Yamna culture

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The Yamna culture 3500-2000 BC.
Approximate culture extent c. 3200-2300 BC.

The Yamna culture (Ukrainian: Ямна культура, Russian: Ямная культура, "Pit [Grave] Culture", from Russian/Ukrainian яма, "pit") is a late copper age/early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. The name also appears in English as Pit Grave Culture or Ochre Grave Culture.

The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few hillforts.[1]

The Yamna culture was preceded by the Sredny Stog culture, Khvalynsk culture and Dnieper-Donets culture, while succeeded by the Catacomb culture and the Srubna culture.

Characteristics[edit]

Characteristic for the culture are the inhumations in kurgans (tumuli) in pit graves with the dead body placed in a supine position with bent knees. The bodies were covered in ochre. Multiple graves have been found in these kurgans, often as later insertions.[citation needed]

Significantly, animal grave offerings were made (cattle, sheep, goats and horse), a feature associated with Proto-Indo-Europeans .[2]

The earliest remains in Eastern Europe of a wheeled cart were found in the "Storozhova mohyla" kurgan (Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, excavated by Trenozhkin A.I.) associated with the Yamna culture.

Spread and identity[edit]

The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) in the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas. It is the strongest candidate for the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language, along with the preceding Sredny Stog culture, now that archaeological evidence of the culture and its migrations has been closely tied to the evidence from linguistics.[3]

Pavel Dolukhanov argues that the emergence of the Pit-Grave culture represents a social development of various local Bronze Age cultures, representing "an expression of social stratification and the emergence of chiefdom-type nomadic social structures", which in turn intensified inter-group contacts between essentially heterogeneous social groups.[4]

It is said to have originated in the middle Volga based Khvalynsk culture and the middle Dnieper based Sredny Stog culture.[citation needed] In its western range, it is succeeded by the Catacomb culture; in the east, by the Poltavka culture and the Srubna culture.

Genetics[edit]

DNA from the remains of nine individuals associated with the Yamna culture from Samara Oblast and Orenburg Oblast has been analyzed. The remains have been dated to 2700-3339 BCE. Y-chromosome sequencing revealed that one of the individuals belonged to haplogroup R1b1-P25 (the subclade could not be determined), one individual belonged to haplogroup R1b1a2a-L23 (and to neither the Z2103 nor the L51 subclades), and five individuals belonged to R1b1a2a2-Z2103. The individuals belonged to mtDNA haplogroups U4a1, W6, H13a1a1a, T2c1a2, U5a1a1, H2b, W3a1a and H6a1b. A recent genome wide association study revealed The autosomal DNA characteristics are very close to the Corded Ware culture and estimated a 73% ancestral contribution from the Yamna into the Corded Ware. The same study estimated a 45-50% ancestral contribution of the Yamna into modern Central & Northern Europeans, and a 20-30% contribution into modern Southern Europeans [excluding Sardinians].[5] The above information makes it quite clear that Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA), far from being aboriginal to western Europe as previously thought, is in fact one of the two founding Y-DNA haplogroups for the Proto-Indo-European peoples (the other being Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA)), and that, given the present-day distribution of R1b in Western Europe, may well be the progenitors of the Centum subgroup of Indo-European languages. [6]

Artifacts[edit]

From the Hermitage Museum collections
Yamna02.jpg
Yamna03.jpg
Yamna04.jpg
Yamna05.jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. P. Mallory, "Yamna Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  2. ^ Benjamin W Fortson (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing. p. 43. 
  3. ^ David W. Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World (2007).
  4. ^ Pavel M. Dolukhanov. The Early Slavs. Eastern Europe from the Initial Settlement to the Kievan Rus. Longman, 1996. Page 94
  5. ^ Haak, Wolfgang; Lazaridis, Iosif (February 10, 2015). "Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". bioRxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory). doi:10.1101/013433. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  6. ^ {{www.eupedia.com/genetics/Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b. (Maciamo)

See also[edit]