Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting
|Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting|
Police arrive in front of the elementary school after the shooting.
|Location||Sandy Hook, Connecticut, U.S.|
|Date||December 14, 2012
c. 9:30 am – c. 9:40 am EST (UTC−05:00)
|Target||Students and staff at Sandy Hook Elementary School|
|Attack type||School shooting, murder–suicide, matricide, spree shooting|
|Weapon(s)||Bushmaster XM15 Glock 20SF Sig Sauer P226|
|Deaths||28 total; 27 at the school (including perpetrator) and perpetrator's mother (at home)|
|Perpetrator||Adam Peter Lanza|
|Defender||Dawn Hochsprung, Mary Sherlach, Victoria Leigh Soto, Lauren Rousseau, Rachel D’Avino, Anne Marie Murphy (all unarmed; all posthumous recipients of Presidential Citizens Medal)|
On December 14, 2012, 20-year-old Adam Lanza fatally shot twenty children and six adult staff members in a mass murder at Sandy Hook Elementary School in the village of Sandy Hook in Newtown, Connecticut. Before driving to the school, Lanza shot and killed his mother Nancy at their Newtown home. As first responders arrived, he committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
It was the second deadliest mass shooting by a single person in American history, after the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre, and the second deadliest mass murder at a U.S. elementary school, after the 1927 Bath School bombings in Michigan.
The incident prompted renewed debate about gun control in the United States, and a proposal for new legislation banning the sale and manufacture of certain types of semi-automatic firearms and magazines with more than ten rounds of ammunition.
A November 2013 report issued by the Connecticut State Attorney's office concluded that the perpetrator acted alone and planned his actions, but no evidence collected provided any indication as to why he did so or why he targeted Sandy Hook elementary school.
As of November 30, 2012, 456 children were enrolled in kindergarten through fourth grade at Sandy Hook Elementary School. The school's security protocol had recently been upgraded, requiring visitors to be individually admitted after visual and identification review by video monitor. Doors to the school were locked at 9:30 am each day, after morning arrivals.
Newtown is located in Fairfield County, Connecticut, about 60 miles (97 km) outside New York City. Violent crime had been rare in the town of 28,000 residents; there was only one homicide in the town in the ten years prior to the school shooting.
Some time before 9:30 a.m. EST on Friday, December 14, 2012, Lanza shot dead his mother, Nancy Lanza, aged 52, at their Newtown home. Investigators later found her body, clad in pajamas, in her bed with four gunshot wounds to her head. Lanza then drove to Sandy Hook Elementary School.
At about 9:35 am, using his mother's Bushmaster XM15-E2S rifle, Lanza shot his way through a glass window at the front of the school. He was wearing black clothing, earplugs and an olive green utility vest, carrying magazines for the rifle. Initial reports that he had been wearing body armor were incorrect. Some of those present heard initial shots on the school intercom system, which was being used for morning announcements.
Principal Dawn Hochsprung and school psychologist Mary Sherlach were meeting with other faculty members when they heard gunshots. Hochsprung, Sherlach and lead teacher Natalie Hammond immediately left the room, rushed to the source of the sounds, and encountered and confronted Lanza. A faculty member who was at the meeting said the three women called out "Shooter! Stay put!" which alerted their colleagues to the danger and saved their lives. Lanza killed both Hochsprung and Sherlach. Hammond was hit first in the leg and also sustained another gunshot wound. She laid still in the hallway and then, not hearing any more noise, she crawled back to the conference room and and pressed her body against the door to keep it closed. She was later treated at Danbury Hospital.
A nine-year-old boy said he heard the shooter say: "Put your hands up!" and someone else say "Don't shoot!", people yelling, and many gunshots over the intercom as he, his classmates, and teacher took refuge in a closet in the gymnasium. Diane Day, a school therapist who was at the faculty meeting with Hochsprung, heard screaming, followed by more gunshots. A second teacher, a substitute kindergarten teacher, was wounded in the attack while closing a door further down the hallway. She was hit in the foot with a ricochet bullet. Lanza never entered her classroom.
First grade students
Lanza entered a first-grade classroom where Lauren Rousseau, a substitute teacher, had herded her first grade students to the back of the room and was trying to hide them in a bathroom. Rousseau, behavioral therapist Rachel D'Avino, who had been employed for a week at the school to work with a special needs student, and fifteen students in Rousseau's class were killed. Fourteen of the children were dead at the scene; one injured child was taken to a hospital for treatment but later declared dead. A six-year-old girl was the sole survivor and was found by police in the classroom following the shooting. The girl's family pastor said that she survived the mass shooting by playing dead and remaining still. When she reached her mother, she said, "Mommy, I'm okay, but all my friends are dead." The child described the shooter as a very angry man.
Lanza next went to another first-grade classroom nearby, where there are conflicting reports about the order of events. According to some reports, the classroom's teacher, Victoria Leigh Soto, had concealed some of the students in a closet or bathroom and some of the other students were hiding under desks. Soto was walking back to the classroom door to lock it when Lanza entered the classroom and killed Soto. Lanza walked to the back of the classroom, saw the children under the desks and shot them. First grader Jesse Lewis shouted at his classmates to run for safety, which several of them did. Lewis was looking directly at Lanza when Lanza fatally shot him. Another account, given by a surviving child's father, said that Soto had moved the children to the back of the classroom and they were seated on the floor when Lanza entered. According to this account, neither Lanza nor any of the occupants of the classroom spoke. Lanza stared at the people on the floor and pointed the gun at a boy seated on the floor, but did not fire at the boy, who ultimately survived. Instead, Lanza shot first Soto and then a first-grade girl. As Lanza reloaded the gun, according to this account, several of the children ran past him for safety. The children who ran out of the classroom escaped, perhaps when Lanza's rifle jammed or when he erred in reloading it. Earlier reports said that as Lanza entered her classroom, Soto reportedly told him that the children were in the auditorium. When several of the children came out of their hiding places and tried to run for safety, Lanza fatally shot them. Soto put herself between her students and the shooter, who then fatally shot her. Anne Marie Murphy, a teacher's aide who worked with special-needs students in Soto's classroom, shielded six-year-old Dylan Hockley with her body, trying to protect him from the bullets that killed them both. Soto was found deceased near the north wall of the classroom with a set of keys nearby. Four children were found dead in the classroom; one injured child was taken to the hospital, but was later declared dead. Six surviving children from Soto's class and a school bus driver took refuge at a nearby home. According to the official summary report released by the state's attorney, nine children in all ran from Soto's classroom and survived, while two children were found by police hiding in a bathroom in the classroom. In all, eleven children from Soto's class survived. Five of Soto's students were killed.
