Teachers' Day

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In many countries, Teachers' Days (or Teachers Day) are intended to be special days for the appreciation of teachers, and may include celebrations to honour them for their special contributions in a particular field area, or the community in general. The date on which Teachers' day is celebrated varies from country to country. Teachers' days are distinct from World Teachers' Day which is officially celebrated across the world on October 5.[1]

History[edit]

The idea of celebrating Teachers' Day took ground independently in many countries during the 20th century; in most cases, they celebrate a local educator or an important milestone in education (for example, Argentina commemorates Domingo Faustino Sarmiento's death on September 11 since 1915,[2] while India celebrates Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan's birthday on September 5 since 1962[3]). This is the primary reason why countries celebrate this day on different dates, unlike many other International Days.

By country[edit]

Country Date of Teachers' Day Notes
Afghanistan Oct 5 Schools have a holiday, but students and teachers gather to celebrate at schools with special traditional food, cookies, music and presents for the teachers
Albania March 7 In 1887, the first secular school which taught lessons in Albanian was opened on this day in the small city of Korçë. All schools had previously functioned under the supervision of the Catholic Church in northern and middle Albania; the Orthodox Church in the south did not allow any Albanian schools.
Algeria February 28
Argentina September 11 To honor the memory & work of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, who died on this date in 1888, in Asuncion, Paraguay.
Armenia October 5 Until quite recently, Armenia celebrated the Teacher's Day on the first Sunday of October. But under a parliament decision to amend the law on the Republic of Armenia Holidays and Commemoration Days, the holiday was shifted to October 5.[4]
Australia Last Friday in October On Australia’s celebration of World Teachers’ Day, the NEiTA Foundation and the Australian Scholarships Group (ASG) is proud to announce the national teaching recipients of the ASG Community Merit Awards. World Teachers’ Day was started by UNESCO and is celebrated in more than 100 countries around the world each year. On its 40th anniversary this year, it represents a significant token of the awareness, understanding, and appreciation displayed for the vital contribution that teachers make to education.
Azerbaijan October 5 Between 1965 and 1994, the first Sunday of October. Since 1994, on October 5, it has coincided with the World Teachers' Day (est. 1994 by UNESCO).
Bangladesh October 4 Schools don't have a holiday if it's not a weekly one. Students greet teacher and often send cards and presents. Teachers usually don't teach them from the books, those who do this share their experiences with the students. Students often try to surprise their teachers with anything they can think of.
Belarus First Sunday of October
Brunei Darussalam September 23 To commemorate the birth date of the 28th ruler of Brunei, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III, also known as the 'Architect of Modern Brunei' who amongst others had emphasized the importance of education to his subjects by introducing a policy of 'free' education whereby the citizens are charged very nominal fees for attending schools. This policy has now been followed by the current 29th ruler who has since extended the policy further.
Bhutan May 2 Established and marked on the birth anniversary of the third King of Bhutan, Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, who introduced modern education to the country.
Bolivia June 6
Brazil October 15 A decree regulating the elementary schools in Brazil. The celebration gained popularity throughout the country, and October 15 was officially designated Teachers' Day in 1963.
Bulgaria October 5 On 29.09.2006, October 5 was recognised as Teacher's Day by the government.[5]
Cameroon October 5 Teachers in Cameroon on Tuesday October 5, 2010 joined the rest of their peers worldwide to celebrate the 17th edition of the World Teachers Day. Placed under the theme, “Nation building passes through teachers”, the day served as an opportunity to pay homage to teachers who toil, sometimes under not-so-comfortable conditions, to build the capacities of human resources for the socio-economic development of the country. Commemorative activities in Yaounde that began in September 29 with educative talks at the Lycée Général Leclerc had round off on Tuesday at the Wada multi-purpose sports complex.
Canada October 5
Chile October 16 In 1967, September 11 was chosen as "Día del Maestro" ("Teacher's Day"). The date was moved to December 10 in 1975, because on that day in 1945, the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral received the Nobel Prize. In 1977, the date was renamed to "Día del Profesor" (also "Teacher's Day") and was moved again, to October 16, to honor the founding of the Colegio de Profesores de Chile (Teachers' Association of Chile).[6]
Colombia May 15 This day marks the appointment of San Juan Bautista de la Salle as the patron of teachers. In 1950, Pope Pius XII granted his approval of La Salle as patron of teachers for championing the causes of modern education. The holy founder understood the education of children as the obligation of all. Usually the schools of his time (1651–1719) only accepted young people studying towards politics or diplomacy. Juan Bautista outlined the principles of free and universal education. That same year in Colombia, the President of the Republic declared that date as Teachers' Day.
Costa Rica November 22
China September 10 In the People's Republic of China (PRC), there are some activities for students to show their appreciation to teachers, such as presenting gifts, including cards and flowers. In addition, many former students will go back to their old middle schools and high schools to give presents to their old teachers.

