 2 July 2012. (French)
- "INA Archive (1980) Patrimoine: trésor de la cathédrale de Metz, Lorraine soir, France 3 régions" (VIDEO). Retrieved 2 July 2012. (French)
- Jolin J.L. (2001) La lanterne du Bon Dieu. Eds. Serpnoise. ISBN 2-87692-495-1. (French)
- "Saint-Maximin church, Cocteau's artworks.". Retrieved 2 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Golden Courtyard Museum.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "Scy-Chazelles: the house of Europe, the Robert Schuman Foundation.". Retrieved 29 February 2014.
- "The Verlaine's Friends, International Association of French Poetry.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Solange Bertrand Foundation, gourmet webpage.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official Metz municipal website, Municipal Archives webpage.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Opera House of Metz Metropole.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Arsenal of Metz.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- Classica (2010) Les hauts lieux de la musique. September, Issue 125 (French)
- "Official website of the Trinitaires.". Retrieved 29 June 2012.(French)
- "Official website of the BAM.". (French)
- Grier J. (2003) Ademar de Chabannes, Carolingian Musical Practices, and Nota Romana. Journal of the American Musicological Society. 56 (1):43–98.
- "Official Metz library website, medieval book webpage.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official Metz library website, Book of Hours of John of Vy.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- Livre Groupe (2010) École de Metz: Christophe Fratin, Charles-Franois Champigneulle, Laurent-Charles Marechal, Louis-Theodore Devilly, Auguste Migette. Eds. Books LLC. ISBN 978-1-159-58648-5 (French)
- Bellard A. (1966) Le Graoully de Metz à la lumière de la paléontologie. Ed. Mémoires de l'Académie de Metz. ISBN 978-2-9531744-3-4 (French)
- Sassi J. (2002) Cuisine, terroir et traditions de Moselle. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 2-87692-534-6 (French)
- "Official Metz tourism website, gourmet webpage.". Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "France Today magazine, Covered Market webpage.". Retrieved 6 May 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Metz tourism office, events calendar (automated updates).". (French)
- "Official website of the Mirabelle Festival in Metz.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Christmas Market in Metz.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of the Football Club de Metz, Honours.". Retrieved 1 July 2012. (French)
- "Official website of Metz Handball, Honours.". (French)
- "ATP official webpage of the Moselle Open.".
- "Official website of the FC Metz.". (French)
- "Official website of the Metz Handball club.". (French)
- "Official website of the Metz Hockey Club.". (French)
- "Official website of the Metz TT club.". (French)
- "Official website of the Moselle Open tournament.". (French)
- "Allianz Golf Tour official webpage about the Golden Mirabelle Open.". (French)
- "Official website of the Mirabelle Metz Marathon.".
- "Official website of the University of Lorraine.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "University of Lorraine, key numbers." (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "University of Lorraine, education." (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "2013 Academic Ranking of World Universities.". Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "Official website of Mettis.". Retrieved 29 June 2012. (French)
- "Van Hool presents the ExquiCity Design Mettis.". Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "Map of Mettis A and B lines into the Metz agglomeration.". Retrieved 2012.
- "Protestant church webcam" (VIDEO). Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Kuhn-Mutter M.A. (2011) Oratorio pour une cathédrale. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-887-9 (French)
- Kuhn-Mutter M.A. (2012) Vitraux de Jean Cocteau à Metz, féérie de lumière et de couleurs. Eds. Serpenoise. ISBN 978-2-87692-906-7 (French)
- "City embellishment by Jacques-François Blondel, Seminar series, March 2010". Retrieved March 2010. (French)
- "Official municipal website, municipal council April 2010, Commemorative plate at Queuleu fort." (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2010. (French)
- "Official website of the Quattropole city union.". Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- "Metz Municipal Council". Retrieved 1 June 2012. (French)
- "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
- "Metz en visite à Karmiel". City of Metz. 17 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Kansas City Sister Cities".