School nurse Sally Cox, 60, hid under a desk in her office. She later described seeing the door opening and Lanza's boots and legs facing her desk from approximately 20 feet (6.1 m) away. He remained standing for a few seconds before turning around and leaving. She and the school secretary Barbara Halstead called 9-1-1 and hid in a first-aid supply closet for up to four hours. Custodian Rick Thorne ran through hallways, alerting classrooms.
First grade teacher Kaitlin Roig, aged 29, hid 14 students in a bathroom and barricaded the door, telling them to be completely quiet to remain safe. Lanza is believed to have bypassed her classroom, which was the first classroom on the left side of the hallway, because, following a lockdown drill weeks earlier, Roig failed to remove a piece of black construction paper covering the small window in her classroom door. Lanza may have believed that Roig's classroom was empty because the door was closed and the window was covered.
School library staff Yvonne Cech and Maryann Jacob first hid 18 children in a part of the library the school used for lockdown in practice drills. Discovering that one door would not lock, they had the children crawl into a storage room, where Cech barricaded the door with a filing cabinet.
Music teacher Maryrose Kristopik, 50, barricaded her fourth-graders in a tiny supply closet during the rampage. Lanza arrived moments later, pounding and yelling "Let me in", while the students in Kristopik's class quietly hid inside.
Two third graders, chosen as classroom helpers, were walking down the hallway to the office to deliver the morning attendance sheet as the shooting began. Teacher Abbey Clements pulled both children into her classroom, where they hid.
Laura Feinstein, a reading specialist at the school, gathered two students from outside her classroom and hid with them under desks after they heard gunshots. Feinstein called the school office and tried to call 9–1–1 but could not connect because of lack of reception on her cell phone. She hid with the children for approximately 40 minutes, before law enforcement came to lead them out of the room.
The police heard the final shot at 9:40:03 a.m, and believe that it was Lanza shooting himself in the lower rear portion of his head with the Glock 20SF in classroom 10. Lanza was found wearing a pale green pocket vest over a black polo shirt, over a black T-shirt, black sneakers, black fingerless gloves, black socks, and a black canvas belt. Also found in the vicinity of Lanza was a black boonie styled hat, and thin frame glasses. The Glock was found apparently jammed near the shooter, the Bushmaster was found several feet away from the shooter, and the Sig Sauer P226 was found on the shooter's person.
Authorities determined that Lanza reloaded frequently during the shootings, sometimes firing only fifteen rounds from a thirty-round magazine. He shot all of his victims multiple times, and at least one victim, six-year-old Noah Pozner, 11 times. Most of the shooting took place in two first-grade classrooms near the entrance of the school. The student victims were eight boys and twelve girls, between six and seven years of age, and the six adults were all women who worked at the school. Bullets were also found in at least three cars parked outside the school, leading police to believe that he was firing at a teacher who was standing near a window.
|First Response Timeline |
|~9:30 am||Shooter is believed to first enter SHES.|
|9:35:39 am||First 911 call to Newtown Police is received.|
|9:36:06 am||911 dispatcher broadcasts shooting at SHES.|
|9:37:38 am||Connecticut State Police dispatched to SHES.|
|9:39:00 am||First Newtown police arrives behind SHES.|
|9:39:13 am||Two more Newtown officers arrive at SHES.|
|9:40:03 am||Last shot heard. Believed to be shooter suicide.|
|9:42:39 am||Newtown police reports shooter's car license plate.|
|9:44:47 am||Newtown police officers enter SHES.|
|9:46:23 am||Connecticut State Police arrive at SHES.|
|9:46:48 am||Connecticut State Police enter SHES.|
The first call to 911 was around 9:35 am, approximately three to five minutes after the shooter had entered the building. Newtown 911 police dispatch first broadcasts that there is a shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary (SHES) at 9:36 am about thirty seconds after they received the first call. Connecticut State Police (CSP) are dispatched at 9:37 am. Newtown police arrived at the school street at 9:39 am, approximately four and a half minutes after the 911 call and Connecticut State Police arrive to the school street at 9:46 am. Newtown police first entered the school at 9:45 am, approximately ten minutes after the first 911 call and approximately fourteen minutes after the shooting had started. Police entry into the school is approximately five minutes after the last shot is heard; when the shooter is believed to have committed suicide. No shots were fired by the police.
The Newtown police and Connecticut State Police mobilized local police dog and police tactical units, a bomb squad, and a state police helicopter. Police locked down the school and began evacuating the survivors room by room, escorting groups of students and adults away from the school. They swept the school for additional shooters at least four times.
At approximately 10:00 am, Danbury Hospital scrambled extra medical personnel in expectation of having to treat numerous victims. Three wounded patients were evacuated to the hospital, where two children were later declared dead. The other was an unidentified adult.
The New York City medical examiner dispatched a portable morgue to assist the authorities. The victims' bodies were removed from the school and formally identified during the night after the shooting. A state trooper was assigned to each victim's family to protect their privacy and provide them with information.
On December 4, 2013, seven 911 calls relating to the shooting were made public.
Investigators did not find a suicide note or any messages referring to the planning of the attack. Janet Robinson, superintendent of Newtown schools, said she had not found any connection between Lanza's mother and the school in contrast to initial media reports that stated Lanza's mother had worked there. Police also investigated whether Lanza was the person who had been in an altercation with four staff members at Sandy Hook School the day before the massacre. It was presumed that he killed two of the four staff members involved in the altercation (the principal and the psychologist) and wounded the third (the lead teacher) in the attack; the fourth staff member was not at the school that day. The state police stated that they did not know of any reports about any altercations at the school.
Police sources initially reported Lanza's sibling, Ryan Lanza, as the perpetrator. This was likely because the perpetrator was carrying his brother's identification, Ryan told The Jersey Journal. Lanza's brother voluntarily submitted to questioning by New Jersey State Police, Connecticut State Police, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Police said he was not considered a suspect, and he was not taken into custody. Ryan Lanza said he had not been in touch with his brother since 2010. Connecticut State Police indicated their concern about misinformation being posted on social media sites and threatened prosecution of anyone involved with such activities.