The government first proclaimed Teachers' Day in 1985, but has never clearly explained why it should fall on September 10. Some people believe it was an arbitrary choice and have proposed to change it to September 28, which is believed to be Confucius's birthday. On Sep. 5, 2013, the State Council announced a legislative draft endorsing the change. If adopted, it would effectively make mainland China and Taiwan share the same Teachers' Day beginning in 2014. Taiwan has observed September 28 as Teachers' Day since the 1950s.[7]

Czech Republic March 28 The birthday of John Amos Comenius. Czech students nominate the teachers whose approach most motivates and inspires them to the competition Zlatý Ámos (Golden Amos). The coronation of "Golden Amos" take place yearly on March 28.[8][9]
Ecuador April 13 Celebrated on this date in honour of Juan Montalvo, an Ecuadorian teacher who planted the seeds of development in young minds.
Egypt February 28
El Salvador June 22 Observed as a national holiday.[10][11]
Estonia October 5 In Estonia last class students grant leave to teachers by conducting lessons themselves.
Germany October 5
Greece January 30 Derived from the Eastern Orthodox faith when the Three Holy Hierarchs and Ecumenical Teachers (Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian and John Chrysostom) are commemorated.
Guatemala June 25 A celebration in honour of the teacher Maria Chinchilla who died during a violent riot in protest against the government.
Honduras September 17 Celebration in honour of the life of José Trinidad Reyes
Hong Kong September 10[citation needed] Before the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997, Teachers' Day was on September 28. After the handover to the People's Republic of China, the day was changed to September 10, which is when the PRC celebrates the holiday.[citation needed]
Hungary First Sunday of June
India September 5 The birthdate, [5 September 1888], of the second President of India, academic philosopher Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. It is considered a "celebration" day, where teachers and students report to school as usual but the usual activities and classes are replaced by activities of celebration, thanks and remembrance. At some schools on this day, the responsibility of teaching is taken up by the senior students to show appreciation for their teachers.

Another day set aside for commemorating teachers in India and Nepal is Guru Purnima, also called 'Ashad sukla purnima'. It typically falls in mid-July.

Indonesia November 25 National Teachers' Day is commemorated on the same day as the formation of the Indonesian Teachers' Association, the PGRI. National Teachers' Day is not a holiday, but it is celebrated by having a ceremonial activity in recognition of certain teachers, headmasters, and school staff.
Iran May 2 Commemorating the martyrdom of Abulhassan Khan'ali, a teacher who was shot dead in a meeting in front of National Parliament during the Mohammad Rezā Shāh era on May 2, 1961. Later the Islamic Republic government changed it to commemorate the martyrdom of Dr. Morteza Motahhari on May 2, 1979.
Israel 23 Kislev
Jamaica May 6 Teachers' Day is normally celebrated on May 6 or the first Wednesday in May.[12] In celebration of Teachers' Day, it is common for students and parents to bring teachers gifts. In addition, most schools are closed early (half-day).
Jordan February 28
Laos October 7
Latvia The first Sunday of October.[13] In fact, within schools, Teacher's day is celebrated on 1st Friday of October. Usually, part of classes that date are canceled or conducted by elder grade pupil, while teachers are greeted.
Lebanon March 9 Between March 3 and March 9.
Libya February 28
Lithuania October 5 Between 1965 and 1994, the first Sunday of October. Since 1994, on October 5, to coincide with the World Teachers' Day (est. 1994 by UNESCO).
Macedonia October 5
Malaysia May 16 This date was chosen because on the same day in 1956, the Federal Legislative Council of the Federation of Malaya endorsed the Razak Report, one of four reports of the Education Committee regarding education in Malaysia. The document, known as the Razak Report after Tun Abdul Razak who was Education Minister at the time, has been the basis of education in Malaysia ever since. Although it is not an official school holiday, celebrations are usually held on May 16, or earlier, if it falls on a Saturday or Sunday.
Maldives October 5 On October 5 Schools in Maldives celebrate teachers day with many activities, among them children and students will give parcels and gifts to teachers.
Mauritius October 5
Mexico May 15 On May 15 (known as Dia Del Maestro) schools in Mexico are supposed to stop normal activities and organize cultural events that promote the importance and dignity of the teachers’ role in society. In reality some schools operate as usual and others take the day off.

