UFO sightings in outer space
Gemini 7 bogey
Dr. Franklin Roach, based on his analysis of the transcripts of the crew's discussion, concluded in the book Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects that there were visual sightings made by the astronauts while in orbit which were not adequately explained. James Oberg, based on his trajectory analysis of the Gemini 7 mission, describes the astronauts' comments about a "bogey" as referring to booster-associated debris, and not a reference to some sort of UFO.
Gemini VII: "I have a bogey at 10 o'clock high. "
Houston: "This is Houston. Say again, VII. "
Gemini VII: "Said we have a bogey at 10 o'clock high. "
Houston: "Roger. "
Houston: "Gemini VII, is that the booster or is that an actual sighting? "
Gemini VII: ...
Houston: "Say again, VII. "
Gemini VII: "Said ... we have several - looks like ... actual sighting. "
Houston: "Do you have any more information, estimated distance, or size? "
Gemini VII: "We also have the booster in sight. "
Houston: "Understand you also have the booster in sight. "
Gemini VII: "... there are very many - looks like hundreds of little particles going by from the left out about 3 or 4 miles. "
Houston: "Understand you have many small particles going by on the left. At what distance? "
Gemini VII: "... looks like ... "
Houston: "Roger. Understand they're about 3 or 4 miles away? "
Gemini VII: "They're past now; they're in a polar orbit. "
Houston: "Roger. And understand they were about 3 to 4 miles away? "
Gemini VII: "That's what it appeared like, or farther. "
Houston: "Roger. "
Houston: "Gemini VII, Houston. Were these particles in addition to the booster and the bogey at 10 o'clock height "
Gemini VII: ...
Houston: "Roger. "
Gemini VII: "Houston, this is VII. "
Houston: "Go ahead. "
Gemini VII: "I have the booster on my side and the brilliant body of the sun against a black background with billions of particles around it. "
Houston: "Roger. What direction is it from you? "
Gemini VII: "It's about 2 o'clock position. "
Houston: "Does that mean it's ahead of you? "
Gemini VII: "It's - ahead of us at 2 o'clock and it's slowly tumbling. "
Houston: "Roger. "
A video taken during mission STS-48 of Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit on September 15, 1991 shows a flash of light and several objects that appear to be flying in an artificial or controlled fashion. NASA explained the objects as ice particles reacting to engine jets, while James Oberg claimed that the flash was from a thruster firing. Philip C. Plait discussed the issue in his book Bad Astronomy, agreeing with NASA.
Dr. Jack Kasher analyzed the movement of the objects in 1996, and found five arguments that the footage could not depict ice particles. However, Lan Fleming found discrepancies in the timestamps in a later version of the video first released by the NASA FOIA office in 1999, leaving some conclusions indeterminate. James Oberg presented a paper at Purdue University that disputed Kasher's five arguments and showed how illumination conditions and thruster firings were capable of producing the sequences in question. He has also posted data and telemetry records that support a prosaic explanation.
Lan Fleming analyzed the movements of the objects and the flash of light that preceded the abrupt change in the course of the objects, and concluded that the exhaust plume from one of the shuttle's reaction control system rockets could not have produced the flash of light. Mark J. Carlotto came to the conclusion that relatively brief firings of shuttle thruster rockets acting on nearby debris particles could not explain the prolonged periods of acceleration indicated by the curved paths of the unidentified objects. However, prolonged periods of smooth acceleration can be explained by atmospheric drag on microscopic ice particles, even though the atmosphere is extremely tenuous at the altitude of the orbiting shuttle. Carlotto also noted that at the end of the event, the shuttle's camera panned down, showing a number of objects moving below the shuttle, and one of the objects appeared to consist of three lobes arranged in a triangular pattern.
A video taken during mission STS-80 of Space Shuttle Columbia while in orbit as analyzed by Mark J. Carlotto show three different unusual phenomena on December 2, 1996: Two slow moving circular objects; a strange rapidly moving burst of light near the earth's surface; and a number of fast moving objects in space near the shuttle. The first two can be explained as shuttle debris and an unusual atmospheric phenomenon, respectively. The fast moving objects in space near the shuttle appear as bright streaks, and analysis of their speeds and directions indicates that they are probably not shuttle debris or meteors. An analysis done in 1999 by former Mission Control specialist James Oberg concluded that all the objects were nearby sunlit debris. The report was subsequently endorsed by crewmembers Story Musgrave and Tom Jones. Oberg's comments on a video of the event reiterate this viewpoint.
