Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, 1st Baronet
Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, Bt, CB, FRCS, Legion of Honour (4 July 1856 – 16 January 1943), was a British surgeon and physician. He mastered orthopaedic, abdominal, and ear, nose and throat surgery, while designing new surgical instruments toward maximal asepsis. He thus introduced the "no-touch technique", and some of his designed instruments remain in use.
Lane pioneered internal fixation of displaced fractures, procedures on cleft palate, and colon resection and colectomy to treat "Lane's disease"—now otherwise termed colonic inertia, which he identified in 1908—which surgeries were controversial but advanced abdominal surgery. During World War I, as officer with the Royal Army Medical Corps, he organised and opened Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup, which pioneered reconstructive surgery. The late-Victorian and Edwardian periods' preeminent surgeon, Lane operated on socialites, politicians, and royalty, how he attained baronetcy in 1913.
In the early 1920s, as an early advocate of dietary prevention of cancer, Lane met medical opposition, resigned from British Medical Association, and founded New Health Society, the first organisation practicing social medicine. Through newspapers and lectures, sometimes drawing large crowds, Lane promoted whole foods, fruits and vegetables, sunshine and exercise. He planned to foster health and longevity via three bowel movements daily. Tracing diverse diseases to modern civilization, he called for farmland's return to the people.
For his New Health, Lane eventually became viewed as a crank. Lane's explanation of the association between constipation and illness as due to autointoxication is generally regarded by gastroenterologists as wholly fictitious. And Lane's earlier surgeries for chronic constipation have been depicted as baseless. Yet constipation remains a major health problem associating with diverse signs and symptoms, including psychological—sometimes still explained as Lane's disease—and total colectomy has been revived since the 1980s as a mainstream treatment, although dietary intervention is now the first line of action.
- 1 Life and career
- 2 Medical spotlight
- 3 Legacy
- 4 Footnotes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Life and career
William Arbuthnot Lane was born in 1856 in Fort George near Inverness, Scotland, as eldest of the eight children of Benjamin Lane, a military surgeon enlisted to the British Empire. William attended schools in eight countries on four continents—Ireland, India, Corfu, Malta, Canada, South Africa, and others—while his family followed the army regiment. Amid his mother's bearing seven children in rapid succession after him, William was often left in the care of military personnel. At age 12, he was sent to boarding school at Stanley House School, Bridge of Allan in Scotland.
In 1872, his father arranged for him, age 16, to study medicine at Guy's Hospital. Apparently shy and appearing young even for his age, William initially had some troubles with fellow students, but they rapidly recognized his exceptional abilities. Soon, he was persuaded to switch to surgery, however, a surer career than medicine. Later, he received the degrees bachelor of medicine and master of surgery from University of London.
In 1877, at age 21, he qualified as a member of Royal College of Surgeons, and began practice in Chelsea, London, at Victoria Hospital for Children. In 1883, Lane became a Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons and joined Great Ormond Street Hospital, where he was consultant until 1916. In 1888, at age 32, Lane returned to Guy's Hospital as anatomy demonstrator and assistant surgeon, and remained with Guy's for most of his career.
Lane became especially known for internal fixation of displaced fractures, neonatal repair of cleft palate, and developing colectomy, which, although highly controversial and opposed by most surgical peers, notably advanced abdominal surgery. Lane collaborated with Down Brothers to design a number of surgical instruments, including screw driver, periosteal elevator, tissue forceps, intestinal anastomosis clamp, bone-holding forceps, and osteotome. For his surgery on British royalty, he was awarded baronetcy in 1913.
Lane became an officer in Royal Army Medical Corps, head of army surgery, during World War I (1914–18). For this work as consulting surgeon in Aldershot at Cambridge Military Hospital and at French Hospital and for opening Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup—where, overcoming government resistance to fund it, he gave Harold Gillies a ward where Gillies pioneered reconstructive surgery—Lane was made Companion of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath. In 1920, rather soon after returning from wartime service, Lane retired from Guy's Hospital, yet continued private practice out his home office.
He first published in 1883, seven years after starting his surgery career. He published about 189 articles, including 72 on fractures, 16 on harelip and cleft palate, many others on other subjects, and, after year 1903, 89 articles directly on chronic intestinal stasis—which, like many Victorians, Lane experienced. He wrote several books, including one on cleft palate, one on surgery for chronic intestinal stasis, and one on New Health. Not for print, his autobiography—manuscript dated March 1936, soon before his 80th birthday—was written for family at the urging of his children.
William's first wife, Charlotte Jane Briscoe—daughter of John Briscoe, himself son of Major Briscoe—bore Jane Elizabeth in 1890 and Eileen Caroline in 1893, both in St Olave parish. At age 78, Jane died in 1935. Sir Lane's daughter Eileen was married to Nathan Mutch, whose sister was Jane Mutch. In 1935, Sir Lane married Jane Mutch (who died in 1966 at age 82).
Lane was tall, rather thin, seemingly aged slowly, his reactions were often difficult to discern, and yet he often exhibited strong opinions. It was often said that Lane was George Bernard Shaw's model for the scurrilous surgeon, Cutler Walpole—obsessed with excising the "nuciform sac", said to be nickname for the colon—in Shaw's play The Doctor's Dilemma. Yet the play was nearly surely about Sir Almroth Wright, whom Lane knew well. After Lane's death, Shaw stated that the play was published long before he had ever heard of Lane, but still regarded Lane's bowel surgeries as "monstrous". And the play well suggests the view of Lane as held by many of Lane's contemporaries.
