White Flower

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White Flower[1][2] (Italian: Biancofiore) was an informal name given to the political alliance of two Christian democratic[3] Italian political parties for the 2001 general election, namely:

The parties aligned themselves with the center-right House of Freedoms. It was led by Pier Ferdinando Casini. The list gained only 3.2% of the vote,[1][4] short of the 4% threshold however, thanks to its alliance with the House of Freedoms, it gained 40 Deputies and 29 Senators.

In December 2002 both constituent parties merged with European Democracy to form the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC).[1]


  1. ^ a b c Lansford, Tom, ed. (2013). "Italy". Political Handbook of the World 2013 (CQ Press). p. 713.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Bull, Martin J.; Newell, James L. (2005). Italian Politics. Polity Press. p. 54. 
  3. ^ Nicolò Conti; Maurizio Cotta; Professor of Political Science Maurizio Cotta; Pedro Tavares de Almeida (10 April 2014). EURO CITIZEN IN EYES OF NATIONAL EL: A South European View. Routledge. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-317-99576-0. 
  4. ^ Hine, David; Hanretty, Chris (2006). Games Advanced Democracies Play: The Coalition Crisis of April 2005. The End of the Berlusconi Era?. Italian Politics: A Review 21 (Berghahn Books). p. 115.