List of Portuguese monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"King of Portugal" redirects here. For the Al Stewart song, see Last Days of the Century.
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Former Monarchy
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Portugal (1640-1910).png
Royal Coat of arms
SMF Manoel II.jpg
El-Rei D. Manuel II
First monarch D. Afonso I
Last monarch D. Manuel II
Style Style of the Portuguese sovereign
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy began 25 July 1139
Monarchy ended 5 October 1910
Current pretender(s) Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza

The Monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

Through the nearly 800 years which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two Kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the House of Habsburg came into power, the Kings of Spain, and Naples, also became Kings of Portugal. The House of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then Emperor of Brazil.

After the demise of the Portuguese monarchy, in 1910, Portugal almost restored its monarchy in a revolution known as the Monarchy of the North, though the attempted restoration only lasted a month before destruction. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed King of Portugal by their monarchist groups. This is purely symbolic and no one can have a place among the Kings of Portugal unless they were acclaimed by the Portuguese state and parliament. The Portuguese government states that the current representative of the House of Braganza, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, is the legitimate successor to the Kings of Portugal, but only recognizes him as Duke of Braganza and not King.

The monarchs of Portugal all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I Henriques, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. These houses are:

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)[edit]

The House of Burgundy, known as the Afonsine Dynasty, was the founding house of the Kingdom of Portugal. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. When Afonso I Henriques declared the independence of Portugal, he turned the family from a comital house to royal house which would rule Portugal for over two centuries. When Ferdinand I died, a succession crisis occurred and Ferdinand's daughter Beatrice of Portugal was proclaimed queen and her husband John I of Castile proclaimed king by the right of his wife. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.[1][2]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Alphonse I
1109 – 6 December 1185 (aged 76) 25 July 1139 6 December 1185 Founder of the Kingdom of Portugal
Son of Count Henry
Burgundy
Sancho I
11 November 1154 – 26 March 1212 (aged 57) 6 December 1185 26 March 1212 Son of Afonso I Burgundy
Alphonse II
23 April 1185 – 25 March 1223 (aged 37) 26 March 1212 25 March 1223 Son of Sancho I Burgundy
Sancho II
8 September 1209 – 4 January 1248 (aged 38) 26 March 1223 4 December 1247 Son of Afonso II Burgundy
Alphonse III
5 May 1210 – 16 February 1279 (aged 68) 4 January 1248 16 February 1279 Son of Afonso II Burgundy
Denis I
9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 (aged 63) 6 February 1279 7 January 1325 Son of Afonso III Burgundy
Alphonse IV
8 February 1291 – 28 May 1357 (aged 66) 7 January 1325 28 May 1357 Son of Denis I Burgundy
Peter I
19 April 1320 – 18 January 1367 (aged 46) 8 May 1357 18 January 1367 Son of Afonso IV Burgundy
Ferdinand I
31 October 1345 – 22 October 1383 (aged 37) 18 January 1367 22 October 1383 Son of Peter I Burgundy

House of Aviz (1385-1580)[edit]

The House of Aviz, known as the Joanine Dynasty, succeeded the House of Burgundy as the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal. The house was founded by John I of Portugal, who was the Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. When King John II of Portugal died without an heir, the throne of Portugal passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian I of Portugal died, the throne passed to his uncle, Henry I of Portugal. When Henry I died, a succession crisis occurred and António, Prior of Crato was proclaimed António I of Portugal. His legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
John I
11 April 1358 – 14 August 1433 (aged 75) 6 April 1385 14 August 1433 Illegitimate son of Peter I Aviz
Edward I
31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438 (aged 46) 14 August 1433 9 September 1438 Son of John I Aviz
Alphonse V
15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481 (aged 49) 13 September 1438
15 November 1477
11 November 1477
28 August 1481
Son of Edward I Aviz
John II
3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495 (aged 40) 11 November 1477
28 August 1481
15 November 1477
25 October 1495
Son of Afonso V Aviz
Emmanuel I
(1469-05-31)31 May 1469 - 13 December 1521(1521-12-13) (aged 52) 25 October 1495 13 December 1521 Cousin of John II Aviz
John III
(1502-06-07)7 June 1502 - 11 June 1557(1557-06-11) (aged 55) 13 December 1521 11 June 1557 Son of Emmanuel I Aviz
Sebastian I
(1554-01-20)20 January 1554 - c. 4 August 1578(1578-08-04) (aged 24) 11 June 1557 4 August 1578 Grandson of John III Aviz King Sebastian I
Henry I
31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580 (aged 68) 4 August 1578 31 January 1580 Son of Emmanuel I Aviz King Henry