After 1924, abandoning his private medical practice as well as surgery, Lane's public devotion was social medicine and public education on dietary and lifestyle subversion of constipation and promotion of general wellbeing, his New Health. Of diverse interests, Lane traveled frequently, often visiting America, while gaining friends and colleagues internationally. Among his associates and acquaintances were Alexis Carrel, John Benjamin Murphy, Elie Metchnikoff, Sir James Mackenzie, William Worrall Mayo and sons William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo of Mayo Clinic fame.
Quotes of Lane by his Guy's Hospital house surgeon and biographer, William E Tanner:
- The man whose first question, after what he considers to be a right course of action has presented itself, is What will people say? is not the man to do anything at all.
- If you get a rude letter, always send a polite one back. It's much better.
- If everyone believes a thing, it is probably untrue!
By 1886, Lane had authored a surgery textbook. In 1889 in America at Hopkins, pioneer of abdominal surgery William Halsted had introduced surgical gloves, and then contracted Goodyear Rubber Company to manufacture thin ones preserving hands' tactile sensitivity. In the 1890s, while glove use was still uncommon, Lane introduced long surgical instruments to keep even gloves off tissues. In his open reductions and plating of fractured bones, Lane introduced the "no-touch technique". Thus, Lane pioneered aseptic rather than antiseptic surgery, and thereby made possible new surgeries previously too dangerous.
Lane's surgical skill, widely renowned, exhibited imperturbable calm at difficulties encountered during operations. A contemporary noted "the originality of his procedures and the smoothness, ease, and perfection of technic that proclaimed a real master, a master who dared where others quailed and who succeeded where others would have failed without his skill, his precision, and the confidence with which he planned and executed his operations". Although most of Lane's surgical career was attended by controversy, it could not be denied that—with but the possible exception of Sir Frederick Treves—Lane was London's best surgeon in technique.
Only anecdotal reports of displaced fractures set by internal fixation predate Joseph Lister's 1865 introduction of antiseptic surgery, whereupon Lister reported silver wire on a displaced petellar fracture. Even before radiography, Lane found that conventional setting by manipulation and splints yielded poor outcomes—bone disunion and joint changes or wear in individuals under much physical activity—and Lane started with wires and screws in 1892. The conservative medical community was vehemently opposed, so revolutionary was Lane's approach that organizations certifying surgeons sometimes automatically dismissed students able to elaborate on such procedures, as nearly 50% of patients whose closed fractures were opened died by ensuing infections. Yet with aseptic surgical techniques previously unheard of, Lane forged ahead.
Other surgeons' poor results of failed fracture union via sepsis were sometimes erroneously associated with Lane. British Medical Association appointed a committee to investigate Lane's practice—and ruled in Lane's favor. Whereas other surgeons would attempt asepsis but lapse, perhaps touching an unsterilized surface, Lane's utterly fastidious protocol was unrelenting. His 1905 book The Operative Treatment of Fractures reported good results. Lane introduced plates, made of steel, in 1907. (Stainless steel, discovered the next decade, was not widely used in medicine or surgery until much later.) Radiography's introduction vindicated Lane's assertion of frequent disunion via nonsurgical intervention. Lane's influence introducing internal fixation rivals and perhaps exceeds that of other, early pioneers like Albin Lambotte and later William O'Neill Sherman.
At 1886, emigrating from Russia, international scientific celebrity Elie Metchnikoff—discoverer of phagocytes mediating innate immunity—was welcomed by Louis Pasteur in Paris who gave him an entire floor at Pasteur Institute. As did his rival Paul Ehrlich—theorist on antibody mediating acquired immunity—and as did Pasteur, Metchnikoff believed nutrition to influence immunity. Sharing Pasteur's vision of science as means to combat humankind's woes, Metchnikoff brought France its first cultures of yogurt for probiotic microorganisms to suppress the colon's putrefactive microorganisms alleged to foster toxic seepage, autointoxication.
The pioneer British psychiatrist Henry Maudsley had found much "evidence that organic morbid poisons bred in the organism or in the blood itself may act in the most baneful manner upon the supreme nervous centers. The earliest and mildest mental effect by which a perverted state of blood declares itself is not in the production of positive delusion or incoherence of thought, but in a modification of mental tone", then perhaps "a chronic delusion of some kind", though "its more acute action is to produce more or less active delirium and general incoherence of thought". Famed British surgeon William Hunter incriminated oral sepsis in 1900, and lectured to a Canadian medical faculty in Montreal in 1910. Two years later, Chicago physician Frank Billings termed it focal infection. Within the Anglosphere, the lectures of Hunter and of Billings "ignited the fires of focal infection", whose theory dovetailed with the autointoxication principle.
