Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal

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This is a Mongolian name. The given name is Tsedenbal, and the name Yumjaagiin is a patronymic, not a family name. The subject should be referred to by the given name.
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal
Юмжаагийн Цэдэнбал
Tsedenbal BundesArchiv.jpg
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Party
In office
22 November 1958 – 24 August 1984
Preceded by Dashiin Damba
Succeeded by Jambyn Batmönkh
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Party
In office
8 April 1940 – 4 April 1954
Preceded by Dashiin Damba
Succeeded by Dashiin Damba
Chairman of the Presidium of the State Great Khural
In office
11 June 1974 – 23 August 1984
General Secretary Himself
Preceded by Sonomyn Luvsan (acting)
Succeeded by Nyamyn Jagvaral (acting)
Prime Minister of Mongolia
In office
26 January 1952 – 11 June 1974
General Secretary Himself
Dashiin Damba
Himself
Preceded by Khorloogiin Choibalsan
Succeeded by Jambyn Batmönkh
President of Mongolia
In office
11 June 1974 – 8 August 1984
General Secretary Himself
Preceded by Khorloogiin Choibalsan
Succeeded by Jambyn Batmönkh
Personal details
Born (1916-09-17)17 September 1916
Davst sum, Uvs aimag, Mongolia
Died 20 April 1991(1991-04-20) (aged 74)
Moscow, Soviet Union
Political party Mongolian People's Party
Religion Atheist

Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (Mongolian: Юмжаагийн Цэдэнбал; September 17, 1916 – April 20, 1991) was one of the leaders of Mongolia from 1952 to 1984. During his political life, he served as prime minister and general secretary of the Mongolian People's Party.


Early life[edit]

Tsedenbal was born to an ethnic Dörvöd poor nomadic family in Zorigt Khan hoshuun of the Unen Zorigt Khan aimag (present day Davst sum in Uvs aimag). He was the fifth of eleven children in his family (three of his siblings died in infancy). In 1925 Tsedenbal became among the first students in the newly organized public school in Ulaangom, graduating in 1929. The same year Tsedenbal went to Irkutsk to continue his education. He spent about nine years between Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude, and obtained a degree from the Siberian Finance and Economics Institute.


Career[edit]

Tsedenbal (far right) at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday ceremony with Mao Zedong.

In 1939, having returned to Ulaanbaatar, Tsedenbal worked first as a deputy minister, and then as a minister of finance. In 1940, at the 10th Congress of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, he became the party's General Secretary at age 23.

After taking over premiership in 1952 with Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan's death, Tsedenbal successfully purged his political rivals: Dashiin Damba in 1958-59, Daramyn Tömör-Ochir in 1962, Luvsantserengiin Tsend in 1963, and the so-called Lookhuuz-Nyambuu-Surmaajav "anti-party group" in December 1964. He held this office until 11 June 1974, when he became head of state.

His foreign policy was marked by efforts to bring Mongolia into ever closer cooperation with the USSR. While he and his group of party leaders, such as Tsagaan-Lamyn Dugersuren and Damdinjavyn Maidar, were dissatisfied with the overspecialized and subordinated economic role that the Soviet leadership assigned to Mongolia within the Comecon, and sought to foster industrialization even in the face of Soviet opposition, Tsedenbal was cautious enough to frequently express his loyalty to the Kremlin, and portray his intra-party critics, including Daramyn Tömör-Ochir, Tsogt-Ochiryn Loohuuz and others, as "pro-Chinese factionalists" and "nationalists." With the full backing of the Soviets, Tsedenbal successfully purged his political opponents. It is said that during his time as head of the state, Tsedenbal submitted requests for the incorporation of Mongolia into the USSR on five to eight occasions, but these proposals were invariably rejected by the Soviet leaders. It is possible, however, that Tsedenbal's requests for incorporation were not made in earnest but served only manipulative purposes. At the time of the Sino-Soviet split, Tsedenbal decisively sided with the Soviet Union and incurred China's wrath. In Mongolia Tsedenbal is remembered for successfully maintaining a path of relatively moderate socialism during the Cold War.

Tsedenbal was forced into retirement in August 1984 in a Soviet-sponsored move, allegedly on the account of his old age and mental weakness but at least partly because of his opposition to the process of Sino-Soviet rapprochement that had started with Leonid Brezhnev's Tashkent speech in March 1982. Jambyn Batmönkh became the general secretary of the MPRP. Tsedenbal remained in Moscow until his death; his body was brought to Mongolia, where it was buried.

His Russian wife, Anastasia Ivanovna Filatova (Анастасия Ивановна Филатова), was often said to be the most powerful political figure in Mongolia[citation needed] due to her close relationship with the Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.

Party political offices
Preceded by
Dashiin Damba
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Party
April 8, 1940 - April 4, 1954
Succeeded by
Dashiin Damba
Preceded by
Dashiin Damba
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Party
November 22, 1958 - August 24, 1984
Succeeded by
Jambyn Batmönkh
Political offices
Preceded by
Khorloogiin Choibalsan
Prime Minister of Mongolia
January 26, 1952 - June 11, 1974
Succeeded by
Jambyn Batmönkh
Preceded by
Sonomyn Luvsan
President of Mongolia
June 11, 1974 - August 8, 1984
Succeeded by
Nyamyn Jagvaral