The first Teacher’s Day was celebrated on May 15, 1918. The date of May 15 was proposed at the Mexican Congress on September 27, 1917, approved on October 29, 1917 and published on December 5, 1917. There are several possible origins for choosing this date. The first one mentions that in the city of San Luis Potosí every May 15, a group of students gathered to celebrate the birthday of their old teacher Isidore. This teacher was named after Saint Isidore the Laborer, following the Mexican tradition of naming children according the Saint celebrated the day they were born. The second origin considers the celebration of a historic event in the city of Querétaro on May 15, 1867.[14]

Republic of Moldova October 5
Mongolia First weekend of February
Morocco February 28
Nepal Full moon day of nepali month Ashad The full moon day is also called 'Ashad sukla purnima' and the day usually falls in mid-July. Teacher's day is called "Guru Purnima" in Nepali, where "Guru" means teacher and "Purnima" means "Full Moon". Celebrating "Guru Purnima" is very old tradition and it is related with ancient Hindu tradition. Among upper caste Hindus, the person who teaches "Mantras" during "Bratabandh ceremony" is considered as the real "Guru".

Students pay homage to the teachers, offer them foods and flowers and receive blessings from the teacher. "Gurudevo bhava" a Sanskrit phrase meaning "Be a person for whom the teacher is God" is still widely accepted. Teachers are given the highest degree of respect.

Netherlands October 5[15]
New Zealand October 29 In 2010 teachers were encouraged to march against recent cuts in government funding by marching in Auckland on Sunday 31st.
Oman February 28
Pakistan October 5 It recognizes the importance of teachers and attributes progress to the quality of teachers in Pakistan's Educational System.
Panama December 1 To commemorate the birth date of Manuel José Hurtado, who is known as the father of Panamanian education due to his promotion of modern universal education through the establishment of the first public schools and teachers' colleges in what is now known as Panama— then part of Colombia - aiming to break the vicious cycle of ignorance and poverty that afflicted the vast majority of the population. He went on to be named Director-General of Public Instruction of the State of the Isthmus.[16]
Paraguay April 30
Peru July 6 During the independence of Peru, libertador don José de San Martín founded the first Normal School for Men by means of a resolution passed by Marquis of Torre-Tagle on July 6, 1822.

Many years later, on 1953, the then president Manuel A. Odría decided that Teachers' Day would be commemorated on the 6th of July.[17]