Since 1875, American medical doctor John Harvey Kellogg in Battle Creek, Michigan, at his huge sanitarium—advertised as "University of Health", staffing some 800 to 1 000, yearly receiving several thousand patients, including US Presidents and celebrities—had battled degeneration and disease by fending off bowel sepsis. In the early 20th century, rebuking alleged "health faddists" like Kellogg and Graham, American physicians embracing focal infection theory cast themselves in the German tradition of "scientific medicine". German researchers ostensibly repudiated the autointoxication principle, and yet by using different terminology supported it circuitously. Since French pathologist Charles Jacques Bouchard, in Bouchard's 1887 book, became first to use the term autointoxication, French researchers had investigated and openly advocated the principle, already presaged by multiple researchers in Europe and America.
Director of Pasteur Institute in Paris, Metchnikoff viewed the colon as a primitive organ that had stored our wild ancestors' waste for long periods, a survival advantage amid abundant predators, but a liability amid civilization's liberating humans to excrete without peril, and predicted the colon's evolutionary shrinkage until, like the appendix, it became vestigial. Metchnikoff—whose book La Vie Humaine, read by Lane, foresaw a courageous surgeon removing the large intestine, and whom Lane met in 1904—shared with Ehrlich the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. British surgeons still knife-happy, Hunter warned of "intestinal stasis" impairing mental stability, and called for "surgical bacteriology".
In 1908, Lane reported a syndrome of severe chronic constipation, often with dysfunction of pelvic muscles and obstructed defecation—invariably with psychologic dysfunction, impairing quality of life, but affecting mostly women—and this became called "Lane disease", now otherwise termed slow transit constipation or colonic inertia. That same year, Lane operated. The following year, Lane's book The Operative Treatment of Chronic Constipation was published in London. Lane began with colon bypass, and then, at insufficient improvements, performed total colectomy. Famed for an appendectomy saving England's monarch, Lane warned of "chronic intestinal stasis"—its "flooding of the circulation with filthy material", thus autointoxication—warnings taken seriously by the public.
Such views on the colon, constipation, and autointoxication were standard in the medical profession, yet disagreement raged over explanation and intervention, thus controversy trailing Lane's surgeries. Apparently, Lane had had trouble publishing in British Medical Journal and The Lancet his first articles on chronic intestinal stasis. Some espousing autointoxication found constipation to have a role but one "obscure", the dry fecal matter to diminish putrefaction, whereas stasis of the small bowel, rather, was the especial source of autointoxication. One way or another, most surgeons opposed Lane's operating on constipation.
Royal Society of Medicine called a 1913 meeting, but, despite some 60 synonyms circulating for autointoxication from varying perspectives, suggested neutrality by choosing none and introducing a new term, alimentary toxæmia. Several authors, including Lane, presented papers, whereupon some two dozen responded from April to May. There, "chronic intestinal stasis received its deathblow" when a Fellow's severely antagonistic speech, apparently influencing the course of Lane's career, preempted Lane's opening a surgery school. World War I broke out in 1914, diverting the attention of Lane, newly head of army surgery. Returning from war service, Lane retired from Guy's Hospital in 1920, and continued in private practice. From then onward, Lane wrote almost only on chronic intestinal stasis. Meanwhile, focal infection theory was "coming of age".
In 1916, Henry Cotton in America had embraced focal infection theory with unmatched zeal, became the first to apply it to psychiatry, and rapidly rose to international fame for prescribing removal of dentition, sex glands, and internal organs—most controversially the colon—to treat schizophrenia and manic depression, while claiming up to some 80% cure rate, seemingly worth the 30% death rate. (Soon, independent investigators ventured to Cotton's facility and performed, it seems, psychiatry's first two controlled clinical trials, finding Cotton's clams false.) In 1923, on his European lecture tour, Cotton arrived in Britain, where he learned from Lane an improved surgical technique—as well as a new, far less radical surgical procedure. In autumn 1923, Lane had performed the first 19 "pericolic membranotomies", putatively releasing intestinal adhesions. Wherever apparently possible, Lane replaced colon bypass and colectomy with pericolic membranotomy.
In the early 1920s, Lane began advocating cancer prevention through diet, thereby drew conflict with British Medical Association, and resigned from it in 1924, renouncing his lucrative private medical and surgical practice, 10 000 pounds a year. In 1925, Lane founded New Health Society, the first organized body for social medicine, which German pathologist and statesman Rudolf Virchow had pioneered in late 19th century to undo disease's sociopolitical causes. The term New Health largely referred to nonsurgical healthcare against constipation. Advertising forbidden of physicians, to avert accusation and disciplining by General Medical Council, Lane had his name deleted from the Medical Register. Lane then promoted his views on healthful diet and lifestyle, including greater intake of whole grains, vegetables, and fruits, return to farm land, ample sunlight exposure and physical exercise, and nutritional yeast for B vitamins—Lane's plan to foster defecation thrice daily, cancer prevention, general health, and longevity. Meanwhile, colectomy for constipation was abandoned amid low success rates but high complication rates.
