The Venera-D (Russian: Венера-Д) probe is a proposed Russian space probe to Venus, to be launched around 2016. Venera-D's prime purpose is to make radar remote-sensing observations around the planet Venus in a manner similar to that of the Venera 15 and Venera 16 probes in the 1980s or the U.S. Magellan in the 1990s, but with the use of more powerful radar. Venera-D is also intended to map future landing sites. A lander, based on the Venera design, is also planned, capable of surviving for a long duration on the planet's surface.
Venera-D will be the first Venus probe launched by the Russian Federation (the earlier Venera probes were launched by the former Soviet Union). Venera-D will serve as the flagship for a new generation of Russian-built Venus probes, culminating with a lander capable of withstanding the harsh Venusian environment for more than the 1½ hours logged by the Soviet-era probes. In order to keep research and development costs down, the new Venera-D probe will most likely resemble the Soviet-era probes, but will rely on new technologies developed by Russia since its last Venus missions (Vega 1 and Vega 2 in 1985). Venera-D will most likely be launched on the Proton booster, but may be designed to be launched on the more powerful Angara rocket instead.
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