House of Habsburg (1581–1640)[edit]

The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Philip I
(1527-05-21)21 May 1527 - 13 September 1598(1598-09-13) (aged 71) 17 April 1581 13 September 1598 Grandson of Emmanuel I Habsburg King Philip I
Philip II
(1578-04-14)14 April 1578 - 31 March 1621(1621-03-31) (aged 42) 13 September 1598 31 March 1621 Son of Philip I Habsburg King Philip II
Philip III
(1605-04-08)8 April 1605 - 17 September 1665(1665-09-17) (aged 60) 31 March 1621 1 December 1640 Son of Philip II Habsburg King Philip II

House of Braganza (1640–1910)[edit]

The House of Braganza, known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power, in 1640, when John II, Duke of Braganza, claiming to be the rightful heir of the defunct House of Aviz, was proclaimed King John IV of Portugal, and deposed the House of Habsburg in the Portuguese Restoration War.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
John IV
18 March 1603 – 6 November 1656 (aged 53) 1 December 1640 6 November 1656 Great-great-grandson of Emmanuel I Braganza
Alphonse VI
21 August 1643 – 12 September 1683 (aged 40) 6 November 1656 12 September 1683 Son of John IV Braganza
Peter II
26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706 (aged 58) 6 November 1683 9 December 1706 Son of John IV Braganza
John V
22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750 (aged 60) 9 December 1706 31 July 1750 Son of Peter II Braganza
Joseph I
6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777 (age 62) 31 July 1750 24 February 1777 Son of John V Braganza
Mary I
(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 - 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81) 24 February 1777 20 March 1816 Daughter of Joseph I Braganza
Peter III
(1717-07-05)5 July 1717 - 25 May 1786(1786-05-25) (aged 68) 24 February 1777 25 May 1786 Husband of Mary I
Son of John V
jure uxoris king
Braganza
John VI
13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58) 20 March 1816 10 March 1826 Son of Mary I and Peter III Braganza
Peter IV
12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35) 10 March 1826 2 May 1826 Son of John VI Braganza
Mary II
4 April 1819 – 15 November 1853 (aged 34) 2 May 1826
26 May 1834
23 June 1828
15 November 1853
Daughter of Peter IV Braganza
Michael I
26 October 1802 – 14 November 1866 (aged 64) 26 February 1828 6 May 1834 Son of John VI Braganza
Ferdinand II
29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885 (aged 69) 16 September 1837 15 November 1853 Husband of Mary II
jure uxoris king
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1853–1910)[edit]

The House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is the designation given to the house of the last four Kings of Portugal. The house's existence is debated, as Portuguese historians and the monarchs themselves styled themselves as members of the House of Braganza and not cadet members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Peter V
16 September 1837 – 11 November 1861 (aged 24) 15 November 1853 11 November 1861 Son of Mary II and Ferdinand II Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Louis I
31 October 1838 – 19 October 1889 (aged 50) 11 November 1861 19 October 1889 Son of Mary II and Ferdinand II Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Charles I
28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908 (aged 44) 19 October 1889 1 February 1908 Son of Louis I Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Emmanuel II
15 November 1889 – 2 July 1932 (aged 42) 1 February 1908 5 October 1910 Son of Charles I Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

See also[edit]

External Links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David Williamson, «Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe»,1988,Webb & Bower, Exeter, ISBN 0-86350-194-X; César Olivera Serrano, «Beatriz de Portugal»
  2. ^ García de Cortázar, Fernando (1999), Breve historia de España, Alianza Editorial, page 712; Armindo de Sousa, in História de Portugal coordinated by José Mattoso, Editorial Estampa, vol. II, ISBN 972-33-0919-X, pages 494/95
  • (1946) [1735–49]. História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa (in Portuguese). Coimbra: Atlântida-Livraria Eds. OCLC 20210378. 
  • Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe, London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228–237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0-02-897255-4.)
  • Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), Costados do Duque de Bragança, Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições.
  • Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil, vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia.
  • Jacob Wilhelm Imhof, Stemma Regum lusitanicum sive Historia genealogica Familiae Regiae Portugallicae, Amsterdam, 1708 (reprint http://www.orsinidemarzo.com/en/index.php?m0=pubblicazioni_dettaglio&articolo_id=192&articolo_tipo=ODM).