New Health Society sought to transform the "rapidly degenerating community" into a "nation composed of healthy, vigorous members". Blending utopian vision and progressive gender ideology with social darwinist and eugenic rhetoric—the period's prevailing framework—the Society's view, not hereditarian, however, posed humankind's regeneration as pivoting at health education. Sidestepping issues of poverty and inequality, it took health as a personal responsibility and duty of citizenship, whereby health and happiness were attainable by all who consumed a high-fibre diet, exercised, and got ample sunshine, while using birth control and reforming men's dress. Although embracing modern science, technology, and mass media, New Health Society suggested valorisation of "native" culture, and found the bowels central to health, while constipation anchored many of civilisation's ills. Lane said that his lecture in Oldham, Lancashire, was "packed by three thousand or more people", and "that many people had to be carried out fainting, while outside mounted policemen were kept busy holding back and controlling the crowd who wished to force their way into the hall".
Seven years before his 1943 death, Lane's autobiography posed a man "acting upon the repeated request of his children that I should write for them a rough sketch of my life", although "it can be of no interest to others". Rather, two of his former house surgeons at Guy’s Hospital—first W E Tanner and later T B Layton—borrowed it to author biographies. By then, it was generally accepted that Lane's surgeries for constipation had been misguided, and perhaps Lane, too, believed so. By 1982, Lane's introduced colectomy for constipation was declared "clinically futile". And yet for his New Health, including claims that modern society was ruining health, Lane later became viewed as a crank.
The autointoxication principle became an alleged myth scientifically discredited, while interventions to subvert it were deemed quackery. Lane's rationale and his era's very notion of autointoxication have been depicted as wholly unfounded and irrational or "illogical," due to a pervasive psychological effect of toilet training or a figment of the Victorian era's culture. Yet by the late 1990s, the autointoxication concept and thereby colon cleansing was being renewed in alternative healthcare, allegedly upon a fictitious basis. Combating alleged myths, some gastroenterologists asserted that "no evidence" supports the autointoxication concept that toxins are absorbed from waste in the large intestine.
In basic research, if freed from its simplistic reduction to constipation, the autointoxication principle has now substantially supported as an independent mechanism whereby gastrointestinal microorganisms contain or produce toxins exhibiting systemic effects—as by transmigration into circulation and driving systemic inflammation—effects that include the psychological. Apparent instances of autointoxication associate not merely with constipation, however, but principally with alternating constipation and diarrhea, as Lane had noted in his 1908 paper that described constipation as but the earlier, underlying etiological factor whereby autointoxication may incite diarrhea, too.
There is much disagreement over the meaning of constipation, far overreported by the general public versus conventional medical criteria—under two defecations per week. Despite the general public's remaining prevalence of belief that maintaining good health requires defecation at least daily, many constipated individuals apparently are quite healthy—some even defecating under once a week—whereas others who defecate daily are unhealthy.
Still, constipation remains a "major health problem". Gastroenterologists attribute chronic constipation's associated signs and symptoms to slow colon transit, to irritable bowel syndrome, to pelvic floor dysfunction—apparently a cause of refractory constipation in adolescents, too—or to obstructed defecation, which along with slow colon transit have remained incompletely understood. Individuals have varied complaints and try many remedies for signs and symptoms.
Treating constipation, gastroenterologists' first line of intervention is now dietary—whole foods, principally vegetables, fruits, and grains—or fiber supplements. Meanwhile, roles for lifestyle—exercise, mindset, socioeconomic status—have been recognized, although some gastroenterologists as recently as 2012 have claimed that there is "no evidence" supporting a role for exercise. Some 15% to 30% constipation patients exhibit slow colon transit, which laxatives and medical drugs do not amend. Thus, refractory constipation is sometimes treated surgically reportedly successly, but not always successful, and sometimes even worsening abdominal pain.
The syndrome that Lane reported in 1908, "Lane disease" or "Arbuthnot Lane disease", is now usually termed by gastroenterologists either slow transit constipation or slow colon transit or colonic inertia, exhibited by some 15% to 30% of constipation patients. By 1985, Lane's early article on surgical treatment of chronic constipation had become a classic, while physiologic testing and more accurate patient selection renewed interest in total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis—that is, removing the entire large intestine and joining the small intestine's outlet to the rectum—to treat colonic inertia, Lane disease. By now, gastroenterology's accepted view is that, although few patients meet the selection criteria, surgery ought to be offered as a treatment option for severe chronic constipation. Selection criteria ought to be extremely stringent, including multiple confirmation of slow colon transit by physiologic testing, and further medical, psychological, and psychosocial evaluations, while patients understanding that colectomy might not improve the condition and might even worsen abdominal pain.
Willie Lane was among the last surgeons of an era where one could master three specialties—orthopaedic, abdominal, and ear nose and throat—and some of his designed surgical instruments are still used today. Lane's introduction of the "no-touch technique", which permitted aseptic surgery, is perhaps his greatest contribution to surgery. Even in the 21st century, particular descriptions by Lane "should be required reading by orthopaedic surgeons". Lane's life ought to interest historians of medicine as well as believers in holistic medicine. In his time, some thought Lane a genius, while others disagreed, including Sir Arthur Keith who claimed him not clever but carried by faith. In any event, Lane can be characterised as "a crusader, a perfectionist, and an extraordinarily talented surgeon".
- "Sir William Arbuthnot Lane (1856–1943)", Historic Hospital Admission Records Project (HHARP), Website access: 1 Oct 2003.
- Brand, Richard A. (2009). "Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, 1856–1943". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 467 (8): 1939–43. doi:10.1007/s11999-009-0861-3. PMC 2706364. PMID 19418106.