STS-102 The Washington Sequence
A video broadcast during mission STS-102 of Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit allegedly recorded on March 19, 2001 by Jeff Challender shows a flash of light and three objects which performed movements which included starting, stopping, accelerating, and making sudden angled turns. Lan Fleming compared the timing of the flash of light and a course change of one of the objects to the timing of shuttle thruster firings and concluded that the flash and the movement of the object could not have been caused by thruster firings.
- Condon, Edward Uhler; Gillmor, Daniel S, ed. (1969). "Chapter 6, section 9: Visual Observations Made by Astronauts, by Dr. Franklin Roach". Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. NY: Bantam Books. pp. 204–208. ISBN 9780552047470.
- Oberg, James (September 15, 1995). "Gemini-7: Lessons and Legends (A 30th Anniversary Revisit) – "Formation Flying", "Lessons Learned" Later, and one "Bogey"".
- "Gemini VII Voice Communications (Air-to-ground, Ground-to-air and on-board transcription)" 1. NASA. March 18, 1988. p. 32.
- Carlotto, Mark J. (Summer 2005). "Anomalous Phenomena in Space Shuttle Mission STS-80 Video". New Frontiers in Science 4 (4): 17–18.
- Plait, Philip C. (2002). Bad Astronomy. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-40976-6.
- Kasher, Jack (1995-96). "Anomalous images on videotape from Space Shutle Flight STS-48: Examination of the ice-particle explanation". Journal of UFO Studies (JUFOS) (Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS)) 6.
- Fleming, Lan (October 18, 2003). "Losing the Signal: Proof That Time Stamps on the STS-48 Video Released by NASA Are Phony". VGL.
- Oberg, James (March 31, 1999). "The Great STS-48 Zig-Zag UFO".
- Oberg, James. "Proof of the Prosaic Nature of the STS-48 Zig-Zag Video".
- Fleming, Lan (c. 2003). "Analysis of the Light Flash in the STS-48 Video". VGL.
- Fleming, Lan (Winter 2003). "A New Look at the Evidence Supporting a Prosaic Explanation of the STS-48 "UFO" Video". New Frontiers in Science 2 (2).
- Fleming, Lan (Fall 2003). "Examination of Object Trajectories in the STS-48 "UFO" Video". New Frontiers in Science 3 (1).
- Fleming, Lan (c. 2009). "Space Shuttle Thrusters, Light Flashes, and Ice Particles: Some Insights from an Expert". VGL.
- "Examination of Object Trajectories in the STS-48 "UFO" Video". VGL.
- Carlotto, Mark J. (1995). "Digital Video Analysis of Anomalous Space Objects". Journal of Scientific Exploration (JSE) (Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE)) 9 (1): 45–63.
- "Analysis of an Anomalous Object in an STS-114 Video". VGL.
- Carlotto, Mark J. (1995). "Digital Video Analysis of Anomalous Space Objects". Journal of Scientific Exploration (JSE) (Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE)) 9 (1): 62.
- Carlotto, Mark J. (Summer 2005). "Anomalous Phenomena in Space Shuttle Mission STS-80 Video". New Frontiers in Science 4 (4).
- "STS-80 UFO - high quality version". RealUFOs. April 21, 2008.
- Evans, Will (January 2003). "Jeff Challender Tracked NASA Flights". The Sacramento Bee (Mutual UFO Network of Indiana (MUFON)).
- Challender, Jeff (2005). "STS-102, The Washington Sequence, Part One". Project P.R.O.V.E. keyhole publishing company.
- Challender, Jeff (2005). "STS-102, The Washington Sequence, Part Two". Project P.R.O.V.E. keyhole publishing company.
- Fleming, Lan (2005). "Comparison of the Timing of a Course Change Made by an Object in a STS-102 Video with Orbiter Thruster Firings". VGL.
- The J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS)
- New Frontiers in Science (NFS) online journal (ISSN 1537-3169)
- Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE), publisher of Journal of Scientific Exploration (JSE)