Otorhinolaryngology

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Otolaryngologist performing an endoscopic sinus surgical procedure
A 40-watt CO2 laser used in otorhinolaryngology

Otorhinolaryngology (Otolaryngology) is the area of medicine that deals with disorders and conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) region, and related areas of the head and neck. Doctors who specialise in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, or throat and for the management of cancers of the head and neck.

Etymology[edit]

The term is a combination of four Ancient Greek words: οὖς ous (gen.: ὠτός otos), "ear", ῥίς rhis, "nose", λάρυγξ larynx, "larynx" and -λογία -logia, "study".[1]

Training[edit]

Otorhinolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otorhinolaryngology–head and neck surgery. (In the past it varied between two and three years of each.) In Canada, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.

Following residency training, some otorhinolaryngologists complete an advanced sub-specialty fellowship, where training can be one to two years in duration. In the United States and Canada, otorhinolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school.

Sub-specialties[edit]

Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery* Otology Neurotology* Rhinology and Sinus Surgery Laryngology and Voice Disorders Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Sleep Medicine*
Surgical oncology Facial cosmetic surgery Ear Middle and inner ear Sinusitis Voice disorders Velopalatine insufficiency
Reconstruction Maxillofacial Hearing Temporal bone Allergy Phono-surgery Cleft lip and palate
Endocrine surgery Trauma Balance Skull base Anterior skull base Swallowing disorders Airway
Endoscopic Surgery Dizziness Apnea and snoring Vascular malformations
Cochlear implant/BAHA Cochlear implant/BAHA

(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)

Topics[edit]

Head and neck oncology[edit]

Otology and neurotology[edit]

Main articles: Otology and Neurotology

Rhinology[edit]

Rhinology pertains to sinus diseases and the anterior skull base.

Pediatric otorhinolaryngology[edit]

Laryngology[edit]

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery[edit]

Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otorhinolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "otolaryngologist" entry in: Peter Harris, Sue Nagy, Nicholas Vardaxis, Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions - Australian & New Zealand Edition, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009.

External links[edit]

Associations and Societies
Journals