- González-Crussi, Carrying the Heart (Kaplan, 2009), p 73.
- Mostofi, Who's Who in Orthopedics (Springer, 2005).
- "Victoria Hospital for Children in the 1960s—20th Century", Virtual Museum, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, Website access: 1 Oct 2013: "Victoria Hospital for Sick Children was opened in 1866. A group of local residents raised funds to convert Gough House into a hospital for 'poor afflicted children'. The first medical officer was Sir William Jenner, physician to Queen Victoria. It was enlarged in 1875. By 1890 the outpatients' department was treating 1,500 children a week. New buildings were added in 1905 providing 100 beds. It became part of the St George's Hospital group and moved to the main hospital in Tooting in 1964. This photograph shows the hospital shortly before its demolition in 1966".
- HHARP states 1882, yet R Brand states 1888, a conflict the present author judges, by synthesizing both recounts of events, to favor 1888.
- Bashford, Spectator, 1946 (Website access: 2 Oct 2013).
- Louis K T Fu, Review: "The memoirs of Sir William Arbuthnot Lane", Bone & Joint, British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery, Website access: 2 Oct 2013.
- Nicolson, Great Silence (Grove/Atlantic, 2009).
- Dally, Fantasy Surgery (Rodopi, 1996), p 86.
- Dally, Fantasy Surgery (Rodopi, 1996), p 85.
- Dally, Fantasy Surgery (Rodopi, 1996), pp 152–53, quotes Shaw's letter dated 13 Mar 1948: "I never met AL. Cutler Walpole was in print years before I ever heard of Lane. You have been misled by the fact that Lane became known for inventing and practising the operation of shortcircuiting the bowels by cutting out yards of colon: a surgical monstrosity which obsessed him as the nuciform sac obsesses Walpole".
- Wessely, S. (2009). "Surgery for the treatment of psychiatric illness: The need to test untested theories". JRSM 102 (10): 445–51. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2009.09k038. PMC 2755332. PMID 19797603.
- Zweiniger-Bargielowska, I. (2007). "Raising a Nation of 'Good Animals': The New Health Society and Health Education Campaigns in Interwar Britain". Social History of Medicine 20 (1): 73–89. doi:10.1093/shm/hkm032.
- Ole D Enersen, "Sir William Arbuthnot Lane", Whonamedit? (A dictionary of medical eponyms), Website access: 2 Oct 2013.
- W Arbuthnot Lane, Manual of Operative Surgery (London: G Bell and Sons, 1886).
- Fu, K.-T. L. (2008). "William Arbuthnot Lane (1856–1943) and Kenelm Hutchinson Digby (1884–1954): A tale of two universities". Journal of Medical Biography 16 (1): 7–12. doi:10.1258/jmb.2006.006060. PMID 18463059.
- Pugh, We Danced All Night (Bodley Head, 2008), p 48.
- González-Crussi, Carrying the Heart (Kaplan, 2009), p 74–75.
- Tauber & Chernyak, Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology (Oxford, 1991), pp viii, 11.
- Scull, Madhouse (Yale U P, 2005), p 34.
- Chen, Thomas S. N.; Chen, Peter S. Y. (1989). "Intestinal Autointoxication". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 11 (4): 434–41. doi:10.1097/00004836-198908000-00017. PMID 2668399.
- Scull, Madhouse (Yale U P, 2005), p 37.
- Ingle, PDQ Endodontics, 2nd edn (People's Medical, 2009), p xiv.
- Scull, Madhouse (Yale U P, 2005), pp 34–36.
- Noll, American Madness (Harvard U P, 2011), pp 117–21.
- John H Kellogg, Autointoxication Or Intestinal Toxemia, 2nd edn (Battle Creek MI: Modern Medicine Publishing, 1919), "Preface", pp 3–11.
- Scull, Madhouse (Yale U P, 2005), p 33.
- Charles J Bouchard, Leçons sur les auto-intoxications dans les maladies (Paris: Librairie F Savy, 1887), which translates as Lectures on Auto-Intoxication in Disease.
- González-Crussi, Carrying the Heart (Kaplan, 2009), pp 76–78.
- Bested, Alison C; Logan, Alan C; Selhub, Eva M (2013). "Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: From Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part I—autointoxication revisited". Gut Pathogens 5 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-5-5. PMC 3607857. PMID 23506618.
- Dally, Fantasy Surgery (Rodopi, 1996), p 88.
- Willocx, R (1986). "L'inertie colique et le blocage rectal. (Maladie d'Arbuthnot Lane)" [Colonic inertia and rectal obstruction (Arbuthnot Lane disease)]. Annales de gastroénterologie et d'hépatologie (in French) 22 (6): 347–52. PMID 3545042. INIST:8052319.
- Frattini, Jared; Nogueras, Juan (2008). "Slow Transit Constipation: A Review of a Colonic Functional Disorder". Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 21 (2): 146–52. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1075864. PMC 2780201. PMID 20011411.
- Jorge, "Constipation" in Diseases of the Colon (Informa, 2007), pp 118–19.