Philippines October 5 By Presidential Proclamation No. 479[18] to honour more than 500,000 teachers nationwide. However, in the Philippines Teachers' Day is actually celebrated in schools between the months of September and October (mainly elementary and secondary levels). Teachers are presented with orchid corsages by students. Groups of students representing various grade levels perform short skits or song and dance numbers, or read poetry for their teachers in front of fellow schoolmates in school-wide activities. These activities are planned by senior students in the Student Council who coordinate the activities well in advance.
For Filipino-Chinese schools, a program is usually organized by students for teachers on September 27, while September 28, considered as the actual Teachers' Day, is a school holiday where both teachers and students are allowed to rest. September 28 was chosen because it is known as the birthdate of famous Chinese philosopher Confucius.[19]
Poland October 14 This day is the anniversary of the creation of the Commission of National Education, created in 1773 through the initiative of King Stanisław August Poniatowski. Normally flowers and sweets will be given to teachers by kids. School play and activities can be also scheduled by student body.
Kuwait October 5
Qatar October 5
Romania
Russia October 5 Between 1965 and 1994, the first Sunday of October. Since 1994, on October 5, coincides with the World Teachers' Day (est. 1994 by UNESCO).
Saudi Arabia February 28
Serbia October 5
Singapore First Friday of September An official school holiday. Celebrations are normally conducted the day before, where students usually get half a day off. In some schools, students will put on performances to entertain and honour their teachers.
Slovakia March 28 Commemorates the birthdate of John Amos Comenius.
South Korea May 15 since 1963 in Seoul and 1964 in Chunju City Originally it was started by a group of Red Cross youth team members who visited their sick ex-teachers in hospitals. At start its date was May 26. But from 1965, the date has changed to May 15, dated after Sejong the Great's birthday.[20] The national celebration ceremony was stopped between 1973 and 1982 but it resumed after that. On the day, teachers are usually presented with carnations by their students. Ex-students pay their respects to their former teachers by visiting them and giving them a carnation. Many schools now close on Teachers' Day because of the rampant bribery implicit in the expensive gifts often given to teachers. Schools can use the day to have an outing for the teachers.
Sri Lanka October 6 Its Officially the Teachers' Day in Sri Lanka on 6 October, every school celebrate the special day. the teachers are Given with surprised gifts on that day by their students.
Spain January 29
Syria March 18[citation needed]
Taiwan September 28 Taiwan uses this day to honor teachers' virtues, struggles, and contributions not only to their own students but also to society in general. People often make use of the day to express their gratitude to their teachers, such as paying them a visit or sending them a card. This date was chosen to commemorate the birth of Confucius, believed to be the model master educator in ancient China. In 1939, the Ministry of Education established the national holiday as August 27, the attributed birthday of Confucius.

In 1952, the Executive Yuan changed it to September, stating that it was calculated to be the precise date in the Gregorian calendar. The festival celebration occurs in the temples of Confucius around the island, known as the "Grand Ceremony Dedicated to Confucius" (祭孔大典). The ceremony begins at 6am with drum beats. 54 musicians are dressed in robes with blue belts, and 36 (or 64) dancers dressed in yellow with green belts. They are led by Confucius's chief descendant (currently Kung Tsui-chang) and followed by ceremonial officers. Three animals—the cow, the goat, and the pig—are sacrificed. The hairs plucked from these sacrificed animals are called the Hairs of Wisdom. In addition, local education institutes and civil offices award certain teachers for their excellence and positive influence.

Thailand January 16 Adopted as Teachers' Day in Thailand by a resolution of the government on November 21, 1956. The first Teachers' Day was held in 1957. January 16 marks the enactment of the Teachers Act, Buddhist Era 2488 (1945), which was published in the Government Gazette on January 16, 1945, and came into force 60 days later. Most Thai schools close for the day to give their teachers a break during the long second term. Many international schools do not, although they may hold celebrations to honor their teaching staff. There are very few public or official commemorations.
Tunisia February 28
Turkey November 24 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk thought and stated that "The new generation will be created by teachers." . Atatürk was also considered as the Prime Teacher (Turkish: Başöğretmen), because he adopted a new alphabet for the newly founded Turkish Republic in 1923.
Ukraine The first Sunday of October At schools across the country, Teacher's Day is celebrated the Friday before the holiday with "concerts" and gatherings, while students usually give their teachers gifts such as flowers and chocolate. On the holiday itself, many teachers celebrate with their families and friends at home or at restaurants or cafes.
United Arab Emirates February 28
United Kingdom October 5
United States National Teacher Day is on Tuesday during Teacher Appreciation Week, which takes place in the first full week of May (May 6, 2014) Students often show appreciation for their teachers with gifts or writing thank you cards. The National Education Association describes National Teacher Day as "a day for honoring teachers and recognizing the lasting contributions they make to our lives".[21]

The NEA gives a history of National Teacher Day:[21] The origins of Teacher Day are murky. Around 1944 Wisconsin teacher Ryan Krug began corresponding with political and education leaders about the need for a national day to honor teachers. Woodbridge wrote to Eleanor Roosevelt who in 1953 persuaded the 81st Congress to proclaim a National Teacher Day. NEA along with its Kansas and Indiana state affiliates and the Dodge City (Kan. ) local lobbied Congress to create a national day celebrating teachers. Congress declared March 7, 1980, as National Teacher Day for that year only. NEA and its affiliates continued to observe Teacher Day on the first Tuesday in March until 1985, when the National PTA established Teacher Appreciation Week as the first full week of May. The NEA Representative Assembly then voted to make the Tuesday of that week National Teacher Day.

