Otolaryngology //, appropriately known as "Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery" or ENT (ear, nose, and throat) is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the head and neck. It is the oldest medical practice in the United States and nearly 50 percent of all office visits pertain to the ear, nose, and throat.
Physicians specializing in otolaryngology are called otolaryngologists or Head and Neck Surgeons, and often treat children with persistent ear infections, hearing problems, cleft lip and other congenital abnormalities. Adult patients often seek treatment from an otolaryngologist for sinus infections, age-related hearing loss, and cancers of the thyroid or head or neck regions.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Training
- 3 Designation preferences
- 4 Subspecialties
- 5 Topics in Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The full name of the specialty is otorhinolaryngology  from neoclassical Greek and modern Greek: ωτο(ρ)ρινολαρυγγολογία from ὠτ-, ot- (root of οὖς) "ear", ῥινο-, rhino- (root of ῥίς) "nose", λαρυγγ-, laryng- (root of λάρυγξ) "larynx/throat", and the suffix -logy "study"; thus, the term literally means "the study of ear, nose and throat".
Otolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery; in the past it varied between two and three years of each. In Canada, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.
Following residency training some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality fellowship training which can be 1–2 years in duration (pediatric otolaryngology, neuro-otology, laryngology, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, rhinology, or head and neck oncology).
Practitioners are called and professionally designated by the more accurate term Otolaryngologists – Head and Neck Surgeons, as specialists trained in otolaryngology are experts in surgical conditions of the head and neck. Some people refer to it simply as Head and Neck Surgery. In the United States, otolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school.
|Head and Neck||Facial plastics*||Otology||Neuro-otology*||Rhinology/sinus||Laryngology||Pediatrics||Sleep*|
|Surgical oncology||Facial cosmetic surgery||Ear||Middle and inner ear||Sinusitis||Voice therapy||Velopalatine insufficiency|
|Reconstruction||Maxillofacial||Hearing||Temporal bone||Allergy||Phono-surgery||Cleft lip and palate|
|Endocrine surgery||Trauma||Skull base||Anterior skull base||Swallowing trouble||Airway|
|Endoscopic Surgery||Dizziness||Apnea and snoring||Vascular malformations|
(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)
Topics in Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
Head and neck oncology
- Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx
- Oral cancer
- Skin Cancer of the head & neck
- Thyroid cancer
- Endocrine surgery of the head and neck (thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy)
- Microvascular free flap reconstruction
- Skull base surgery
- Salivary gland cancer
Otology and neuro-otology
- Hearing loss
- Otitis externa – outer ear or ear canal inflammation
- Otitis media – middle ear inflammation
- Perforated eardrum (hole in the eardrum due to infection, trauma, explosion or loud noise)
- Ear surgery
Rhinology pertains to sinus diseases and the anterior skull base.
- Caustic ingestion
- Cricotracheal resection
- Laryngotracheal reconstruction
- Myringotomy and tubes
- Obstructive sleep apnea – pediatric
- Spasmodic dysphonia
- Cancer of the larynx
- Vocology – science and practice of voice habilitation
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.
- Rhinoplasty and septoplasty
- Facelift (rhytidectomy)
- Injectable cosmetic treatments
- Trauma to the face
- Skin cancer (e.g. Basal Cell Carcinoma)
- American Board of Otolaryngology
- American Osteopathic Board of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
- Head mirror
- Speech-language pathology
- Schierhorn, Carolyn (July 5, 2013). "Procedural diversity, satisfying outcomes draw DOs to otolaryngology". The DO.
- "Otorhinolaryngology". The Free Dictionary.
- CMA. "Otolaryngology". Canadian Medical Association.
- "About the Fellowship | Otolaryngology". Cincinnatichildrens.org. 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Physician Medical Specialty Information and Data". Medfriends.org. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- NRMP and AAMC. "Charting Outcomes in the Match Characteristics of Applicants Who Matched to Their Preferred Specialty in the 2011 Main Residency Match". National Resident Match Program.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Otolaryngology.|
- Acta Oto-laryngologica
- JARO-Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
- Journal of Voice
- Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology – journal of the Nordic Cooperation Council of Logopedics and Phoniatrics and the British Voice Association
- Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery link – journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation
- American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
- American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy
- American Head and Neck Society
- American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society
- Association for Research in Otolaryngology
- Association of Otolaryngology Administrators
- Australian Society of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery
- British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists – Head & Neck Surgeons
- Canadian Society of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
- TWJ Foundation
- Voice Foundation
- Guildford ENT – a specialist clinic that treats nose, throat and ear problems in adults and children at Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey.
- Various Conditions and Treatments done by Otolaryngoloist and FAQ's