- WR Schouten & AF Engel, ch 19 "Motility disorders of the distal gastrointestinal tract", subch "Surgical aspects", § "Slow transit constipation without megacolon", in JJB van Lanschot, DJ Gouma, GNJ Tytgat et al, eds, Integrated Medical And Surgical Gastroenterology (New York: Thieme, 2004), p 365: "This condition, also described as colonic inertia, occurs almost entirely in women. Patients with this syndrome have infrequent defecation, two or less bowel actions per week, due to a marked prolongation of colonic transit time. Most patients develop the first symptoms around the time of their first menstruation. Sometimes, colonic inertia develops shortly after childbirth or hysterectomy. All patients with this syndrome have a colon of normal size. Routine histopathologic examination of the large bowel does not reveal any abnormality. Most patients with colonic inertia present with associated symptoms, such as general malaise, bloating, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, which interfere with the ability to work and enjoy social activities. Many patients also have gynecologic and/or urologic problems. A delay in gastric emptying and a prolonged small bowel transit have also been found, suggesting that inertia of the large bowel might be the colonic manifestation of a gastrointestinal motility disorder. Medical treatment with laxatives, enemas and prokinetic agents, such as cisapride, does not relieve the burdensome symptoms. Retrograde colonic irrigation has limited value".
- Lane, W. A. (1908). "Remarks on the results of the operative treatment of chronic constipation". BMJ 1 (2455): 126–30. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2455.126. PMC 2435825. PMID 20763645.
- Lane, W. A. (1909). "An Address on chronic intestinal stasis". BMJ 1 (2528): 1408–11. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2528.1408. PMC 2319506. PMID 20764531.
- W Arbuthnot Lane, The Operative Treatment of Chronic Constipation (London: James Nisbet & Co, 1909).
W Arburthnot Lane, The Operative Treatment of Chronic Intestinal Stasis, 3rd edn (London: James Nisbet & Co, 1915).
W Arbuthnot Lane, The Operative Treatment of Chronic Intestinal Stasis, 4th edn (London: Frowde, Hodder and Stoughton, 1918).
- Smith, J Lacey (1982). "Sir Arbuthnot Lane, chronic intestinal stasis, and autointoxication". Annals of Internal Medicine 96 (3): 365–9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-96-3-365. PMID 7036818.
- Dally, Fantasy Surgery (Rodopi, 1996), p 154.
- Adolphe Combe & Albert Fournier, Intestinal Auto-Intoxication, English trans by William G States (London: Rebman, 1908), pp 72, 107–08, 110, 415.
- Lawford, JB (1913). "A Discussion on Alimentary Toxaemia; its Sources, Consequences, and Treatment". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 6 (Gen Rep): 121–9. PMC 2007166. PMID 19976752.
- Hunter, W. (1921). "The Coming of Age of Oral Sepsis". BMJ 1 (3154): 859. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.3154.859. PMC 2415200. PMID 20770334.
- Shorter, E (2011). "A brief history of placebos and clinical trials in psychiatry". Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 56 (4): 193–7. PMC 3714297. PMID 21507275.
- Kopeloff, Nicolas; Cheney, Clarence O (1 October 1922). "Studies in focal infection: Its presence and elimination in the functional psychoses". American Journal of Psychiatry 79 (2): 139–56.
- Kopeloff, Nicolas; Kirby, George H (1 October 1923). "Focal infection and mental disease". American Journal of Psychiatry 80 (2): 149–91.
- Scull, Madhouse (Yale U P, 2005), pp 126 & 259.
- Pugh, We Danced All Night (Bodley Head, 2008), p 43: "In the early 1920s Sir Arbuthnot Lane started campaigning about poor diet which he saw as a cause of cancer".
- Lane, W. A. (1923). "An Address ON CHRONIC INTESTINAL STASIS AND CANCER". BMJ 2 (3278): 745–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.3278.745. PMC 2317557. PMID 20771328.
- Fleischmann's Yeast advertisement: "Civilization's curse can be conquered, says famous British MD in news press—Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, Bart, CB", Ottawa Citizen, 19 Sep 1928, p 15.
- Rut C Engs, The Progressive Era's Health Reform Movement: A Historical Dictionary (Westport CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003), p 74.
- Pernick, M S (1997). "Eugenics and public health in American history". American Journal of Public Health 87 (11): 1767–72. doi:10.2105/AJPH.87.11.1767. PMC 1381159. PMID 9366633.
- Scull, Andrew (October 1999). "The problem of mental deficiency: eugenics, democracy, and social policy in Britain c 1870–1959". Medical History 43 (4): 527–28. doi:10.1017/S0025727300065868. PMC 1044197.
- Reiner Grundmann & Nico Stehr, The Power of Scientific Knowledge: From Research to Public Policy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p 77–80.
- William E Tanner, Sir Arbuthnot Lane, Bart., C.B., M.S., F.R.C.S.: His Life and Work (London: Balliere, Tyndall and Cox, 1946).
T B Layton, Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, Bt.: An Enquiry into the Mind and Influence of a Great Surgeon (London & Edinburgh: E & S Livingstone, 1956).
- Sullivan-Fowler, Micaela (1995). "Doubtful theories, drastic therapies: Autointoxication and faddism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 50 (3): 364–90. doi:10.1093/jhmas/50.3.364. PMID 7665877.
