Timeline of the Spanish American wars of independence

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This is a timeline of events related to the Spanish American wars of independence. Numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America took place during the early 19th century, from 1808 until 1829, directly related to the Napoleonic French invasion of Spain. The conflict started with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell to the French, numerous new Juntas appeared all across the Americas, eventually resulting in a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south, to Mexico in the north. After the death of the king Ferdinand VII, in 1833, only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule, until the Spanish–American War in 1898.

These conflicts can be characterized both as civil wars and wars of national liberation, since the majority of the combatants were Spanish Americans on both sides, and the goal of the conflict for one side was the independence of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. In addition, the wars were related to the more general Latin American wars of independence, which include the conflicts in Haiti and Brazil (Brazil's independence shared a common starting point with Spanish America's, since both were triggered by Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, when the Portuguese royal family resettled in Brazil).

The war in Europe, and the resulting absolutist restoration ultimately convinced the Spanish Americans of the need to establish independence from the mother country, so various revolutions broke out in Spanish America. Moreover, the process of Latin American independence took place in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and that influenced all of the so-called Atlantic Revolutions, including the earlier revolutions in the United States and France. Nevertheless, the wars in, and the independence of, Spanish America were the result of unique developments within the Spanish Monarchy.

1806[edit]

1807[edit]

1808[edit]

1809[edit]

1810[edit]

  • Spain is dominated by French forces and the Supreme Central and Governing Junta is defeated
  • The Cádiz Cortes convenes in Spain
  • Popular and indigenous rebellion in Mexico.
  • Venezuela and New Granada create new government juntas.
  • An open cabildo creates a government junta in Santiago, Chile.
  • An open cabildo in Buenos Aires deposes the viceroy and creates a government junta.
  • Córdoba rejects the Junta of Buenos Aires. Liniers leads a counter-revolution, which is defeated. Liniers is executed as result.
  • Buenos Aires organizes military campaigns against Paraguay and the Upper Peru.

1811[edit]

1812[edit]

1813[edit]

1814[edit]

1815[edit]

1816[edit]

1817[edit]

1818[edit]

  • Simón Bolívar organizes a third Venezuelan republic in Angostura and calls for a congress. Bolivar's campaign to take Caracas is defeated, and he returns to the line of Orinoco river.
  • The patriotic triumph at the Battle of Maipú guarantees the independence of Chile

1819[edit]

1820[edit]

1821[edit]

1822[edit]

1823[edit]

1824[edit]

1825[edit]

1826[edit]

1827[edit]

1828[edit]

1829[edit]

  • The last attempt of Ferdinand VII of Spain to reconquer Spanish America. Isidro Barradas was defeated in the battle of Tampico (Mexico).

1830[edit]

1833[edit]

1836[edit]

  • Spain renounces its domains in continental Americas and authorizes the government to conclude treaties with all the states of Spanish America.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]