Zamoskvoretskaya Line

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!B9993068528194  2  Zamoskvoretskaya Line
MM L2 - Zamoskvoretskaya.png
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System Moscow Metro
Locale Moscow
Termini Rechnoy Vokzal (northwest)
Alma-Atinskaya (southeast)
Stations 21
Daily ridership 1,230,654[1]
Operation
Opening September 11, 1938
Owner Moskovsky Metropoliten
Operator(s) Moskovsky Metropoliten
Character Underground
Rolling stock 81-717/714
Technical
Line length 39.8 kilometres (24.7 mi)
Track gauge 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in)
Electrification Third rail
Route map

Zamoskvoretskaya Line (Russian: Замоскворе́цкая ли́ния, IPA: [zəməskvəˈrʲet͡skɐjə ˈlʲinʲijə]), formerly Gorkovsko-Zamoskvoretskaya (Го́рьковско-Замоскворе́цкая) (Line 2), is a line of the Moscow Metro. Opened in 1938, chronologically it became the third line. There are 21 stations on the Zamoskvoretskaya line, and it spans 39.8 kilometres (24.7 mi), roughly crossing Moscow in a north-south direction. A normal trip along the entire line takes 55 minutes, with the trains on the line averaging 42 kilometres per hour (26 mph). While most of the line is underground, there are some pockets of surface-level or above-ground track, mainly at the point where the line crosses the Moskva River. The line contains many examples of original Moscow Metro architecture, and contains arguably the most photographed station on the entire network: Mayakovskaya.

History[edit]

The first stage of the line followed Moscow's busiest transport artery the Leningradsky Prospekt or as it moves into the centre the Tverskaya Street (formally Gorkovskaya hence the original name), and connected the northwestern districts of Aeroport and Begovoy along with the Belorussky Rail Terminal with the city centre in 1938.

The second stage, construction of which was uninterrupted during the war, opened in 1943 and followed the Red Square south under the Moskva River into the dense district of Zamoskvorechye (hence the name) and then onto the Paveletsky Rail Terminal and more significantly the Stalin Factory (ZiS) in the Southeast of Moscow.

Several more extensions were to take place including the northern one following the Leningrad Highway and the Moscow Canal into the Northern River Port in 1964. A southern one in 1969 passed the Nagatino industrial district and the Kolomenskoye park, the rest of the extension went into the future Kakhovskaya Line. In 1984 a third extension commenced in two stages to the southeast past the Tsaritsyno park and into the Orekhovo-Borisovo housing massifs. A flooded tunnel, however forced the new branch to close a day after and for the next two and a half months. In late 1985 the second stage was completed, reaching a length of 36.9 kilometres with 20 stations and a daily passenger traffic of 1.8 million people.

The line's complex and inspiring history is mirrored in its architectural ensemble, particularly as it is one of the few places that it is possible to see the best of Soviet pre-war Art Deco architecture. In the spotlight before all other stations is Mayakovskaya, a station that is not only most-photographed in the network but is also common sight on covers of brochures and tour guides into Moscow's underground realm.

When the line first opened in 1938, to distinguish the simultaneous formation of the three lines instead of one, colour-coding was introduced. The first one, the Sokolnicheskaya being Red, for mostly political reasons. However chronologically the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line would have been second and was coloured blue, whilst the third one Zamoskvoretskaya was given green. However as part of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line was already in operation from the first stage, the significance of the Zamoskvoretskaya Line was far greater. As a result the line was listed second. This tradition has since been passed on in all ex-Soviet cities with the first line being Red and the second/third being either blue or green. However some metros, notably Minsk Metro chose to deliberately reverse the trend.