- Ernst, E. (1997). "Colonic Irrigation and the Theory of Autointoxication: A triumph of ignorance over science". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 24 (4): 196–8. doi:10.1097/00004836-199706000-00002. PMID 9252839.
- Baron, J.H.; Sonnenberg, A. (2002). "The wax and wane of intestinal autointoxication and visceroptosis—historical trends of real versus apparent new digestive diseases". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 97 (11): 2695–9. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.07050.x. PMID 12425533.
- Stephen Barrett, "Gastrointestinal quackery: Colonics, laxatives, and more", Quackwatch, 4 Aug 2010 (last revised), Website access: 2 Oct 2013.
- González-Crussi, Carrying the Heart (Kaplan, 2009), p 77–82.
- Hudson, Robert P (1998). "Book Review: Fantasy Surgery, 1880–1930: With Special Reference to Sir William Arbuthnot Lane". Bulletin of the History of Medicine 72 (1): 131–2. doi:10.1353/bhm.1998.0014.
- Muller-Lissner, Stefan A.; Kamm, Michael A.; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Wald, Arnold (2005). "Myths and misconceptions about chronic constipation". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 100 (1): 232–42. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.40885.x. PMID 15654804.
- Bested, Alison C; Logan, Alan C; Selhub, Eva M (2013). "Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: From Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part II—contemporary contextual research". Gut Pathogens 5 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-5-3. PMC 3601973. PMID 23497633.
- Bested, Alison C; Logan, Alan C; Selhub, Eva M (2013). "Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: From Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part III—convergence toward clinical trials". Gut Pathogens 5 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-5-4. PMC 3605358. PMID 23497650.
- Person, John R.; Bernhard, Jeffrey D. (1986). "Autointoxication revisited". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 15 (3): 559–63. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(86)70207-7. PMID 3760291.
- Fujimura, Kei E; Slusher, Nicole A; Cabana, Michael D; Lynch, Susan V (2010). "Role of the gut microbiota in defining human health". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 8 (4): 435–54. doi:10.1586/eri.10.14. PMC 2881665. PMID 20377338.
- Frazier, T. H.; Dibaise, J. K.; McClain, C. J. (2011). "Gut Microbiota, intestinal permeability, obesity-induced inflammation, and liver injury". Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 35 (5 Suppl): 14S–20S. doi:10.1177/0148607111413772. PMID 21807932.
- Maslowski, Kendle M; MacKay, Charles R (2011). "Diet, gut microbiota and immune responses". Nature Immunology 12 (1): 5–9. doi:10.1038/ni0111-5. PMID 21169997.
- Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold; Midtvedt, Jørgen (2011). "Intestinal autointoksikasjon – fortsatt aktuell sykdomsmekanisme?". Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening 131 (19): 1875–6. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.11.0762. PMID 21984290.
- Bowe, Whitney P; Logan, Alan C (2011). "Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis—back to the future?". Gut Pathogens 3 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-3-1. PMC 3038963. PMID 21281494.
- Dave, Maneesh; Higgins, Peter D.; Middha, Sumit; Rioux, Kevin P. (2012). "The human gut microbiome: Current knowledge, challenges, and future directions". Translational Research 160 (4): 246–57. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2012.05.003. PMID 22683238.
- Bowe, W.P.; Patel, N.B.; Logan, A.C. (2013). "Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis: From anecdote to translational medicine". Beneficial Microbes 1 (1): 1–2. doi:10.3920/BM2012.0060. PMID 21831746.
- Konkel, Lindsey (2013). "The Environment Within: Exploring the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease". Environmental Health Perspectives 121 (9): A276–81. doi:10.1289/ehp.121-A276. PMC 3764083. PMID 24004817.
- Sommer, Felix; Bäckhed, Fredrik (2013). "The gut microbiota—masters of host development and physiology". Nature Reviews Microbiology 11 (4): 227–38. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2974. PMID 23435359.
- Whorton, Inner Hygiene (Oxford U P, 2000), pp 7–8.
- McCoy, Jacob; Beck, David (2012). "Surgical Management of Colonic Inertia". Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 25 (1): 20–3. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1301755. PMC 3348730. PMID 23449085.
- Mertz, H.; Naliboff, B.; Mayer, E. A. (1999). "Symptoms and physiology in severe chronic constipation". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 94 (1): 131–8. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.1999.00783.x. PMID 9934743.
- Chitkara, Denesh K.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Cremonini, Filippo; Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Smoot, Rory L.; El-Youssef, Mounif; Freese, Deborah; Camilleri, Michael (2004). "The Role of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction and Slow Colonic Transit in Adolescents with Refractory Constipation". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 99 (8): 1579–84. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.30176.x. PMID 15307880.
- Steele, Scott; Mellgren, Anders (2007). "Constipation and Obstructed Defecation". Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 20 (2): 110–7. doi:10.1055/s-2007-977489. PMC 2780173. PMID 20011385.
- Whorton, Inner Hygiene (Oxford U P, 2000), p 6.
- Alame, Amer; Bahna, Heidi (2012). "Evaluation of Constipation". Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 25 (1): 5–11. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1301753. PMC 3348731. PMID 23449159.
