23rd (Northumbrian) Division
|23rd (Northumbrian) Division|
|Active||2 October 1939 – 30 June 1940|
The 23rd (Northumbrian) Division was a motorised infantry division of the British Army that saw active service in World War II in France in 1940, later being disbanded. The division was raised in the Territorial Army as a 2nd Line duplicate of the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division.
The 23rd (Northumbrian) Division was being raised on the outbreak of war and became operational in October 1939. It was sent to join the British Expeditionary Force in France on 22 April 1940 on labour and training duties, without any of its artillery, signals, or administration units. Two other divisions, the 12th (Eastern) and 46th Infantry Division, were sent to France in April in a similar state as the 23rd.
After the German breakthrough in May 1940, the partly trained division was ordered up to defend a frontage of 16 miles along the Canal du Nord. Outflanked, and faced with five German Panzer divisions, the infantry and engineers fell back towards Arras, doing what they could to hold up the enemy and suffering heavy casualties in the process. The division played a peripheral part in the Battle of Arras and by 27 May had retreated into the Dunkirk perimeter, by which time it was incapable of further action.
On its return to Britain, after the Dunkirk evacuation, the 23rd Division was disbanded due to the heavy losses it had suffered. Its component units, however, would go on to see further action; the 69th Infantry Brigade (with 233 Field Company, Royal Engineers) was assigned to the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division, the division's 1st-Line counterpart, and the 70th Infantry Brigade was assigned to the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division.
Its Machine Gun and Motorcycle battalions, the 8th and 9th Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, would also survive with the 9th surviving until February 1942 as the Machine Gun Battalion for the 18th Infantry Division until its capture during the Battle of Singapore and the 8th would survive until the end of the war having been converted to the 3rd Reconnaissance Regiment, Reconnaissance Corps under the 3rd Infantry Division right up until the end of the war. The remaining engineer companies continued as part of Home Forces.
Divisional Order of Battle
- 10th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
- 11th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry
- 12th (Tyneside Scottish) Battalion, Durham Light Infantry (later 1st Battalion, Tyneside Scottish, Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment))
- 8th Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers (Motorcycle battalion)
- 9th Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers (Machine Gun battalion)
- 124th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 125th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 233rd (Northumbrian) Field Company, Royal Engineers
- 507th Field Company, Royal Engineers
- 508th Field Park Company, Royal Engineers
- List of British divisions in World War II
- British Army Order of Battle (September 1939)
- 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
- Northern Command 3 September 1939 at Patriot Files
- Joslen, p. 62.
- Ellis, France & Flanders, p. 21.
- Richard A. Rinaldi, Royal Engineers, World War II at Orbat.com
- Ellis, France & Flanders, p. 65.
- Ellis, France & Flanders, pp. 76–81.
- Ellis, France & Flanders, p. 89.
- Ellis, France & Flanders, p. 188.
- Ellis, France & Flanders, p. 225.
- Major L.F. Ellis, History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series: The War in France and Flanders 1939–1940, London: HM Stationery Office, 1954.
- Joslen, Lt-Col H.F. (2003) . Orders of Battle: Second World War, 1939–1945. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84342-474-1.