A large quantity of unused ammunition was recovered inside the school along with three semi-automatic firearms found with Lanza: a .223-caliber Bushmaster XM15-E2S rifle (with a 30 round magazine), a 10mm Glock handgun, and a 9mm SIG Sauer P226 handgun. Outside the school, an Izhmash Saiga-12 combat shotgun was found in the car Lanza had driven.
Shortly after the shooting, police announced that Lanza used the rifle to kill the victims at the school. At a press conference on December 15, Dr. H. Wayne Carver II, the Chief Medical Examiner of Connecticut, was asked about the wounds, and replied "All the ones that I know of at this point were caused by the long weapon." When asked if the children suffered before dying, Carver replied by stating that "If so, not for very long". Under Connecticut law at the time, the 20-year-old Lanza was old enough to carry a long gun, such as a rifle or shotgun, but too young to own or carry handguns.
On March 28, 2013, court documents released from the investigation showed that the school shooting had occurred in the space of less than five minutes with 156 shots fired. This comprised 154 shots from the rifle and two shots from the 10mm pistol used by Adam Lanza to kill himself, one in the hall and one through his head.
Investigators evaluated Lanza's body, looking for evidence of drugs or medication through toxicology tests. Additionally, although unusual for an investigation of this type and unlikely to provide conclusive information, DNA testing of Lanza was utilized. Although the testing was supposedly being done at the University of Connecticut, a January 2013 article in The Daily Campus revealed that neither the UConn genetics department nor the UConn Health Center in Farmington were aware of any such testing. Lanza's autopsy showed no tumors or gross deformities in his brain.
Lanza removed the hard drive from his computer and damaged it prior to the shooting, creating a challenge for investigators to recover data. At the time of publication of the final report, it had not been possible to recover data from it. Police believe that Lanza extensively researched earlier mass shootings, including the 2011 Norway attacks and the 2006 Amish school shooting at a one-room school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania.
Details of the investigation were reported by law enforcement officials at a meeting of the International Association of Police Chiefs and Colonels held during the week of March 11, 2013. An article published in the New York Daily News on March 17, 2013, provided purported details of this report by an anonymous law enforcement veteran who had attended the meeting. The source stated that the investigation had found that Lanza had created a 7-by-4-foot sized spreadsheet listing around 500 mass murderers and the weapons they used, which was considered to have taken years of work and to have been used by Lanza as a "score sheet". On March 18, 2013, Lt. Paul Vance of the Connecticut State Police responded that the information from this meeting was "law enforcement sensitive information" and considered the release to be a leak.
The March 28 documents also provided details on items found at Lanza's home, including three samurai swords, a newspaper article about the Northern Illinois University shooting, and a National Rifle Association certificate. The NRA denied that Adam Lanza or Nancy Lanza were members and reporters noted that the NRA site provides training certificate completion templates for courses offered by NRA affiliated instructors. A gun safe was found in a bedroom and investigators found more than 1,400 rounds of ammunition and other firearms. At home, Lanza had access to three more firearms: a .45 Henry rifle, a .30 Enfield rifle, and a .22 Marlin rifle. These were legally owned by Lanza's mother who was described as a gun enthusiast.
According to the New York Times, law enforcement officials commented that Adam Lanza would spend most of his time in his basement doing solitary activities. Some of which include playing video games, one of which was the warfare game Call of Duty. According to these officials, it also appeared that Lanza "may have taken target practice in the basement".
The final report summarizing the investigation into the shooting was published on November 25, 2013. It concluded that Adam Lanza had acted alone, and that the case was closed. The report noted that "[Lanza] had a familiarity with and access to firearms and ammunition and an obsession with mass murders, in particular the April 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Colorado." The report did not identify a specific motive for the shooting, stating "The evidence clearly shows that the shooter planned his actions, including the taking of his own life, but there is no clear indication why he did so, or why he targeted Sandy Hook elementary school." On the question of Lanza's state of mind, the report noted "significant mental health issues that affected his ability to live a normal life and to interact with others, even those to whom he should have been close... What contribution this made to the shootings, if any, is unknown as those mental health professionals who saw him did not see anything that would have predicted his future behavior." The report found no evidence that Lanza had taken drugs or medication that would have affected his behavior, and observed "'Why did the shooter murder twenty-seven people, including twenty children?’ Unfortunately, that question may never be answered conclusively, despite the collection of extensive background information on the shooter through a multitude of interviews and other sources."
|Born||Adam Peter Lanza
April 22, 1992
Kingston, New Hampshire
|Died||December 14, 2012
|Cause of death||Suicide by gunshot to the head|
Adam Peter Lanza (April 22, 1992 – December 14, 2012) and his mother lived in Sandy Hook, 5 miles (8 km) from the elementary school. He did not have a criminal record. He attended Sandy Hook Elementary School for a brief time. Afterward, he attended St. Rose of Lima Catholic School in Newtown, and then Newtown High School, where he was an honors student. Lanza subsequently was home-schooled by his mother, and earned a GED. Lanza's aunt said his mother removed him from the Newtown public school system because she was unhappy with the school district's plans for her son. He attended Western Connecticut State University in 2008 and 2009.
Students and teachers who knew him in high school described Lanza as "intelligent, but nervous and fidgety". He avoided attracting attention and was uncomfortable socializing. He is not known to have had any close friends in school.
Lanza's brother told law enforcement that Adam was believed to have a personality disorder and was "somewhat autistic". An anonymous law enforcement official and friends of Nancy Lanza reported that Adam had been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. According to the Hartford Courant and Frontline, Lanza was diagnosed with sensory processing disorder when he was about 6. This disorder does not have official status by the medical community as a formal diagnosis but is frequently one of the characteristics of autism.
Following her divorce from Adam's father, a corporate executive, Nancy Lanza was supported by alimony payments. A relative commented that she did not have to work because the divorce settlement had left her "very well off". Initial reports said that Nancy Lanza had worked as a volunteer at the Sandy Hook Elementary School, but this was denied by the school superintendent on December 15, 2012.