- Bove, Antonio; Bellini, M; Battaglia, E; Bocchini, R; Gambaccini, D; Bove, V; Pucciani, F; Altomare, DF; Dodi, G; Sciaudone, G; Falletto, E; Piloni, V (2012). "Consensus statement AIGO/SICCR diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation and obstructed defecation (Part II: Treatment)". World Journal of Gastroenterology 18 (36): 4994–5013. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i36.4994. PMC 3460325. PMID 23049207.
- Lubowski, D. Z.; Chen, F. C.; Kennedy, M. L.; King, D. W. (1996). "Results of colectomy for severe slow transit constipation". Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 39: 23. doi:10.1007/BF02048263.
- Knowles, Charles H.; Scott, Mark; Lunniss, Peter J. (1999). "Outcome of Colectomy for Slow Transit Constipation". Annals of Surgery 230 (5): 627–38. doi:10.1097/00000658-199911000-00004. PMC 1420916. PMID 10561086.
- Thakur, A; Fonkalsrud, EW; Buchmiller, T; French, S (2001). "Surgical treatment of severe colonic inertia with restorative proctocolectomy". The American surgeon 67 (1): 36–40. PMID 11206894.
- Liu, LW (2011). "Chronic constipation: Current treatment options". Canadian journal of gastroenterology. 25 Suppl B (Suppl B): 22B–28B. PMC 3206558. PMID 22114754.
- Han, Eon Chul; Oh, HK; Ha, HK; Choe, EK; Moon, SH; Ryoo, SB; Park, KJ (2012). "Favorable surgical treatment outcomes for chronic constipation with features of colonic pseudo-obstruction". World Journal of Gastroenterology 18 (32): 4441–6. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i32.4441. PMC 3436063. PMID 22969211.
- Kumar, Ashok; Lokesh, HM; Ghoshal, Uday C (2013). "Successful Outcome of Refractory Chronic Constipation by Surgical Treatment: A Series of 34 Patients". Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility 19 (1): 78–84. doi:10.5056/jnm.2013.19.1.78. PMC 3548131. PMID 23350051.
- Wong, Shing W.; Lubowski, David Z. (2006). "Surgical Treatment of Colonic Inertia". In Wexner, Steven D.; Duthie, Graeme S. Constipation. pp. 145–59. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-275-1_15. ISBN 978-1-85233-724-7.
- "Classic articles in colonic and rectal surgery. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane 1856–1943. The results of the operative treatment of chronic constipation". Diseases of the colon and rectum 28 (10): 750–7. 1985. PMID 3902410.
- Piccinelli, D; Lolli, P; Carolo, F; Delaini, GG; Sussi, PL; Dagradi, V (1987). "Our experience in the surgical treatment of Arbuthnot Lane disease". Chirurgia italiana 39 (5): 460–5. PMID 3690782.
- Jorge, "Constipation" in Diseases of the Colon (Informa, 2007), p 117–18.
- Bashford, H H, "Books of the day: Arbuthnot Lane", Spectator, 25 Apr 1946, pp 16–17.
- Brand, Richard A. (2009). "Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, 1856–1943". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 467 (8): 1939. doi:10.1007/s11999-009-0861-3.
- Dally, Ann, Fantasy Surgery 1880–1930 (Amsterdam & Atlanta GA: Rodopi B V, 1996).
- González-Crussi, F, Carrying the Heart: Exploring the Worlds Within Us (New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2009).
- Ingle, John I, PDQ Endodontics, 2nd edn (Shelton CT: People's Medical Publishing House, 2009).
- Mostofi, Seyed B, ed, Who's Who in Orthopedics (London: Springer-Verlag, 2005), "Sir William Arbuthnot Lane", pp 183–86.
- Nicolson, Juliet, The Great Silence: Britain from the Shadow of the First World War to the Dawn of the Jazz Age (New York: Grove/Atlantic, 2009).
- Noll, Richard, American Madness: The Rise and Fall of Dementia Praecox (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2011).
- Pugh, Martin, We Danced All Night: A Social History of Britain Between the Wars (London: Bodley Head, 2008).
- Obituary: "Sir W Arbuthnot Lane, Bt, CB, FRCS", British Medical Journal, 1943 Jan 23; 1(4281):115–17.
- Scull, Andrew, Madhouse: A Tragic Tale of Megalomania and Modern Medicine (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005).
- Tauber, Alfred I & Leon Chernyak, Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology: From Metaphor to Theory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
- Whorton, James C, Inner Hygiene: Constipation and the Pursuit of Health in Modern Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
- Zweiniger-Bargielowska, I. (2007). "Raising a Nation of 'Good Animals': The New Health Society and Health Education Campaigns in Interwar Britain". Social History of Medicine 20: 73. doi:10.1093/shm/hkm032.
- Jorge, J Marcio N, ch 5 "Constipation—including sigmoidocele and rectocele", in Diseases of the Colon (New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007), D Wexner Steven & Neil Stollman, eds.
- Wong, Shing W & David Z Lubowski, ch 15 "Surgical treatment of colonic inertia", in Constipation: Etiology, Evaluation and Management, 2nd edn (London: Springer-Verlag, 2006), Steven D Wexner & Graeme S Duthie, eds.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sir William Arbuthnot Lane, 1st Baronet.|
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
(of Cavendish Square)
William Arbuthnot Lane