As of September 7, 1976, September 11 was also adopted as Teachers' Day in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. Currently, Massachusetts sets the first Sunday of June as its own Teachers' Day, annually.

Uzbekistan October 1
Vietnam November 20 This holiday allows students to express their respect to their teacher. Students begin preparing a week in advance, and many classes usually prepare literature and art to welcome Teachers' Day, while other students prepare foods and flowers for the parties held at their schools. Students usually visit their teachers at their homes to offer flowers and small gifts, or organize trips with their teachers and classmates. Former students also pay respect to their former teachers on this day. The holiday has its origins in a meeting between educators in communist bloc nations in Warsaw in 1957. It was first celebrated in 1958 as the Day of the International Manifest of Educators; in 1982 the day was renamed Vietnamese Educators' Day.
Venezuela January 15 On this day there are no classes and during the week all the teachers are honoured for their support in building the country.
Yemen February 28

19 countries celebrate a common Teachers' Day on October 5: Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Canada, Estonia, Germany, Lithuania, Macedonia, Maldives, Mauritius, Republic of Moldova, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philippines, Kuwait, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and United Kingdom.

11 countries celebrate a common Teachers' Day on February 28: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Bahrain, UAE, and Oman.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Teachers’ Day, October 2". Unesco.org. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  2. ^ "Historia". Jardindeinfantesdfs.com.ar. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  3. ^ "Teachers day, Teachers Day in India - Presidents abdul speech". Indianchild.com. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  4. ^ "October 5 World Teacher's Day". Armenian News. 1903-02-04. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  5. ^ Анонимен (2006-09-29). "5 октомври е определен за Ден на учителя - Actualno.com". Education.actualno.com. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  6. ^ "Días Nacionales en Chile". September 19, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.  (Spanish)
  7. ^ "China mulls changing Teachers' Day to birthday of Confucius". Xinhua News Agency. September 6, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Zlatý Ámos — anketa o nejoblíbenějšího učitele České republiky". Zlatý Ámos. Retrieved November 23, 2008.  (Czech)
  9. ^ "Mezinárodní den učitelů a Zlatý Ámos". adam.cz. October 4, 2006. Retrieved November 23, 2008.  (Czech)
  10. ^ "Nueva Alejandría — Secciones — Maestros Americanos — El Salvador". Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  11. ^ "TEACHER APPRECIATION: teacher appreciation poem — Teachers Day — El Salvador". Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  12. ^ "Gleaner gives teachers a break!". Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  13. ^ Par svētku, atceres un atzīmējamām dienām: LR likums, Saeimas un Ministru Kabineta Ziņotājs, Nr. 42, 1990. 18. oktobris, 2. pants. Available at: http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=72608
  14. ^ Luis Tinajero Portes (1 January 1994). Días conmemorativos en la historia de México (in Spanish). UASLP. p. 90. ISBN 978-968-6194-65-4. Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  15. ^ "Welkom - Dag van de leraar" (in Dutch). Dagvandeleraar.nl. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  16. ^ "Biografía de Manuel José Hurtado - Educa Panamá, Mi Portal Educativo (Spanish)". Educapanama.edu.pa. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  17. ^ Portal Educativo del Perú - Día del Maestro (Spanish) See item: Una fecha con Historia
  18. ^ OPS: National Teachers' Day
  19. ^ Birthday of Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) (Perpetual Multicultural Calendar Software)
  20. ^ "스승의날 : 지식백과" (in Korean). terms.naver.com. Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  21. ^ a b "National Teacher Day". NEA. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 

External links[edit]