Her sister-in-law described Nancy Lanza as a "gun enthusiast who owned at least a dozen firearms". She often took her two sons to a local shooting range and had them learn to shoot.
Because of concerns that published accounts of Lanza's autism could result in a backlash against others with the condition, autism advocates campaigned to clarify that autism is a brain-related developmental problem and not a mental illness. The predatory aggression demonstrated by Lanza in the shooting is generally not seen in the autistic population.
President Barack Obama gave a televised address on the day of the shootings, saying, "We're going to have to come together and take meaningful action to prevent more tragedies like this, regardless of the politics." Obama expressed "enormous sympathy for families that are affected", He also ordered flags to be flown at half-staff at the White House and other U.S. federal government facilities worldwide in respect of the victims. On December 16, Obama traveled to Newtown where he met with victims' families and spoke at an interfaith vigil. President Obama honored the six slain adults posthumously with the 2012 Presidential Citizens Medal on February 15, 2013.
Dannel Malloy, the Governor of Connecticut, addressed the media the evening of the shootings near a local church holding a vigil for the victims, urging the people of Connecticut to come together and help each other. Malloy said, "Evil visited this community today, and it is too early to speak of recovery, but each parent, each sibling, each member of the family has to understand that Connecticut, we are all in this together, we will do whatever we can to overcome this event, we will get through it." Hundreds of mourners, including Malloy, attended vigils in various churches in Newtown. On December 17, Malloy called for a statewide moment of silence and church bells to be tolled 26 times at 9:30 am on December 21, exactly one week after the school shooting.
Arne Duncan, the U.S. Secretary of Education, said: "...our thanks go out to every teacher, staff member, and first responder who cared for, comforted, and protected children from harm, often at risk to themselves. We will do everything in our power to assist and support the healing and recovery of Newtown."
The day after the shootings, Lanza's father released a statement:
"Our hearts go out to the families and friends who lost loved ones and to all those who were injured. Our family is grieving along with all those who have been affected by this enormous tragedy. No words can truly express how heartbroken we are. We are in a state of disbelief and trying to find whatever answers we can. We too are asking why. We have cooperated fully with law enforcement and will continue to do so. Like so many of you, we are saddened, but struggling to make sense of what has transpired."
Leaders from many countries and organizations throughout the world also offered their condolences through the weekend after the shooting.
In his speech at the December 16 vigil, President Obama called for using "whatever power this office holds", to prevent similar tragedies in the future. Nearly 200,000 people signed a petition at the Obama administration's We the People petitioning website in support of stricter gun control legislation. President Obama later affirmed that he would make gun control a "central issue" at the start of his second term of office, in a speech on December 19; signing 23 executive orders and proposing 12 congressional actions regarding gun control, one month after the shooting. The President formed a Gun Violence Task Force to be led by Vice President Joe Biden to address the causes of gun violence in the United States. Senators Dianne Feinstein and Joe Lieberman called for an assault weapon ban, with Feinstein intending to introduce a ban bill on the first day of the new Congress, while former Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, who was shot and injured in a 2011 shooting in Tucson, launched Americans for Responsible Solutions to raise money for further gun control efforts in light of the Sandy Hook shooting. Fear of future restrictions on firearms led to a spike in sales of guns, ammunition, and magazines in the weeks following the shooting.
On December 21, the National Rifle Association called on the United States Congress to appropriate funds for the hiring of armed police officers in every American school to protect students. The NRA also announced the creation of a school protection program called the National School Shield Program, which would be led by former Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) administrator and United States Congressman Asa Hutchinson.
A month after the shooting, President Obama cited the incident while announcing proposals for increased gun control. His proposals included universal background checks on firearms purchases, an assault weapons ban, and limiting magazine capacity to 10 cartridges. Relatives of the victims in the shooting and survivors from other mass shootings were official guests during the announcement.
On January 17, 2013, the Utah Sheriffs' Association sent a letter to President Obama criticizing attempts "to demonize firearms". In the letter, they suggested that they would refuse to uphold federal laws that restricted the Second Amendment rights of their constituents.
On April 17, a bill that would have seen the restrictions on gun control, known as the Manchin-Toomey Background Checks Bill, failed to pass the U.S. Senate by six votes, with 48 Democrats and 4 Republicans voting for the bill, and 5 Democrats and 41 Republicans voting against. The NRA released a statement critiquing the bill, stating that "expanding background checks, at gun shows or elsewhere, will not reduce violent crime or keep our kids safe in their schools." In a speech the following day, Obama called the failing of the bill "shameful" and stated how the Republicans had "wilfully lied" about the proposal on background checks, while Ted Cruz, a leading opponent of the bill, stated that making a registry is the only way to make the background checks effective.
Police found "numerous" video games in the basement of Adam Lanza's home, which was used as a gaming area, prompting a renewed debate about their effect on young people. Connecticut Senator Christopher Murphy stated in January 2013 that, as well as guns, video games played a role in the shootings. He said, "I think there's a question as to whether he would have driven in his mother's car in the first place if he didn't have access to a weapon that he saw in video games that gave him a false sense of courage about what he could do that day." An anonymous Connecticut police officer also claimed that the shooting, and specifically Lanza's suicide, can be attributed to Lanza's video game playing and that the rest of the police department believes similarly. "In the code of a gamer, even a deranged killer like this little bastard, if somebody else kills you, they get your points." he said. "They believe that's why he killed himself."
Wayne LaPierre, CEO and Executive Vice President of the National Rifle Association, publicly blamed video games for the shooting, specifically targeting the free online game Kindergarten Killers created by Gary Short. LaPierre also called for more firearms in public schools and armed teachers in order to prevent similar attacks. In November 2013, an unnamed website hosted a video game called The Slaying of Sandy Hook, which allowed players to reenact the events of the shooting. The game garnered extremely negative reactions, especially from those related to the victims. The game was eventually pulled off the site. The game was allegedly created by Ryan Jake Lambourn, who claimed that the game was about "the importance of gun control" (sic).
The final report into the shooting, published in November 2013, noted that "[Lanza] played video games often, both solo at home and online. They could be described as both violent and non-violent. One person described the shooter as spending the majority of his time playing non-violent video games all day, with his favorite at one point being Super Mario Brothers. The report described his liking for Dance Dance Revolution, which he played frequently for hours with an acquaintance at a theater which had a commercial version of the game, and also played the game at home. The final report did not make a link between video games and the motive for the shooting.
