Style of the Portuguese sovereign

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The style of Portuguese sovereign has varied over the years. Currently, there is no Portuguese monarch but there is a pretender: Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza. He styles himself following some of the ancient traditions of the Portuguese monarchy.

Style of Title[edit]

During the history of Portuguese monarchy, the Portuguese kings used the following styles:

Time Style Used by Reason
1128–1129 By the Grace of God, Duke of Portugal
(Dei Gratiæ, Dux Portugalliæ)
Afonso I
1129–1139 By the Grace of God, Prince of Portugal
(Dei Gratiæ, Princeps Portugalliæ)
Afonso I
1140–1189 By the Grace of God, King of the Portuguese
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugalensium)
Afonso I, Sancho I
1189–1191 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and Silves
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugalliæ et Silbis)
Sancho I Conquest of Silves (1189)
1191–1248 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ)
Sancho I, Afonso II, Sancho II Loss of Silves to the Almohads (1191)
1248–1249 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and Count of Boulogne
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Comes Boloniæ)
Afonso III Afonso, married to Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne-sur-Mer, succeeds his brother Sancho on the Portuguese throne (January 1248)
1249–1253 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve, Count of Boulogne
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Algarbii & Comes Boloniæ)
Afonso III Conquest of the Moorish kingdom of the Algarve (Al'Garb Al'Andalus) (1249)
1253–1369 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Algarbii)
Afonso III, Denis, Afonso IV, Peter I, Ferdinand I Afonso III repudiates Matilda and relinquishes his title of Count (1253)
1369–1371 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Portugal, Toledo, Galicia, Seville, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarve, and Algeciras and Lord of Molina Ferdinand I Ferndinand I of Portugal is a pretender to the Castilian Crown, being a legitimate great-grandson of Sancho IV of Castile (1369)
1371–1383 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve Ferdinand I Renunciation of Castilian titles after the Peace of Alcoutim (1371)
1385–1415 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve John I Election of the Portuguese king (6 April 1385)
1415–1458 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve and Lord of Ceuta John I, Edward I, Afonso V Conquest of Ceuta (1415)
1458–1471 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve and Lord of Ceuta and Alcácer in Africa Afonso V Conquest of El Ksar as-Saghir (Alcácer-Ceguer) (1458)
1471–1475 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa[1] Afonso V Conquest of Asilah and Tangiers (1471) and elevation of the Portuguese lordship in northern Africa to the condition of Kingdom of the Algarve Beyond the Sea
1475–1479 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Portugal, Toledo, Galicia,[citation needed] Seville, Cordoba, Jaén, Murcia, the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Gibraltar, and Algeciras and Lord of Biscay and Molina Afonso V Pretension of Afonso V to the Castilian Crown, due to his marriage with Joan, Princess of Castile (1475)
1479–1485 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa Afonso V, John II Renunciation of the Castilian titles after the Treaty of Alcáçovas (1479)
1485–1499 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa and Lord of Guinea John II, Manuel I Creation of the Lordship of Guinea, comprising the Portuguese colonies on the Gulf of Guinea (1485)
1499–1580 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. Manuel I, John III, Sebastian, Henry, António, Prior of Crato The return of Vasco da Gama from India in 1499
1580–1640 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Aragon, the two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordoba, Corsica, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Eastern & Western Indies, and the Islands & Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Biscay and Molina, Duke of Athens and Neopatria, Count of Roussillon and Cerdagne, Margrave of Oristano and Goceano, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, and Milan, Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, etc. Philip I, Philip II, Philip III Personal union with Spain
1640–1815 By the Grace of God, King [or Queen] of Portugal and the Algarves before and beyond the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc.
(Dei gratia rex Portugaliæ & Algarbiorum citra ultraque mare in Africa, dominus Guineæ, atque expugnationis, navigationis, & commercii Æthiopiæ, Arabiæ, Persiæ, & Indiæ, &c.[2])
John IV, Afonso VI, Peter II, João V, Joseph I, Maria I (with Peter III) Restoration of an independent Portugal
1815–1822 By the Grace of God, King [or Queen] of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. Maria I, John VI Creation of the Kingdom of Brazil (1815)
1822–1823 By the Grace of God and by the Constitution of the Monarchy, King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. John VI Approval of the first Portuguese Constitution (1822)
1823–1825 By the Grace of God, King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. John VI Suspension of the first Portuguese Constitution after the Vilafrancada coup
1825–1826 By the Grace of God, [Titular] Emperor of Brazil, King of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. John VI Brazilian independence
1826 By the Grace of God and Unanimous Acclamation of the People, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. Pedro IV Personal Union of Portugal and Brazil
1826–1838 By the Grace of God, King [or Queen] of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. Maria II, Miguel I, Maria II (with Ferdinand II) Peter's abdication of Portugal
1838–1842 By the Grace of God and by the Constitution of the Monarchy, King [or Queen] of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. Maria II (with Ferdinand II) The Portuguese Constitution of 1838
1842–1910 By the Grace of God, King [or Queen] of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc. Maria II (with Ferdinand II), Pedro V, Luís I, Carlos I, Manuel II The Portuguese Constitutional Chart of 1826 was restored

Style of Address[edit]

The attribute of the Portuguese sovereign also changed several times as well:

Time Attribute
1139–c. 1433 His Mercy
c. 1433–1577 His Royal Highness
1577–1578 His Majesty
1578–1580 His Royal Highness
1580–1748 His Majesty
1748–1825 His/Her Most Faithful Majesty
1825–1826 His Imperial and Royal Majesty
1826–1910 His/Her Most Faithful Majesty

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Note that when referring to the Algarves, in the plural, the title refers not only to the Algarve, but also to the Portuguese possessions in North Africa (Ceuta, Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir), Arzila (Asilah), Tangier, Mazagan (El Jadida), Ouadane, Safim (Safi), Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir), Mogador (Essaouira), Aguz (Souira Guedima) and Azamor (Azemmour)), thus adding the descriptive "of either side of the sea in Africa".
  2. ^ "Treaty of the Hague". (Latin) In Davenport, Frances G. European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2004.