Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair

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For the 11th-century king of Connacht, see Ruaidrí na Saide Buide. For the nationalist from County Tyrone, see Roderick O'Connor (politician).
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair
High King of Ireland
Rory O'Connor Stone Carving.jpg
Stone carving, Cong Abbey
Reign 1166–1198
Predecessor Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair
Successor Conchobar Máenmaige
Issue numerous
Dynasty O'Conor
Father Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair

Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (newer spelling: Ruaidhrí Ua Conchobhair) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1183[1] He was the last High King of Ireland before the Norman invasion (Brian Ua Néill and Edward Bruce both claimed the title with opposition in later years).

Ruaidrí was one of over twenty sons of King Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair (1088–1156). He and his sister Mór were Tairrdelbach's only children from his third wife, Cailech Dé Ní hEidin of Aidhne.

Rig Damna Connachta[edit]

Ruaidrí was not a favourite of his father, his brother Conchobair Ua Conchobair being Tairrdelbach's tánaiste and designated heir. In 1136, he and his brother Aedh (died 1195) took advantage of a low in Tairrdelbach's fortune's to stage a rebellion. Aedh was blinded by Conchobar on Tairrdelbach's orders but Ruaidrí was protected by the Archbishop of Connacht, Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh. In 1143, he staged another rebellion. He was arrested by Conchobar and Tighearnán Ua Ruairc.

Ruaidhri, was taken by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair, in violation of laity and clergy, relics and protection. These were the sureties: Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh, with the clergy and laity of Connacht; Tadhg Ua Briain, lord of Thomond; Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, lord of Breifne; and Murchadh, son of Gilla-na-naemh Ua Fearghail, lord of Muintir-Anghaile. The clergy of Connacht, with Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh, fasted at Rath-Brenainn, to get their guarantee, but it was not observed for them.

After a year's imprisonment, Archbishop of Armagh Gilla Meic Liac mac Diarmata sought his release by April 1144, along with his confederates Domnall Ua Flaithbertaig and Cathal Ua Conchobair. However, Tairrdelbach only acquiesced upon the assassination of Conchobar in Mide, later that year.[citation needed]

Tánaiste[edit]

Tairrdelbach now chose another son, Donnell Mor Mideach Ua Conchobair, as tánaiste, but Ruaidrí improved his status with raids against Tighearnán Ua Ruairc in 1146 and capturing and killing Tairrdelbach's nephew and opponent, Domnall Ua Conchobar, in 1150. Donnell Mór Mideach began to lose favour in 1147 and his fate was sealed when he was arrested in 1151, making solid his claim as his father's heir. In that year he successfully raided Thomond, where Tairrdelbach won a great victory at the Battle of Móin Mór.

Dearbhforgaill's abduction[edit]

In 1152, Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn travelled into Mide, compelling hostages of Tairrdelbach. "They divided Meath into two parts on this occasion; ... On this occasion Dearbhforgaill, daughter of Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, and wife of Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, was brought away by the King of Leinster" (Dermot MacMurrough).

Activity to 1156[edit]

Ruaidrí remained active in suppressing the Ua Briain's of Munster, burning Croome, dividing Munster in half (Thomond to Tadhg Ua Briain, Desmond to Diarmaid MacCartaigh), expelling Toirrdelbach mac Diarmata into Ailech. This gave reason for Mac Lochlainn to travel south with an army in 1153. Tairrdelbach was beaten off by Mac Lochlainn, leaving Ruaidhri and his men exposed at Fordruim, (now in County Westmeath):

Ruaidhri, son of Toirdhealbhach, and the battalion of West Connacht, and the recruits of Sil-Muireadhaigh, came to Fordruim; but as they were pitching their camp there, the heroes of the North poured upon them without previous notice, and numbers of the Connachtmen were slain by them, and among the rest Gillacheallaigh Ua hEidhin, lord of Aidhne, and his son, Aedh; Brian Ua Dubhda, lord of Ui-Fiachrach of the North; Muircheartach, son of Conchobhar (who was son of Toirdhealbhach) Ua Conchobhair; Domhnall Ua Birn; Domhnall, son of Cathal Ua Conchobhair; and Sitric Mac Dubhghaill.