Impact on the community
The school was closed indefinitely following the shooting, partially because it remained a crime scene. Sandy Hook students returned to classes on January 3, 2013, at Chalk Hill Middle School in nearby Monroe at the town's invitation. Chalk Hill at the time was an unused facility, refurbished after the shooting, with desks and equipment brought in from Sandy Hook Elementary. The Chalk Hill school was temporarily renamed "Sandy Hook". The University of Connecticut created a scholarship for the surviving children of the shootings.
On January 31, the Newtown school board voted unanimously to ask for police officer presence in all of its elementary schools; previously other schools in the district had such protection, but Sandy Hook had not been one of those.
On May 10, a task force of twenty-eight appointed members voted to demolish the existing Sandy Hook Elementary school and have a new school built in its place. The $57 million proposed project was sent to the Newtown Board of Education for approval, to be followed by a public ballot. In October 2013, Newtown residents voted 4,504–558 in favor of the proposed demolition and reconstruction, to be funded by $50 million in state money. Demolition began on October 25, 2013.
After the town clerk's office was inundated with requests from the media, Connecticut House of Representatives Republican Dan Carter introduced legislation that would restrict access to public information available under the Freedom of Information Act.
On June 5, both houses (Senate and House of Representatives) of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill modifying the state's Freedom of Information Act in order to "prevent the release of crime-scene photos and video evidence from the Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre and other Connecticut homicides, concerned such records would be spread on the Internet." The bill then went on to Gov. Dannel P. Malloy's desk for his signature. The bill creates a new exemption to the state's Freedom of Information Act. The release of photographs, film, video, digital or other visual images depicting a homicide victim is prevented if such records "could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of the personal privacy of the victim or the victim's surviving family members."
- List of attacks related to primary schools
- List of school-related attacks
- List of school shootings in the United States
- Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theories
- Chenpeng Village Primary School stabbing, an attack in China that happened on the same day
- "GNIS for Sandy Hook School". USGS. October 24, 2001. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Scinto, Rich (December 15, 2012). "Sandy Hook Elementary: Newtown, Connecticut shooting timeline". The Oakland Press. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Connor, Tracy (December 19, 2012). "'Call for everything': Police scanner recording reveals early moments of Newtown tragedy". NBC News. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Access to weapons made tragedy possible". CTPost.Com. March 28, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- Barron, James (December 15, 2012). "Children Were All Shot Multiple Times With a Semiautomatic, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "20 children among dead at school shooting in Connecticut". CBC News. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Police: Second person injured in Connecticut school shooting survived". NBC News. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Llanos, Miguel (December 14, 2012). "Authorities ID gunman who killed 27 in elementary school massacre". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Jennings, Natalie (December 14, 2012). "Mark Kelly: Action on guns 'can no longer wait'". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Compton, Matt (February 15, 2013). "President Obama Presents the 2012 Presidential Citizens Medal". White House. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- "Gunman dead after killing 20 children, 6 adults at Connecticut elementary school". Fox News Channel. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Esposito, Richard; Smith, Candice; Ng, Christina (December 14, 2012). "20 Children Died in Newtown, Conn., School Massacre". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Connecticut school victims were shot multiple times". CNN. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Bratu, Becky (December 14, 2012). "Connecticut school shooting is second worst in US history". NBC News. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (January 24, 2013). "Senator Unveils Bill to Limit Semiautomatic Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- "Sandy Hook report – shooter Adam Lanza was obsessed with mass murder". The Guardian. November 25, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- "Enrollment Report as of November 30, 2012". Newtown Public School District. December 4, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Barron, James (December 14, 2012). "Nation Reels After Gunman Massacres 20 Children at School in Connecticut". The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Welcome to the Town of Newtown". Town of Newtown (official website). Retrieved January 1, 2013.
- Candiotti, Susan; Aarthun, Sarah (December 15, 2012). "'Why? Why?': 26 dead in elementary school massacre". CNN. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Christofferson, John; Apuzzo, Matt; Fitzgerald, Jim; Murphy, Bridget; Eaton-Robb, Pat (December 16, 2012). "Evidence hints at deadlier plan in Conn. massacre". The Washington Times. Associated Press. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- Vance, J. Paul. "Update: State Police Identify Weapons Used in Sandy Hook Investigation". State of Connecticut Department of Emergency Services & Public Protection Connecticut State Police. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "Conn. school shooter had 4 weapons". CBS News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Almasy, Steve (December 19, 2012). "Newtown shooter's guns: What we know". CNN. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- Bryan, Alix (December 16, 2012). "TIMELINE: Connecticut elementary school shooting updates". WTVR. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Gray, Sadie. "Sandy Hook gunman Adam Lanza shot his way through school door". The Times. UK. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Frustrating search for Newtown, Conn., shooter Adam Lanza's motive". The Washington Post. December 24, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Altimari, Dave; Lender, Jon (January 6, 2013). "Sandy Hook Shooter Adam Lanza Wore Earplugs". Hartford Courant. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "Newtown shooter Adam Lanza was not wearing body armor during massacre". New Haven Register. New Haven, Connecticut. December 27, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Becky Virgalla, Newtown Shooting Survivor, Says Principal, Others Saved Her in Sandy Hook Rampage". Huffington Post. Reuters. December 24, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Levitz, Jennifer (December 16, 2012). "Sandy Hook Locals Face New Reality". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "State’s Attorney’s Report on Sandy Hook Elementary School Shootings". November 25, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- "Conn. school shooting: What we know". CBS News. December 16, 2012.
- "Who Would Do This to Our Poor Little Babies". The New York Times. December 14, 2012.
