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Otolaryngologist performing an endoscopic sinus surgical procedure.
A 40-watt CO2
laser used in otolaryngology.
Otolaryngology (pronounced /ˌoʊ toʊ ˌlæ rɪŋ ˈgɒ lə dʒi/) or ENT (ear, nose, and throat) is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the head and neck. It is the oldest medical practice in the United States and nearly 50% of all office visits pertain to the ear, nose, and throat.
The full name of the specialty is otorhinolaryngology from neoclassical Greek and modern Greek: ωτο(ρ)ρινολαρυγγολογία from ὠτ-, ot- (root of οὖς) "ear", ῥινο-, rhino- (root of ῥίς) "nose", λαρυγγ-, laryng- (root of λάρυγξ) "larynx/throat", and the suffix -logy "study"; thus, the term literally means "the study of ear, nose and throat".
Otolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery; in the past it varied between two and three years of each. In Canada, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.
Following residency training some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality fellowship training which can be 1–2 years in duration (pediatric otolaryngology, neuro-otology, laryngology, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, rhinology, or head and neck oncology).
Practitioners are called and professionally designated by the more accurate term otolaryngologists – head and neck surgeons, as specialists trained in otolaryngology are experts in surgical conditions of the head and neck. Some people refer to it simply as head and neck surgery. In the United States, otolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school.
|Head and neck
||Facial cosmetic surgery
||Middle and inner ear
||Cleft lip and palate
||Anterior skull base
||Apnea and snoring
(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)
Topics in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery 
Head and neck oncology 
Otology and neuro-otology 
Main articles: Otology
Rhinology pertains to sinus diseases and the anterior skull base.
Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery 
Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.
See also 
External links