[citation needed]

The Ua Conchobair's brought "the fleets of Dun-Gaillmhe, of Conmhaicne-mara, of the men of Umhall, of Ui-Amhalghadha, and Ui-Fiachrach" north and defeated Mac Lochlainn at Inis Eoghain, but the latter was strong on land, forcing them to respond to incursions in east Connacht and Breifne, along with attempted settlements in Mide in 1155. The latter led to "The castle of Cuileanntrach [been] burned and demolished by Ruaidhri."[citation needed]

King of Connacht[edit]

Tairrdelbach died at his capital of Dunmore, County Galway. Ruaidri became king of Connacht "without any opposition" As a precaution, he arrested three of his twenty-two brothers, "Brian Breifneach, Brian Luighneach, and Muircheartach Muimhneach" to prevent them from usurping him; Brian Breifneach was blinded.

On learning of Tairrdelbach's death, Mac Lochlainn assumed the High-Kingship and began a war of attrition in Leinster and Osraige, using their regional allies against one another.

Over the winter of 1156–57 he positioned a fleet on the River Shannon in anticipation of an attack from Aileach. Yet Mac Lochlinn successfully imposed his own client king in Mide, took hostages from Dermot MacMurrough, evicted the kings of Loígis, Uí Failghe and Osraige, all of whom fled to Connacht. He then subdued all Munster and captured Luimneach. Forced to attack or lose face, Ruaidrí responded by plundering and burning areas around Strabane and Derry. Then, while Mac Lochlinn was returning home to counter him, Ruaidrí entered Munster and overturned Mac Lochlinn's political settlement.[citation needed]

Children and descendants[edit]

The last of Ruaidrí's descendants to hold the kingship of Connacht, Aedh mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, died in 1233. The Annals of Connacht give the following reason for this:

Aed mac Ruaidri had been five years King of Connacht, as the poet said: 'Aed mac Ruaidri of the swift onslaught, five years his rule over the province, till he fell— a loss on every frontier— by the hand of Fedlimid.' Here ends the rule of the children of Ruaidri O Conchobair, King of Ireland. For the Pope offered him the title to [the kingship of] Ireland for himself and his seed for ever, and likewise six wives, if he would renounce the sin of adultery henceforth; and since he would not accept these terms God took the rule and sovranty from his seed for ever, in punishment for his sin.

The annals and genealogies list thirteen children fathered by Ruaidrí. There may have been more.

All of Ruaidrí's large male progeny faded into obscurity in the first half of the 13th century. The last to be mentioned in the Gaelic-Irish annals was his grandson, Niall son of Domnall Mór, who was killed in 1242.

The result is that there are no demonstratable male-line descendants of Ireland's last high-king recorded after the 1240s. All kings of Connacht from 1233 descended from Ruaidrí's much younger brother, Cathal Crobhdearg Ua Conchobair. The Ó Conchubhair Donn, the senior member of the entire Síol Muireadaigh dynasty, likewise descends from Cathal Crobhdearg.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Aibhm O Croinin (2013), Early Medieval Ireland, 400-1200, London: Routledge, p. 6, "1175: Treaty of Windsor between Ruaidri Ua Conchobhair, high-king, and Henry II. 1183: Ruaidri Ua Conchobhair deposed." 

References[edit]

Preceded by
Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair
King of Connacht
1156–1183; 1186
Succeeded by
Conchobar Maenmaige Ua Conchobhair
Preceded by
Muirchertach MacLochlainn
High King of Ireland
1166–1198
Succeeded by
title vacant
Preceded by
new creation
King of Ireland
1166–1198
Succeeded by
Henry VIII