- Altimari, Dave; Mahony, Edmund H.; Lender, Jon (March 13, 2013). "Newtown shootings: Adam Lanza Researched Mass Murderers, Sources Say". Hartford Courant. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Stoller, Gary (December 19, 2012). "School shooting survivor tells her story". USA Today. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- "Connecticut Elementary School Shooting Victims: 'Hero' Teacher, Principal, 20 Kids". ABC News. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Factbox: Identities of Connecticut shooting victims". Hartford Courant. Reuters. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "CT State Police Release Names of Victims in School Shooting Massacre". CBS News. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Poulisse, Adam (December 19, 2012). "Victim Rachel D'Avino, killed days before marriage proposal, had ties to UHart and USJ". Berkshire Eagle. West Hartford News. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "Connecticut shooting: Services for Katonah native Anne Marie Murphy set". Newsday. December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Sanchez, Raf (December 17, 2012). "Connecticut school shooting: six-year-old stayed alive by playing dead". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Oritz, Erik (December 17, 2012). "Newtown school shooting snuffs out promising lives of teachers, students". Daily News. New York. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Boston bombings – Patrick, Davis, McCaul, more". Face the Nation. April 21, 2013. CBS. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-3460_162-57580641/face-the-nation-transcripts-april-21-2013-boston-bombings-patrick-davis-mccaul-more/?pageNum=6.
- Christoffersen, John (September 29, 2013). "Fear permeates young lives of Newtown witnesses". San Jose Mercury News. Associated Press. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- Williams, Matt (December 15, 2012). "Victoria Soto: Sandy Hook teacher who wanted to mould young minds". The Guardian (United Kingdom). Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Rayment, Sean (December 15, 2012). "Teachers sacrificed themselves to save their pupils". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Lives saved by teachers, custodian and even children in Connecticut school shooting". NBC News. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Ramos, Victor Manuel (December 15, 2012). "Sandy Hook educators died trying to save the children". Newsday. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Cleary, Tom (December 17, 2012). "Dylan Hockley died in Anne Marie Murphy's arms". Connecticut Post. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Newtown Resident Gene Rosen Speaks About Sheltering Six Students Who Escaped the Shooting". Fox News Channel. December 18, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Stelzer, Brigitte (December 23, 2012). "Newtown massacre victims (and survivors) pictured in Victoria Soto's class photo". New York Post. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- "Staff Directory". Sandy Hook Elementary School. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Klein, Melissa (December 14, 2012). "Sandy Hook Elementary School nurse Sarah Cox relives terror of Newtown, Connecticut shooting". New York Post. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Christoffersen, John (December 14, 2012). "20 children, 6 adults killed at Connecticut school". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Emmert, Don. "Conn. Elementary School Shooting: 20 Children, Seven Adults Killed". Mason County Daily News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Cleary, Tom (December 14, 2012). "'Hero teacher' rushed students to bathroom to keep students safe". Connecticut News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Newtown school massacre victims identified". BBC News. December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Roberts, Christine (December 18, 2012). "Teacher's words of comfort to class during Newtown rampage: 'I love you all very much ... it's going to be OK'". Daily News. New York. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Nicholas Sabillon, Sandy Hook Student, Recalls Killer Pounding on His Classroom Door". Huffington Post. December 18, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Nikitchyuk, Andre (December 17, 2012). "BREAKING THE SILENCE! Father of surviving Sandy Hook student admits turning a blind eye to gun violence can no longer be an option". Daily News. New York. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Winter, Michael (December 14, 2012). "Tales of Sandy Hook heroism, young and old". USA Today. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "'Absolutely heartbreaking': Sandy Hook teacher's terrifying experience". WTOP.
- "Sandy Hook Shooting, detailed report. Contains documents and further evidence from the case" (PDF). Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Sandy Hook Final Report. Office of the State's Attorney, Judicial District of Danbury. Stephen J. Sedensky III, State’s Attorney November 25, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- "Conn. school massacre victims all shot multiple times, chief medical officer says". NBC News. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Jewish Child Shot 11 Times in Newtown Rampage". The Jewish Daily Forward. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Sandy Hook shooting: What happened?". CNN. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "Children in Connecticut rampage were six, seven; shot multiple times". Reuters. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Newtown school shooting: Transcript of police, fire radio dispatch". New Haven Register (New Haven, Connecticut). December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Twenty children dead in mass shooting at Connecticut elementary school". Maclean's. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "28 Dead, Including 20 Children, After Sandy Hook School Shooting in Newtown". Hartford Courant.
- "Danbury Hospital Prepared For School Shooting Massive Casualties, Got Few". Huffington Post. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Quillen, Matt (December 15, 2012). "20 children, suspect's mother dead in CT elementary school shooting". Richmond, VA: NBC12. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- "Sandy Hook victims identified, bodies removed from school overnight". CBS News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Newtown 911 calls: Shooting heard in background". Tribune wire report. December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Sherwell, Philip (December 16, 2012). "Connecticut school shooting: Adam Lanza rigged rifle for maximum damage". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Farhi, Paul (December 19, 2012). "Media too quick to fill in the gaps in story of school shooting in Newtown, Conn.". The Washington Post.
- "Newtown gunman had 'altercation' with school staff day before massacre". NBC News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Live blog: Kids slain at Connecticut school were 6, 7 (06:22 PM ET)". CNN. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Grant, Jason; Frassinelli, Mike (December 15, 2012). "Rumors fly in Hoboken about brother of suspected Connecticut school shooter". The Star Ledger. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- Yost, Pete (December 14, 2012). "Conn. school shooting: Adam Lanza ID's as shooter". KSDK. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Brother of Conn. gunman wrongly cited as shooter". The Wall Street Journal. Associated Press. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Media Initially Identify Adam Lanza, Newtown Shooting Suspect, As Ryan Lanza, His Brother". Huffington Post. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Lt. Paul Vance: Misinformation Is Being Posted on Social Media Sites". Fox News Insider. December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Adam Lanza's weapons, strategy". Yahoo! News. December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "Newtown Shooter Used a Rifle Popular Among Gunowners". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Willingham, A.J. (December 15, 2012). "All wounds caused by 'long weapon'". Htlntv.com. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- "Live blog: Kids slain at Connecticut school were 6, 7". CNN. December 15, 2012.