Timeline[edit]

Segment Date opened Length
SokolTeatralnaya 11 September 1938 8.5 kilometres (5.3 mi)
TeatralnayaAvtozavodskaya 1 January 1943 6.2 kilometres (3.9 mi)
Novokuznetskaya, Paveletskaya 20 November 1943 N/A
SokolRechnoy Vokzal 30 December 1964 6.2 kilometres (3.9 mi)
AvtozavodskayaKakhovskaya 11 August 1969 9.5 kilometres (5.9 mi)
Tverskaya 20 July 1979 N/A
KashirskayaOrekhovo 28 December 1984[2] 6.4 kilometres (4.0 mi)
OrekhovoKrasnogvardeyskaya 7 September 1985 3.4 kilometres (2.1 mi)
KashirskayaKakhovskaya detached 20 November 1995 —3.4 kilometres (2.1 mi)
KrasnogvardeyskayaAlma-Atinskaya 24 December 2012 3.09 kilometres (1.92 mi)
Total 21 stations 39.8 kilometres (24.7 mi)

Name changes[edit]

Station Previous name(s) Years
Tverskaya Gorkovskaya 1979–1990
Teatralnaya Ploshchad Sverdlova 1938–1990
Avtozavodskaya Zavod Imeni Stalina 1943–1957
Tsaritsyno Lenino 1983–1990

Transfers[edit]

# Transfer to At
1 Sokolnicheskaya Line Teatralnaya
3 Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line Teatralnaya
5 Koltsevaya Line Belorusskaya, Paveletskaya
6 Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line Novokuznetskaya
7 Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line Tverskaya
8 Kalininskaya Line Novokuznetskaya
9 Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line Tverskaya
10 Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line Zyablikovo
11 Kakhovskaya Line Kashirskaya

The Kashirskaya transfer is a cross-platform one.

Rolling stock[edit]

The line is served by the Sokol (No 2) and Zamoskvoretskoe (No 7) depots to which, respectively, 39 and 36 eight-carriage are assigned. The line began receiving 81-714/717 trains in 1980, replacing older E types in a programme which was finished in 1987. Some of these were upgraded to the .5 standard. When the Kakhovskaya branch separated from the main line, seven six-carriage trains were formed for it at the Zamoskvoretskoe depot.

Recent events and future plans[edit]

Today the line features a combination of stations that were built during different periods and some rebuilt since. Also it is one of the busiest in the system and for some stations, that are almost 70 years old clearly show their age. Improvement works have been carried out several times throughout history, but in recent times their emphasis has grown. Belorusskaya was recently subjected to an extensive facelift reconstruction on replacement of its old ceramic walls with new marble ones. The world famous Mayakovskaya station following the opening of the second exit in 2005 had its original vestibule closed for replacement of escalators. It is expected that additional reconstruction will be done on 1960s "centepede" stations including the replacement of old ceramic tiles with aluminium planes.

A northern extension is presently under construction with two stations Belomorskaya and Khovrino with a potential of continuing into the adjacent Moscow Oblast's town of Khimki.

When the line was built several areas were left with a straight tunnel provision for potential future built in of new stations. One of which was Gorkovskaya (now Tverskaya) between Mayakovskaya and Teatralnaya, which was opened in 1979. However several more remain: Sovetskaya between Tverskaya and Teatralnaya, Bega between Dinamo and Belorusskaya, Vishnyakovsky Pereulok between Novokuznetskaya and Paveletskaya and Moskvorechye (also referred to as Vasilyevsky Spusk) between Teatralnaya and Novokuznetskaya. The latter provision stands the highest chance of being developed as the vacant space caused by demolition of the Rossiya Hotel is likely to be filled with new office buildings and hotels.

In addition to the provisions, another station was recently approved to be built on the surface level track between Avtozavodskaya and Kolomenskaya. The provisional names were Nagatinsky Zaton or Prospekt Andropova, although the name Tekhnopark has been selected.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Пассажиропотоки 2009 год". Олимп (in Russian). Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  2. ^ Track from Kashirskaya to Orekhovo was opened on December 28, 1984 and closed within hours it was reopened on February 9, 1985.