A virtual currency or virtual money has been defined in 2012 by the European Central Bank as "a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community".:13 The US Department of Treasury in 2013 defined it more tersely as "a medium of exchange that operates like a currency in some environments, but does not have all the attributes of real currency". Attributes of a real currency, as defined 2011 in the Code of Federal Regulations such as real paper money and real coins are simply that they act as legal tender and circulate "customarily". The key attribute a virtual currency does not have at this time, is the status as legal tender.
- 1 History
- 2 Closed virtual currencies
- 3 Virtual currency with currency flow into one direction
- 4 Virtual currencies open in both directions
- 5 Centralized versus decentralized virtual currencies
- 6 Distinction from digital and cryptocurrency
- 7 See also
- 8 References
The term virtual currency was coined around 2011, paralleling the development of digital currencies and social gaming. Although media have used the term 'digital currency', the term 'virtual currency' has been preferred and uniformly adopted by US government institutions, first by the US Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) above, then the FBI in 2012, the General Accounting Office in its 2013 report and other government agencies testifying at the November 2013 Senate Hearing about Bitcoin like the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, the Office of the Attorney General. FinCEN further distinguishes virtual currencies between 'centralized' and 'decentralized'. In business studies, centralization refers to where decisions are made in the hierarchy of a business. Depending on the degree of currency convertibility
Closed virtual currencies
Virtual currencies have been called "closed", when they have no connection to the real economy, like currencies "in-online -games-only" such as World of Warcraft (WoW). While there may be a black market for exchanging WoW Gold against real world assets, it is expressedly forbidden by the owner of WoW.
Virtual currency with currency flow into one direction
This type of currency has been known for a long time in the form of customer incentive programs or loyalty programs. The first known coupon in history is probably from the US, attributed to Asa Candler, inventor of Coca-Cola and the free drink coupons in 1887, followed by C. W. Post's one-cent-off coupon in breakfast cereal boxes in 1895, both to drive sales. The business issuing the coupon functions as a central authority Coupons remained unchanged for 100 years until new technology enabling credit cards became more common in the 1980's. [[credit card reward]s] were invented. The latest incarnation is online the increase of internet commerce, online services, development of online communities and games. Here virtual or game currency can be bought, but not exchanged back into real money. The virtual currency is akin to a coupon . Examples are frequent flyer programs by various airlines, Nintendo and -for a while- Facebook, whose points since 2012 can be changed back to money.
Virtual currencies open in both directions
A virtual currency that can be bought with and sold back for legal tender is called a convertible currency. It can be centralized as in Linden Dollars in the online virtual economy of Second Life or decentralized, as for example Bitcoin.
Centralized versus decentralized virtual currencies
FinCEN defined centralized convertible virtual currencies in 2013 as convertible virtual currencies that have a "centralized repository", similar to a central bank. FinCEN distinguished between two scenarios: One where an exchanger of a virtual currency sells and accepts real money for it, which defines the exchanger as a money transmitter, subject to the US Bank Secrecy Act, and two, where the money exchanger sells convertible virtual currency indirectly to a third party account and in a way that is "not completely transparent" 
A decentralized currency was defined by the US Department of Treasury as a "currency (1) that has no central repository and no single administrator, and (2) that persons may obtain by their own computing or manufacturing effort". Rather than relying on confidence in a central authority, it depends instead on a distributed system of trust.
Bitcoin, an example of a decentralized, convertible virtual currency
Bitcoin is the first truly decentralized global currency system, and at the same time the largest virtual currency as of 2014. Trust in the currency is based on the "transaction ledger which is cryptographically verified, and jointly maintained by the currency’s users". The Bitcoin Foundation claims, Bitcoin was "designed to be fully decentralized with miners operating in all countries, and no individual having control over the network", and that Bitcoin is "as virtual as the credit cards and online banking networks people use everyday".
However, the increasing centralization of Bitcoin has become more visible over the years, leading cryptologic researchers to question, if Bitcoin is indeed a decentralized currency. To improve Bitcoin's decentralization they suggest to encourage fully decentralized mining pools, allow only 1 vote per Bitcoin client, and to increase transparency in decision making.
Distinction from digital and cryptocurrency
Cryptocurrencies are a particular type of a digital currency, and both are virtual currencies. The reverse does not hold, since virtual currencies don't have to use cryptography and don't have to be digital, but can be in form of physical coupons. in the majority of cases though digital currency equals virtual currency.
- European Central Bank (October 2012). "1" (PDF). Virtual Currency Schemes. Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank. p. 5. ISBN 978-92-899-0862-7. Archived from the original on 2012-11-06.
- "FIN-2013-G001: Application of FinCEN's Regulations to Persons Administering, Exchanging, or Using Virtual Currencies". Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. 18 March 2013. p. 6. Archived from the original on 2013-03-19.
- "31 CFR § 1010.100(m)". Code of Federal Regulations. Archived from the original on 2014-03-24.
- Samuelson, Kristin (13 November 2011). "The ins and outs of Bitcoin. Does the latest digital currency have staying power?". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27.
- "Bitcoins Virtual Currency: Unique Features Present Challenges for Deterring Illicit Activity" (PDF). Cyber Intelligence Section and Criminal Intelligence Section. FBI. 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-03-09.
- US Government Accountability Office (May 2013). "Virtual Economies and currencies: Additional IRS guidance could reduce tax compliance risks". GAO Report GAO-13-516. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. Archived from the original on 2013-06-21.
- Raskind, Max (18 November 2013). "U.S. Agencies to Say Bitcoins Offer Legitimate Benefits". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2013-11-19.
- Kanner, Bernice (7 September 1992). "New York Magazine". Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- "Bitcoin: Bitcoin under pressure". The Economist. 30 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-11-30.
- Decker, C.; Wattenhofer, R. (11 September 2013). "Information propagation in the Bitcoin network" (PDF). IEEE Thirteenth International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P). Archived from the original on 2014-03-24.
- "What is Bitcoin mining?". FAQ. Bitcoin Foundation. Archived from the original on 2014-03-15.
- "Is Bitcoin fully virtual and immaterial?". FAQ. Bitcoin Foundation. Archived from the original on 2014-03-15.
- Gervais, A; Karame, G; Capkun, S; Capkun, V (2013). "Is Bitcoin a Decentralized Currency?". 829/2013. International Association for Cryptologic Research. Archived from the original on 2014-01-31.