- Medical Examiner: Newtown Shooting Victims Suffered 'Devastating Set of Injuries' Newtown.patch.com December 15, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
- Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-3(18) (2011) (defining "'pistol' or 'revolver'" as "any firearm having a barrel less than twelve inches"); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29–34(b) (banning any transfer of a pistol or revolver to a person under 21, except for temporary and supervised use at a target range)
- Fessenden, Ford; Parlapiano, Alicia; McClean, Alan (December 17, 2012). "Connecticut's Rules for Purchasing This Gun". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Williams, Pete; Huus, Kari (December 14, 2012). "Gunman's mother owned weapons used in Connecticut school massacre". NBC News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Inside Newtown shooter Adam Lanza's home". MSNBC. March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Details Emerge On Sandy Hook Shooting". Articles.courant.com. October 19, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Candiotti, Susan; Ford, Dana (December 18, 2012). "Families hold funerals as school resumes for some Newtown students". CNN. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Lauerman, John (December 20, 2012). "DNA of Newtown Gunman Unlikely to Yield Clues of Violence". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- Rodriguez, Lourmaine (January 27, 2013). "No updates on Sandy Hook shooter's DNA". The Daily Campus. University of Connecticut. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "Adam Lanza, shooter in Sandy Hook Elementary massacre, found to have no brain deformities: medical examiner". Daily News (New York). Associated Press. January 11, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- "Reports: Lanza smashed computer hard drive". USA Today. December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Nye, James (March 14, 2013). "Revealed: How Sandy Hook shooter Adam Lanza 'passed over' a classroom full of children – because he though it was empty". Daily Mail. UK. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Lupica, Mike (March 17, 2013). "Lupica: Morbid find suggests murder-obsessed gunman Adam Lanza plotted Newtown, Conn.'s Sandy Hook massacre for years". Daily News. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Gendreau, LeAnne (March 18, 2013). "Sandy Hook Shooter Kept Spreadsheet on Mass Killings: Report". WVIT. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "Adam Lanza, mom had NRA Certificates". Huffington Post. March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Documents: New details on Newtown school massacre". CNN. March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Connecticut school shooting: Latest developments". CNN. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Candiotti, Susan; Yan, Holly (December 16, 2012). "Connecticut school shooting: Latest developments". CNN. Retrieved December 16, 2012. "Carver, who performed autopsies on seven of the victims, said the wounds he knew about were caused by a "long weapon" and that the rifle was the primary weapon used."
- Altimari, Dave; Mahony, Edmund; Lender, Jon (December 19, 2012). "Sandy Hook Shooter Lanza Left Little For Investigators To Trace". Hartford Courant (Courant.Com). Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- Williams, Pete; Llanos, Miguel; Connor, Tracy (December 14, 2012). "Elementary school massacre: 27 dead, including 20 kids, in Connecticut". NBC News. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Lysiak, Matthew; Slattery, Denis; Schapiro, Rich (December 14, 2012). "Sandy Hook mass murderer Adam Lanza, 20, 'deeply disturbed kid'". Daily News (New York). Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Newtown Killer's Obsessions, in Chilling Detail". The New York Times. March 28, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- "Newtown gunman Adam Lanza had 'obsession' with Columbine". BBC News. November 26, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- "Sandy Hook massacre: Adam Lanza acted alone and had an obsession with mass killings". The Independent. November 26, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- Halbfinger, David M (December 14, 2012). "A Gunman, Recalled as Intelligent and Shy, Who Left Few Footprints in Life". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Misur, Susan; Carter, Angi; Smith, Jenn (December 14, 2012). "Adam Lanza's family seemed like normal family, neighbors say". The Evening Sun. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Yost, Pete; Keyser, Jason (December 14, 2012). "Connecticut shooting suspect was honors student". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Sandy Hook killer was a former student at school". USA Today. December 18, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Miller, John (December 16, 2012). "The Brief, Enigmatic Life of Mass-Murderer Adam Lanza". Anchorage, Alaska: KTVA. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Yost, Pete; Keyser, Jason (December 15, 2012). "Correction: Conn school shooting-suspect story". NPR. Associated Press.
- "Adam Lanza Took Western Connecticut State University Courses When He Was 16". Huffington Post. December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Kreider, Randy. "Adam Lanza's Mom Pulled Him Out of School: Relative". ABC News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "AP Source: Conn. shooter is Ryan Lanza's younger brother Adam Lanza". phillyBurbs.com. Associated Press. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Experts: no link between Asperger's, violence". USA Today. Associated Press. December 16, 2012.
- Pelley (correspondent), Scott; Young (producer), Nicole; Anderson (producer), Bob; Radutzky (producer), Michael (December 16, 2012). "60 Minutes Reports: Tragedy in Newtown (transcript)". 60 Minutes.
- Falco, Miriam (December 17, 2012). "Groups: Autism not to blame for violence". CNN. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Goodwin, Liz (February 19, 2013). "New photos, details emerge of Newtown mass shooter Adam Lanza | The Lookout". Yahoo! News. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- "Adam Lanza Diagnosed With Sensory Integration Disorder | Video". ABC News. February 18, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- "Newtown Shooter Lanza Had Sensory Processing Disorder". ABC News. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- "Connecticut school shooting: Troubled life of Adam Lanza, a fiercely intelligent killer". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Father of Newtown shooter lives in Stamford". Stamford Advocate. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Peter Lanza Statement: Father Of Adam Lanza Says, 'We Too Are Asking Why'". Huffington Post. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Martinez, Michael; Ariosto, David (December 16, 2012). "Adam Lanza's family: Mom liked parlor games, guns; dad, a tax exec, remarried". CNN. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Flegenheimer, Matt; Somaiya, Ravi (December 15, 2012). "Nancy Lanza, mother of Conn. school gunman, was "big, big gun fan"". The Denver Post. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- "Friends: Newtown gunman's mother home-schooled son, kept arsenal of guns". CBS News. December 16, 2012.
- Bankoff, Caroline (December 2012). "Newtown Shooter Adam Lanza's Mother Was an Avid Gun Collector". New York. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Investigators look for insight into Newtown gunman's mind". CBS News. Associated Press. December 14, 2012.
- Goodwin, Liz (December 19, 2012). "Survivalists worry 'preppers' will be scapegoated for Newtown shooting". Yahoo! News. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Rochman, Bonnie (December 19, 2012). "Troubling legacy of Sandy Hook may be backlash against kids with autism". Time. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Lutz, Amy S.F. (December 17, 2012). "Don't Be Afraid of People With Autism: They are not cold-blooded killers". Slate. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "Statement by the President on the School Shooting in Newtown, CT" (Press release). White House Press Office. December 14, 2012.
- "Official with knowledge of Conn. school shooting: 27 dead, including 18 children". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Siddiqui, Sabrina; Foley, Elise (December 14, 2012). "Obama on Connecticut Shooting: We Need 'Meaningful Action'". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- O'Brien, Michael (December 14, 2012). "An emotional Obama: 'They had their entire lives ahead of them'". NBC News. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Presidential Proclamation – Honoring the Victims of the Shooting in Newtown, Connecticut" (Press release). White House Press Office. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "President Obama To Visit Newtown Sunday". Hartford Courant. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Obama to honor 6 dead Sandy Hook teachers, administrators with Presidential Citizens Medal". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- "Conn. Governor: 'evil visited this community'". AOL. Associated Press. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Hundreds pack Conn. church for vigil after rampage". CBS News. Associated Press. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Moore, Martha. "Hundreds pack Conn. churches after rampage". USA Today. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Newtown shooting: funerals to be held for victims". The Guardian. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Children and adults gunned down in Connecticut school massacre". CNN. December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "World leaders express shock over Connecticut shooting". Google News. Agence France-Presse. December 15, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Landler, Mark; Baker, Peter (December 17, 2012). "'These Tragedies Must End,' Obama Says". The New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Obama responds to gun violence petition". United Press International. December 12, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- Shear, Michael (December 20, 2012). "Obama Vows Fast Action in New Push for Gun Control". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "Obama announces 23 executive actions, asks Congress to pass gun laws". CNN. January 16, 2013.
- Caldwell, Leigh Ann (December 19, 2012). "Obama sets up gun violence task force". CBS News. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Obama Announces Gun Violence Task Force, Presses For Policy Changes After Shooting". Huffington Post. December 19, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Dianne Feinstein To Introduce Assault Weapons Ban on First Day of Congress". Huffington Post. December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Flaherty, Anne (December 16, 2012). "Lieberman, Democrats want ban on assault weapons". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "Gabrielle Giffords launches gun control campaign". BBC. January 8, 2013. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- David, Javier E. (December 18, 2012). "The Sandy Hook Effect: Gun Sales Rise as Stocks Fall". CNBC. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- Cooper, Michael (January 13, 2013). "Sales of Guns Soar in U.S. as Nation Weighs Tougher Limits". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- LaPierre, Wayne. "NRA Press Conference December 21, 2012" (Press release). National Rifle Association. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Sullivan, Sean (December 21, 2012). "Put armed guards in every school, NRA leader Wayne LaPierre says". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Cushman Jr., John H. (December 22, 2012). "N.R.A. Calls for Armed Guards in Schools to Deter Violence". The New York Times.
- "NRA calls for armed police officer in every school". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Knox, Olivier. "Obama unveils sweeping plan to battle gun violence" Yahoo News. January 16, 2013.
- "President Obama's remarks on new gun control actions, Jan. 16, 2013 (Transcript)". The Washington Post. January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- "Expert: Utah sheriffs don’t have to enforce federal gun laws". Salt Lake Tribune. January 27, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
- "Indiana seeing surge in gun-permit applications". Daily Reporter (Greenfield, Indiana). Associated Press. February 21, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Shepherd, Michael (February 16, 2013). "Demand for concealed-weapons permits in Maine leads to big backlog". Portland Press Herald. Maine. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Engel, Justin (February 15, 2013). "Bay County gun permit applications spike; sheriff blames post-Sandy Hook fear of Second Amendment restrictions". Michigan: Mlive.com. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- "Senate Vote 97 – Defeats Manchin-Toomey Background Checks Proposal". The New York Times.
- Madison, Lucy (April 17, 2013). "Background checks voted down; Senate gun bill in peril". CBS News. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Gun control: Barack Obama condemns 'shameful' failure to pass reform". The Guardian. April 18, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- The November 2013 final report names the following twelve video games as being part of Lanza's collection: Left 4 Dead, Metal Gear Solid, Dead Rising, Half Life, Battlefield, Call of Duty, Grand Theft Auto, Shin Megami Tensei, Dynasty Warriors, Vice City, Team Fortress, and Doom.
- Ferguson, Christopher J. (February 20, 2013). "Video games didn't cause Newtown rampage". CNN. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Lohr, David (December 17, 2012). "Sandy Hook Blame Game: Eeny, Meeny, Miny, Moe". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Ferguson, Christopher J. (December 20, 2012). "Sandy Hook Shooting: Video Games Blamed, Again". Time. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- "Conn. Senator Blames Video Games for Influencing Sandy Hook Shooter". Gamepolitics.com. January 25, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Chalk, Andy (August 3, 2013). "Cop Blames Videogames for Sandy Hook Massacre". The Escapist. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Beekman, Daniel (December 21, 2012). "NRA blames video games like 'Kindergarten Killer' for Sandy Hook slaughter". Daily News. New York. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- "Sandy Hook Video Game Enrages Parent of Victim". Huffington Post. November 19, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- "Adam Lanza's motive a mystery in Sandy Hook killings". CNN. November 27, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
- James, Will (December 17, 2012). "Sandy Hook Elementary School Closed Indefinitely". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- "Connecticut survivors to attend school in neighboring town". Reuters. December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Sandy Hook students to move to Monroe school". The News-Times. December 16, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Newtown shooting: Sandy Hook students back to school". BBC News. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- DeSantis, Nick (December 18, 2012). "UConn Creates a Scholarship in Honor of School-Shooting Victims". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Zaretsky, Mark (January 31, 2013). "Newtown board wants more cops in schools". New Haven Register (New Haven, Connecticut). Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- Kelly, Devin (May 11, 2013). "Task force: Sandy Hook Elementary should be torn down, rebuilt". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Brumfield, Ben (May 11, 2013). "Sandy Hook task force recommends demolition and rebuilding". CNN. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Chappell, Bill (October 6, 2013). "The Votes Are In: Sandy Hook Elementary Will Be Torn Down". WBUR. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
- Ford, Bev; Siemaszko, Corky (October 25, 2013). "Sandy Hook Elementary School razing begins in Newtown, Conn.". Daily News (New York). Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- "Connecticut mulls death certificate limits after Newtown massacre". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. February 24, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Haigh, Susan. "Conn. lawmakers OK compromise Newtown privacy bill". Associated Press. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting.|
- Quotations related to Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting at Wikiquote
- Sandy Hook Elementary School Official website (Archive)
- Sandy Hook Final Report